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COVID-19: Epidemiologic Investigation

August 11, 2022


Analysis of the on-ship transmission of the COVID-19 mass outbreak on the Republic of Korea Navy amphibious warfare ship
Soo Hyeon Cho, Young-Man Kim, Gyeongyong Seong, Sunkyun Park, Seoncheol Park, Sang-Eun Lee, Young Joon Park
Epidemiol Health. 2022;44:e2022065.

Original Article

July 14, 2022


The association between the socioeconomic deprivation level and ischemic heart disease mortality in Japan: an analysis using municipality-specific data
Tasuku Okui, Tetsuya Matoba, Naoki Nakashima
Epidemiol Health. 2022;44:e2022059.

Review

July 12, 2022


Epidemiology of myocardial infarction in Korea: hospitalization incidence, prevalence, and mortality
Rock Bum Kim, Jang-Rak Kim, Jin Yong Hwang
Epidemiol Health. 2022;44:e2022057.

Original Article

July 5, 2022


The risk of stroke according to statin medication compliance in older people with chronic periodontitis: an analysis using the Korea National Health Insurance Service-Senior Cohort Database
Seon-Rye Kim, Minkook Son, Yu-Rin Kim
Epidemiol Health. 2022;44:e2022055.

Original Article

July 5, 2022


Blood lipid levels and all-cause mortality in older adults: the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey 2008-2018
Rongxi Wang, Xiaoyue Yu, Zhiqiang Wang, Yujie Liu, Hui Chen, Shangbin Liu, Chen Xu, Yingjie Chen, Xin Ge, Danni Xia, et al.
Epidemiol Health. 2022;44:e2022054.

Current Issue
Volume 44; 2022
COVID-19: Epidemiologic Investigation Analysis of the on-ship transmission of the COVID-19 mass outbreak on the Republic of Korea Navy amphibious warfare ship
Soo Hyeon Cho, Young-Man Kim, Gyeongyong Seong, Sunkyun Park, et al. Epidemiol Health. 2022;44:e2022065.
  • Abstract
  • View article
  • Korean summary
Original Article The association between the socioeconomic deprivation level and ischemic heart disease mortality in Japan: an analysis using municipality-specific data
Tasuku Okui, Tetsuya Matoba, Naoki Nakashima Epidemiol Health. 2022;44:e2022059.
  • Abstract
  • View article
Abstract
OBJECTIVES:
This investigation was conducted to determine the size and pattern, source, and transmission route of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak on the Republic of Korea Navy (ROKN) amphibious warfare ship.
METHODS:
We investigated the characteristics of all crew members and tracked the medical records of the confirmed cases. Fourteen essential ship operation personnel were interviewed. The study design was a retrospective cohort study, and the incidence rate ratio was through a statistical program.
RESULTS:
The COVID-19 incidence on the ROKN amphibious warfare ship was 44.7% (38/85). It was estimated that the main propagation route started from the 1st floor worker, which spread to the same floor, and then to other floors. In the case of the working area, the incidence rate of crew members below the 1st floor without ventilation was higher than those on the 2nd or higher floors with natural ventilation.
CONCLUSIONS:
This case is the first case of a COVID-19 outbreak on the ROKN amphibious warfare ship, and it is estimated that the incidence rate is high because of the closed and dense environment. To prevent the spread of various respiratory diseases including COVID-19, unified mitigation such as vaccination, observing personal quarantine rules, periodic ventilation, preemptive testing, and blocking transmission through prompt contact management is necessary.
Abstract
OBJECTIVES:
Geographical variation in the standardized mortality ratio (SMR) for ischemic heart disease (IHD) among municipalities has not been assessed in Japan. Additionally, associations between area-level socioeconomic deprivation indices and IHD mortality have not been identified in Japan. The present study investigated this association.
METHODS:
Information on IHD mortality was extracted from Vital Statistics data from 2018 to 2020 for each municipality in Japan. The socioeconomic deprivation level was derived from multiple socioeconomic characteristics. We classified municipalities into quintiles based on the deprivation level and investigated the association between the deprivation level and the SMR of IHD. Additionally, a Bayesian spatial regression model was used to investigate this association, adjusting for other municipal characteristics.
RESULTS:
Geographical variation in the SMR of IHD was revealed, and municipalities with high SMRs were spatially clustered. There was a weak negative correlation between the socioeconomic deprivation level and the SMRs (correlation coefficient, -0.057 for men and -0.091 for women). In contrast, the regression analysis showed a statistically significant positive association between deprived areas and the IHD mortality rate, and the relative risks for the most deprived municipalities compared with the least deprived municipalities were 1.184 (95% credible interval [CrI], 1.110 to 1.277) and 1.138 (95% CrI, 1.048 to 1.249) for men and women, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS:
A weak negative correlation between the socioeconomic deprivation level and the SMR was observed in the descriptive analysis, while the regression analysis showed that living in deprived areas was statistically positively associated with the IHD mortality rate.
Review Epidemiology of myocardial infarction in Korea: hospitalization incidence, prevalence, and mortality
Rock Bum Kim, Jang-Rak Kim, Jin Yong Hwang Epidemiol Health. 2022;44:e2022057.
  • Abstract
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  • Korean summary
Original Article The risk of stroke according to statin medication compliance in older people with chronic periodontitis: an analysis using the Korea National Health Insurance Service-Senior Cohort Database
Seon-Rye Kim, Minkook Son, Yu-Rin Kim Epidemiol Health. 2022;44:e2022055.
  • Abstract
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  • Korean summary
Abstract
Few studies have comprehensively presented epidemiological indicators of myocardial infarction in Korea. However, multiple published articles and open-source secondary data on the epidemiology of myocardial infarction are now available. This review summarized the hospitalization incidence, prevalence, and mortality rate of myocardial infarction in Korea using articles and open-source data from the Health Insurance Service and the Department of Statistics, surveys of sample populations, registries of patients, and other sources. The epidemiological indicators of myocardial infarction were compared between Korea and other high-income countries. The incidence of hospitalization due to myocardial infarction in Korea was 43.2 cases per 100,000 population in 2016 and has consistently increased since 2011. It was 2.4 times higher among men than among women. The estimated prevalence among adults over 30 years of age ranged from 0.34% to 0.70% in 2020; it was higher among men and increased with age. The mortality in 2020, which was 19.3 per 100,000 population in 2020, remained relatively stable in recent years. Mortality was higher among men than among women. Based on representative inpatient registry data, the proportion of ST-elevated myocardial infarction decreased until recently, and the median time from symptom onset to hospital arrival was approximately 2 hours and 30 minutes. The hospitalization incidence, prevalence, and mortality rate of myocardial infarction were lower in Korea than in other countries, although there was an increasing trend. Comprehensive national-level support and surveillance systems are needed to routinely collect accurate epidemiological indicators.
Abstract
OBJECTIVES:
We investigated the risk of stroke according to statin medication compliance in older people with chronic periodontitis.
METHODS:
Chronic periodontitis patients were extracted from the National Health Insurance Service-Senior Cohort Database from 2002 to 2014. Among 255,056 chronic periodontitis patients, 41,412 patients with statin prescriptions for 28 days or more were included. The study population was divided into the top 25% of medication compliance group (TSG) and the lower 25% of medication compliance group (BSG). After 1:1 propensity score matching was performed, the final number of patients in the BSG and TSG was 6,172 each. To analyze the risk of stroke, a Cox proportional hazard model was performed to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) after adjusting for age, sex, income level, hypertension, diabetes, and Charlson comorbidity index.
RESULTS:
In the Kaplan-Meier curve, the disease-free probability was prominently lower in the BSG than in the TSG (p for log-rank= 0.001). The HR in the multivariable-adjusted model for stroke occurrence in the TSG compared to the BSG was 0.79 (95% CI, 0.67 to 0.92; p= 0.002). Subgroup analyses showed significant associations between compliance to statin medication and stroke, especially in female, people 85 years or older, and patients with comorbidities.
CONCLUSIONS:
Increasing compliance to statins may reduce stroke risk in older adults with chronic periodontitis. Therefore, in order to increase medication compliance among older people with chronic periodontitis, it is necessary for medical staff to make efforts to provide effective medication guidance.
Original Article Blood lipid levels and all-cause mortality in older adults: the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey 2008-2018
Rongxi Wang, Xiaoyue Yu, Zhiqiang Wang, Yujie Liu, et al. Epidemiol Health. 2022;44:e2022054.
  • Abstract
  • View article
COVID 19: Original Article The impact of COVID-19 on screening for colorectal, gastric, breast, and cervical cancer in Korea
Hyeree Park, Seung Hee Seo, Jong Heon Park, Shin Hye Yoo, et al. Epidemiol Health. 2022;44:e2022053.
  • Abstract
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  • Korean summary
Abstract
OBJECTIVES:
Proper blood lipid levels are essential for survival in older adults, but inconsistent relationships have been reported between blood lipids and all-cause mortality in the elderly.
METHODS:
This retrospective longitudinal study analyzed data from 1,067 Chinese older adults enrolled in the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey collected in 2008 and followed up until death or December 31, 2018. The outcome was all-cause mortality. Multivariate Cox regression analyses were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) with stratification by age (60-80, 80-100, or ≥100 years) for further analysis. The survival probability according to lipid profile quartiles was calculated using Kaplan-Meier curves and the log-rank test.
RESULTS:
The participants’ mean age was 84.84 years, and 57.0% were female. In total, 578 individuals died, and 277 were lost to follow-up. The mean total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels were higher among those who died than among those who survived. Participants in the second HDL-C quartile and the highest LDL-C and triglyceride (TG) quartiles had 28% higher, 23% lower, and 49% lower risks of all-cause mortality, respectively. After further adjustment, the associations remained except for HDL-C, and additional associations were observed between all-cause mortality and the third TC and LDL-C quartiles and the second TG quartile (HR, 1.44; 95% CI, 1.01 to 2.06; HR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.49 to 0.94; HR, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.62 to 0.99, respectively).
CONCLUSIONS:
Older adults should maintain an LDL-C level of 1.91-2.47 mmol/L and a TG level of no less than 1.66 mmol/L.
Abstract
OBJECTIVES:
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has affected the utilization of healthcare services, including participation in cancer screening programs. We compared cancer screening participation rates for colorectal, gastric, breast, and cervical cancers among participants in the National Cancer Screening Program (NCSP) in 2019 and 2020 to address the potential distraction effect of COVID-19 on cancer screening.
METHODS:
Data from the NCSP for 4 cancer types (stomach, colorectal, breast, and cervical) in 2019 and 2020 were used to calculate cancer screening participation rates by calendar month, gender, age group, and geographical region. Monthly participation rates were analyzed per 1,000 eligible individuals.
RESULTS:
The screening participation rate decreased in 2020 compared to 2019 for all 4 cancers: colorectal (40.5 vs. 35.3%), gastric (61.9 vs. 54.6%), breast (63.8 vs. 55.8%), and cervical (57.8 vs. 52.2%) cancers. Following 2 major COVID-19 waves in March and December 2020, the participation rates in the 4 types of cancer screening dropped compared with those in 2019. The highest decline was observed in the elderly population aged 80 years and older (percentage change: -21% for colorectal cancer; -20% for gastric cancer; -26% for breast cancer; -20% for cervical cancer).
CONCLUSIONS:
After the 2 major COVID-19 waves, the screening participation rate for 4 types of cancer declined compared with 2019. Further studies are needed to identify the indirect effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on cancer patients, such as delayed diagnoses of cancer or excess cancer deaths.

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