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Original Articles
Association of the dietary inflammatory index with phenotypic age in the United States adults
Mengzi Sun, Jiaxin Fang, Wenhui Gao, Yue He, Yanan Ma, Lina Jin
Epidemiol Health. 2023;45:e2023051.   Published online May 4, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2023051
  • 3,019 View
  • 205 Download
  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
One of the underlying mechanisms of aging is chronic inflammation, which has been closely associated with daily diet. Phenotypic age (PhenoAge) has been used as an index to track the aging process before diseases show clinical symptoms. The present study aimed to explore the association between the dietary inflammatory index (DII) and PhenoAge.
METHODS
In total, 9,275 adults aged 20 years old and over in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were involved in this study. Dietary patterns were classified as pro-inflammatory or anti-inflammatory according to the DII. PhenoAge was regarded as a continuous variable, and linear regression was used to explore its association with dietary inflammation. Stratified analyses by sex, age, race, physical exercise, smoking status, drinking status, and body mass index were used to test the sensitivity of these associations.
RESULTS
The median value of PhenoAge was 38.60 years and 39.76 years for the participants with anti-inflammatory and pro-inflammatory diets, respectively. A pro-inflammatory diet was positively associated with PhenoAge (β=0.73; 95% confidence interval, 0.31 to 1.14), compared with participants who had an anti-inflammatory diet. There was an interaction between dietary inflammation and age for PhenoAge (p<sub>interaction</sub><0.001). The strength of the association between a pro-inflammatory diet and PhenoAge was stronger as age increased.
CONCLUSIONS
A pro-inflammatory diet was associated with a higher PhenoAge, and the association was strongest in the elderly. We recommended reducing dietary inflammation to delay phenotypic aging, especially for the elderly.
Summary
Key Message
One of the underlying mechanisms of aging is chronic inflammation, which has been closely associated with daily diet, and phenotypic age (PhenoAge) has been used as an index to track the aging process before diseases show clinical symptoms. The present study found that a pro-inflammatory diet was associated with a higher PhenoAge, and the association was strongest in the elderly. We recommended reducing dietary inflammation to delay phenotypic aging, especially for the elderly.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • The association between methylmalonic acid, a biomarker of mitochondria dysfunction, and phenotypic age acceleration: A population-based study
    Bing Cao, Yu Xue, Dan Liu
    Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics.2024; 117: 105176.     CrossRef
Incidence of edentulism among older adults using the Korean National Health Insurance Service database, 2013-2018
Hyeonjeong Go, Eun-Kyong Kim, Hoi-In Jung, Song Vogue Ahn, Hosung Shin, Atsuo Amano, Youn-Hee Choi
Epidemiol Health. 2022;44:e2022091.   Published online October 17, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2022091
  • 3,554 View
  • 244 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
Population aging is rapidly accelerating worldwide. Oral diseases related to aging are also on the rise. This study examined trends in the incidence of edentulism among the older Korean population using data from the Korean National Health Insurance Service (KNHIS).
METHODS
Data on older adults, aged ≥75 years of age, were obtained from the KNHIS for the period 2013-2018. Edentulism was defined as a treatment history of complete dentures in the KNHIS database. The exclusion criteria consisted of both disease codes and treatment codes related to conservative dental treatment, including periodontal and extraction treatment afterward. Crude incidence rates (CIRs) and age-standardized incidence rates (AIRs) with 95% confidence intervals were calculated and reported per 100,000 person-years by the direct method. Trends were tested by Cochrane Armitage models.
RESULTS
Statistically significant increasing trends in both CIRs and AIRs were found among the older Korean population registered in the KNHIS (CIRs, 707.92 to 895.92; AIRs, 705.11 to 889.68; p<0.01). The incidence tended to increase in both genders (p<0.01). Both CIRs and AIRs in specific regions also showed slight but significant annual increases except for Jeju Island (p<0.01 or <0.05). The incidence showed increasing trends (p<0.01) in all income quintiles apart from the highest quintile. The edentulism incidence was highest in the lowest income group (the first quintile).
CONCLUSIONS
Our data showed that the incidence of edentulism among the elderly showed an increasing trend from 2013 to 2018. This result provides a basis for future epidemiological studies on the incidence of edentulism in the older Korean population.
Summary
Risk of dementia according to the severity of chronic periodontitis in Korea: a nationwide retrospective cohort study
Seon-Rye Kim, Minkook Son, Yu-Rin Kim, Hyun-Kyung Kang
Epidemiol Health. 2022;44:e2022077.   Published online September 21, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2022077
  • 6,189 View
  • 275 Download
  • 3 Web of Science
  • 3 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
We investigated the risk of dementia in older adults with chronic periodontitis according to the severity of periodontitis.
METHODS
Data on patients with chronic periodontitis were extracted from the National Health Insurance Service-Senior cohort database from 2002 to 2014. Among 52,728 subjects eligible for inclusion, 11,953 subjects had newly diagnosed mild chronic periodontitis (MCP), and 40,775 subjects had newly diagnosed severe chronic periodontitis (SCP). Two 1:1 propensity score matched cohorts were created with 8,624 patients each in the MCP and SCP groups. To analyze the risk of dementia, a Cox proportional-hazard model was used to calculate hazard ratios with 95% confidence intervals (CIs).
RESULTS
In the Kaplan-Meier curve, the disease-free probability was significantly lower in the SCP group than in the MCP group (p for log-rank=0.001). In the multivariable-adjusted model, the HR for the occurrence of dementia in the SCP group compared to the MCP group was 1.15 (95% CI, 1.04 to 1.27; p=0.009). A subgroup analysis revealed a significant association between dementia and the severity of periodontitis, especially in subjects who were male, aged ≥70 years, and had comorbidities.
CONCLUSIONS
Reducing the severity of chronic periodontitis can help to reduce the risk of dementia. Therefore, it is necessary to aggressively conduct early dementia-prevention programs for males under the age of 70 that include dental health to prevent the progression of periodontitis from mild to severe.
Summary
Korean summary
본 연구는 만성치주질환을 가진 노인의 만성치주질환 중등도에 따른 치매 발생위험 차이를 분석하였다. 그 결과, 만성치주질환 중등도가 높은 그룹에서 만성치주질환 중등도가 낮은 그룹에 비해 치매 발생위험이 높았으며, 특히, 남성과 70세 이상 그룹에서 유의한 차이가 있었다. 따라서 70세 이하 남성 노인을 대상으로 만성치주질환이 진행되지 않도록 효과적인 구강관리가 필요할 것이다.
Key Message
In this study, we confirmed that the severity of chronic periodontitis is related to the risk of dementia, so efforts for effective oral care will be needed.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • With Teeth, Broken, or Fixed: The Challenges of Linking Periodontitis, Neuroepidemiology, and Biomarkers of Disease
    James M. Noble, Panos N. Papapanou
    Journal of Alzheimer's Disease.2023; 93(3): 991.     CrossRef
  • Periodontal Pathogens and Their Links to Neuroinflammation and Neurodegeneration
    David Visentin, Ivana Gobin, Željka Maglica
    Microorganisms.2023; 11(7): 1832.     CrossRef
  • Association between statin compliance and risk of dementia among patients with chronic periodontitis
    Yu‐Rin Kim, Minkook Son, Seon‐Rye Kim
    Oral Diseases.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
Blood lipid levels and all-cause mortality in older adults: the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey 2008-2018
Rongxi Wang, Xiaoyue Yu, Zhiqiang Wang, Yujie Liu, Hui Chen, Shangbin Liu, Chen Xu, Yingjie Chen, Xin Ge, Danni Xia, Ruijie Chang, Gang Xu, Mi Xiang, Ying Wang, Tian Shen, Fan Hu, Yong Cai
Epidemiol Health. 2022;44:e2022054.   Published online July 5, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2022054
  • 6,146 View
  • 230 Download
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
Proper blood lipid levels are essential for survival in older adults, but inconsistent relationships have been reported between blood lipids and all-cause mortality in the elderly.
METHODS
This retrospective longitudinal study analyzed data from 1,067 Chinese older adults enrolled in the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey collected in 2008 and followed up until death or December 31, 2018. The outcome was all-cause mortality. Multivariate Cox regression analyses were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) with stratification by age (60-80, 80-100, or ≥100 years) for further analysis. The survival probability according to lipid profile quartiles was calculated using Kaplan-Meier curves and the log-rank test.
RESULTS
The participants’ mean age was 84.84 years, and 57.0% were female. In total, 578 individuals died, and 277 were lost to follow-up. The mean total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels were higher among those who died than among those who survived. Participants in the second HDL-C quartile and the highest LDL-C and triglyceride (TG) quartiles had 28% higher, 23% lower, and 49% lower risks of all-cause mortality, respectively. After further adjustment, the associations remained except for HDL-C, and additional associations were observed between all-cause mortality and the third TC and LDL-C quartiles and the second TG quartile (HR, 1.44; 95% CI, 1.01 to 2.06; HR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.49 to 0.94; HR, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.62 to 0.99, respectively).
CONCLUSIONS
Older adults should maintain an LDL-C level of 1.91-2.47 mmol/L and a TG level of no less than 1.66 mmol/L.
Summary
Key Message
The retrospective longitudinal study analyzed data from 1067 Chinese older adults enrolled in the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey. 578 individuals died and 277 were lost to follow-up. Participants in the second HDL-C quartile and the highest LDL-C and TG quartiles had 28% higher, 23% lower, and 49% lower risks of all-cause mortality. After further adjustment, the associations remained except for HDL-C, and additional associations were observed between all-cause mortality and the third TC and LDL-C quartiles and the second TG quartile (HR, 1.44; 95% CI, 1.01 to 2.06; HR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.49 to 0.94; HR, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.62 to 0.99).
Independent predictors of depressive symptoms and social isolation on 2-year all-cause mortality among the Korean elderly in a population-based cohort study: gender differences
Hyunsuk Jeong, Hyeon Woo Yim, Beom-Woo Nam
Epidemiol Health. 2022;44:e2022012.   Published online January 8, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2022012
  • 9,463 View
  • 492 Download
  • 3 Web of Science
  • 3 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
This study examined whether depressive symptoms and social isolation were independent predictors of 2-year all-cause mortality among the elderly using data from a population-based cohort study.
METHODS
In total, 1,033 participants (320 men and 713 women) older than 60 years of age participated in this study. Depressive symptoms, social isolation status, and socio-demographic and health-related covariates were assessed at baseline. The primary outcome measure was 2-year all-cause mortality. Data were collected through in-person interviews by trained interviewers. The GENMOD procedure was used to calculate relative risks (RRs).
RESULTS
Of the 1,033 participants, 102 (40 men and 62 women) died within the follow-up period of 2 years. During the 2-year follow-up period, 17.8% of depressed men and 12.3% of depressed women died, and 29.8% of socially isolated men and 14.9% of socially isolated women died. Social isolation was an independent predictor of mortality in elderly men (adjusted relative risk [aRR], 4.6, 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.0 to 10.2), while depressive symptoms were an independent predictor of mortality in elderly women (aRR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.2 to 3.6) when controlling for potential confounding factors. However, the depressive symptoms detected using the geriatric depression scale were not associated with mortality in men, and social isolation was not associated with mortality in women.
CONCLUSIONS
The effects of depressive symptoms and social isolation on 2-year all-cause mortality within an elderly population differed according to gender. Gender-specific community-based interventions must be developed to potentially reduce 2-year all-cause mortality among the elderly.
Summary
Korean summary
본 연구는 지역사회 거주하는 저소득층 노인을 대상으로 한 코호트 연구로 2년 추적조사를 수행하여 사망 원인의 예측인자를 분석하였다. 남성노인에서는 사회적 고립이, 여성노인에서는 우울증상이 2년 모든 사망원인의 독립적인 예측인자였다. 노인의 사망율을 줄이기 위한 지역사회 개입 프로그램은 남성에게는 사회적 고립을 해소를, 여성에게는 우울증상 개선을 위한 프로그램이 요구된다.
Key Message
The effects of depressive symptoms and so¬cial isolation on 2-year all-cause mortality among the elderly dif¬fered according to gender. For elderly men, social isolation increased the risk of 2-year all-cause mortality by 4.6 times compared to those who were not socially isolated. However, the depressive symptoms identified by the GDS-15 were not associated with 2-year all-cause mortality in men. From a public health perspective, these findings suggest that gender-specific community-based interventions are needed to mitigate all-cause mortality among the elderly.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Relationship between Cognition, Depression, and Oral health status in Older adults: A longitudinal cross-lagged analysis
    Bo Zhao, Xiaoxu Jiang, Fanlei Kong, Eun Woo Nam
    Journal of Affective Disorders.2023; 330: 158.     CrossRef
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    Fan Wang, Yu Gao, Zhen Han, Yue Yu, Zhiping Long, Xianchen Jiang, Yi Wu, Bing Pei, Yukun Cao, Jingyu Ye, Maoqing Wang, Yashuang Zhao
    Nature Human Behaviour.2023; 7(8): 1307.     CrossRef
  • Gender Inequalities in Mental Health During the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Population-based Study in Korea
    Minku Kang, Sarah Yu, Seung-Ah Choe, Daseul Moon, Myung Ki, Byung Chul Chun
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Review
Impact of pharmacist-led home medicines review services on drug-related problems among the elderly population: a systematic review
Sai Krishna Gudi, Ananth Kashyap, Manik Chhabra, Muhammed Rashid, Komal Krishna Tiwari
Epidemiol Health. 2019;41:e2019020.   Published online May 17, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2019020
  • 13,582 View
  • 330 Download
  • 22 Web of Science
  • 23 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
To address and elucidate the impact of pharmacist-led home medicines review (HMR) services on identifying drug-related problems (DRPs) among the elderly population in home care settings.
METHODS
A comprehensive systematic search was performed using electronic scientific databases such as PubMed, Scopus, Embase, and Web of Science for studies published between January 1, 2008 and December 31, 2018, pertaining to HMR services by pharmacists for identifying DRPs.
RESULTS
In total, 4,292 studies were retrieved from the searches, of which 24 were excluded as duplicates. Titles and abstracts were screened for the remaining 4,268 studies, of which 4,239 were excluded due to the extraneous nature of the titles and/or abstracts. Subsequently, 29 full-text articles were assessed, and 19 were removed for lacking the outcome of interest and/or not satisfying the study’s inclusion criteria. Finally, 10 studies were included in the review; however, publication bias was not assessed, which is a limitation of this study. In all studies, pharmacists identified a highly significant amount of DRPs through HMR services. The most common types of DRPs were potential drug-drug interactions, serious adverse drug reactions, need for an additional drug, inappropriate medication use, non-adherence, untreated indications, excessive doses, and usage of expired medications.
CONCLUSIONS
HMR is a novel extended role played by pharmacists. The efficiency of such programs in identifying and resolving DRPs could minimize patients’ health-related costs and burden, thereby enhancing the quality of life and well-being among the elderly.
Summary

Citations

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Original Articles
Sleep quality and associated factors among the elderly living in rural Chiang Rai, northern Thailand
Weerakorn Thichumpa, Nopporn Howteerakul, Nawarat Suwannapong, Visasiri Tantrakul
Epidemiol Health. 2018;40:e2018018.   Published online May 14, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2018018
  • 16,341 View
  • 380 Download
  • 31 Web of Science
  • 43 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
This study aimed to characterize the prevalence of poor sleep quality and to identify associated factors among community-dwelling elderly individuals in northern Thailand.
METHODS
A cross-sectional study was conducted among 266 randomly selected elderly people in a sub-district in rural Chiang Rai Province, northern Thailand. The participants were interviewed using the Thai version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI).
RESULTS
Roughly 44.0% of the participants had poor sleep quality (PSQI score, >5), 9.4% used sleep medication, 27.1% had poor family relationships, and 12.0% had mild depression. Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that being female (odds ratio [OR], 1.74; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.10 to 3.02), a higher education level (OR, 3.03; 95% CI, 1.34 to 6.86 for primary school; OR, 2.48; 95% CI, 1.31 to 5.44 for higher than primary school), mild depression (OR, 2.65; 95% CI, 1.11 to 6.36), and poor family relationships (OR, 3.65; 95% CI, 1.98 to 6.75) were significantly associated with poor sleep quality.
CONCLUSIONS
The prevalence of poor sleep quality among the elderly was moderately high. Healthcare providers should regularly conduct screenings for sleep quality and depression; provide sleep health education; and conduct interventions to encourage participating in family activities, resolving conflicts, sharing ideas, and making compromises within the family.
Summary

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Factors affecting cognitive function according to gender in community-dwelling elderly individuals
Miwon Kim, Jeong-Mo Park
Epidemiol Health. 2017;39:e2017054.   Published online November 15, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2017054
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
This study aimed to identify the factors affecting the cognitive function of elderly people in a community by gender.
METHODS
We obtained 4,878 secondary data of people aged ≥65 years in 2016 at a dementia prevention center in Gyeyang-gu, Incheon. Data were obtained through Mini-Mental Status Examination optimized for screening dementia and a questionnaire. The data were statistically analyzed using analysis of variance, analysis of covariance, and hierarchical regression.
RESULTS
There were significant differences in cognitive function according to gender, and the differences were significant even when age was controlled, but gender differences disappeared when education was controlled. Age, education, social activities, number of comorbid diseases, and alcohol drinking affected cognitive function through interaction with gender, but interaction with gender disappeared when education was controlled. Regression analysis showed that depression, cohabitant, social activities etc., had a significant impact on both men and women under controlled education and age. In men, the effect of social activities was greater than that of women, and hyperlipidemia had the effect only in women.
CONCLUSIONS
The differences in gender-related cognitive functions were due to differences in gender education period. The period of education is considered to have a great influence on cognitive function in relation to the economic level, occupation, and social activity.
Summary
Korean summary
연구결과 성별에 따른 인지기능의 차이는 성별 교육기간의 차이에서 기인된 것으로 확인되었다. 또한 연령, 교육, 사회활동, 동거인, 질병수, 음주가 성별과의 상호작용을 통해 인지기능에 영향을 미쳤으나 교육을 통제 하였을 때 성별과의 상호작용이 사라져 이들 변수들과 성별의 상호작용에 교육이 관련됨을 확인하였다. 회귀 분석결과 교육과 연령을 통제한 상태에서 우울, 동거인, 사회 활동 등 인지기능에 영향을 미치는 요인들이 남녀가 동일하였다.

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Correlation between depressive symptoms and subjective mastication ability and ability to pronunciation among Korean elderly
Min Sun Park, Kyung-Gyun Hwang, Bo Youl Choi
Epidemiol Health. 2016;38:e2016035.   Published online July 25, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2016035
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
The present study examines the relationship between depressive symptoms and subjective chewing and pronunciation ability in Korean seniors. Our goal is to provide the data required to develop appropriate oral health interventions programs for seniors.
METHODS
The Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D) is widely used depressive symptoms assessment. A Korean version was used for the 2009 Community Health Survey, which was consulted to extract the present study’s participants comprising 50,694 Korean seniors (males, 20,582; females, 30,112) aged ≥65 years. Those with a CES-D score ≥16 were rated ‘depressed.’ SAS version 9.3 was used for the data analysis.
RESULTS
Prevalence of depressive symptoms increased as the participants socioeconomic status decreased, number of health issues increased, health behavior worsened, and chewing and pronunciation discomfort increased. Males with chewing difficulties were found to have 1.45 times (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.29 to 1.63) greater risk of depressive symptoms than those without, while males with pronunciation discomfort were found to have 1.97 times greater risk of depressive symptoms than those without (95% CI, 1.76 to 2.20). Females with chewing difficulty were found to have 1.50 times (95% CI, 1.39 to 1.61) greater risk of depressive symptoms than those without, and females with pronunciation discomfort were found to have 1.55 times greater risk of depressive symptoms than those without (95% CI, 1.44 to 1.67).
CONCLUSIONS
Intervention programs designed to help with oral health management and alleviate depressive symptoms in seniors are urgently needed. As the prevalence of depressive symptoms may vary geographically, research examining potential variance at city, district, and town levels would be beneficial.
Summary
Korean summary
The Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale(CES-D)을 번역하여 조사된 2009년 지역사회건강조사 원시자료를 이용하여 전국 노인의 구강 보건 관리와 우울증상 관리를 중재하는 프로그램의 개발 및 접근에 있어 기초 자료를 제공하고자 하였다. 한국 노인의 주관적 구강저작능력과 발음능력상태와 우울증상은 인구 사회학적 특성, 건강수준 및 건강행태 관련 요인에 유의한 차이가 있었으며, 이에 따른 체계적이고 지속할 수 있는 중재프로그램의 기획 및 적용이 필요할 것으로 생각된다.

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The Relationship between Smoking, Socioeconomic Status and Grip Strength among Community-dwelling Elderly Men in Korea: Hallym Aging Study
ShanAi Quan, Jin-Young Jeong, Dong-Hyun Kim
Epidemiol Health. 2013;35:e2013001.   Published online February 18, 2013
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih/e2013001
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Abstract
<sec><title>OBJECTIVES</title><p>Low grip strength is associated with decline in bone mineral density (BMD) and increased risk of spine fracture among the elderly. Smoking, a major factor determining BMD, is also known to have an indirect effect on bone loss. This study investigated whether smoking is associated with grip strength in the community-dwelling elderly in Korea.</p></sec><sec><title>METHODS</title><p>This study was an outcome of the second of three waves of the Hallym Aging Study from January to May 2007, a population-based study of Koreans aged 45 years and upwards dwelling in Chuncheon. Its 218 subjects comprised men aged 65 years or over. They were evaluated at a general hospital for socioeconomic status, smoking history, and various clinical measures including grip strength.</p></sec><sec><title>RESULTS</title><p>Grip strength was higher in non-, ex-, and current smokers (33.7 kg, 30.6 kg, and 29.3 kg, respectively). Current smoking was found to increase the risk of decreased grip strength (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 4.58; 95% confidence interval [CI],1.31 to 16.04) compared with non-smoking, after adjustment for potential covariates including socioeconomic status. After adjustment for smoking effect, education of fewer than six years and monthly income of fewer than 500,000 Korean won increased the risk of decreased grip strength compared with education of more than six years (aOR, 2.88; 95% CI, 1.08 to 7.66) and monthly income of more than 1,500,000 Korean won (aOR, 2.86; 95% CI, 1.08 to 7.54).</p></sec><sec><title>CONCLUSIONS</title><p>These results showed that current smoking, low education and low income were independent risk factors for decreased grip strength among elderly men in Korea.</p></sec>
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Related Factors with Decreased Physical Function in the Community-Dwelling Elderly in Chuncheon: Hallym Aging Study(HAS).
Sun Ae Jeon, Jin Young Jeong, Seok Won Park, Young Ho Choi, Moon Gi Choi, Kyung Soon Hong, Sang Kon Lee, Hyun Ah Kim, Dong Hyun Kim
Korean J Epidemiol. 2008;30(2):216-229.   Published online December 31, 2008
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/kje.2008.30.2.216
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Abstract
This study was conducted to elucidate the related factors with the decreased physical function in the community- dwelling elderly in Chuncheon. We used data obtained from Hallym Aging Study(HAS) from January to May in 2007. The participants were 505 elderly aged 65 years or over after excluding those who didn't complete physical function test and aged < 65. The measurement of physical function was based on the "Health Aging and Body Composition Study Physical Performance Battery(H-ABC PPB)" that included semi-tandem stance, tandem stance, single leg stance, 6m general walk, 6m narrow walk, and chair stand test. And we also included grip strength test. Overall physical function based on H-ABC PPB decreased with age in both men and women. Smoking appeared to increase the risk of decreased function of chair stand in women (adjusted OR=3.8, 95% CI=1.2-12.6). Regular exercise was found to reduce the risk of decreased physical function in both men(Balance OR=0.5, 95% CI=0.2-1.0; Usual walk OR=0.4, 95% CI=0.2- 0.9) and women(Balance OR=0.4, 95% CI=0.2-1.0; Usual walk OR=0.3, 95% CI=0.1- 0.9); Narrow walk OR=0.2, 95% CI=0.1-0.8). Higher level of education seemed to be associated with higher functional performance. It needs further researches on the effect of education on the physical function of the elderly in this population.
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The Effect of Vitamin Supplementation on Cognitive Function in the Elderly.
Sam Soon Lee, Byung Yeol Chun, Sang Soon Kim
Korean J Epidemiol. 2000;22(1):32-41.
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Abstract
OBJECTIVES
To estimate the effects of an oral vitamin supplementation on cognitive function in the elderly, 254 elderly people(experiment group) who were received an oral vitamin supplement for one-year was compared with 292 elderly who were treated as the control group in Koje city during the study period(from February 1997 to March 1998).
METHODS
The cognitive function was tested by mini-mental state examination Korea(MMSE-K). Multiple regression analysis was done to control other confounding variables such as gender, age, educational level, smoking, alcohol, a past 15-day medical history, satisfaction for living cost, family number, cognitive function of the baseline survey.
RESULTS
In the baseline survey, the prevalence of cognitive impairment was 31%(mild impairment 12.5% and severe impairment 18.5%). There was a significant difference(0.76) in cognitive change in the elderly between two groups, 0.68 improved in the experiment group and 0.08 worsen in the control group(p<0.01). In multiple regression analysis, the significant variables were an oral vitamin supplementation, a past 15-day medical history, family number, cognitive function of baseline survey(p<0.05). The improvement of cognitive function was observed in those who do not have a past 15-day medical history, have a large family number, and have a low cognitive function of the baseline survey.
CONCLUSIONS
It appears that an oral vitamin supplementation was effective in improving the cognitive function in the elderly and more effective in the cases with abnormal cognitive function.
Summary
Preventive Efficacy of Influenza Vaccination against to Influenza-like Illness among Eldery.
Byung Chul Chun, Heung Jeong Woo, Seung Chul Park
Korean J Epidemiol. 1999;21(2):205-219.
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Abstract
BACKGROUND
Influenza is a highly infectious viral illness. The epidemics of influenza occur from the late fall to the early spring nearly every year and are responsible for several hundred thousand death per year all over the world. Influenza vaccine is the primary method for preventing influenza and its more severe complications. The efficacy of influenza vaccination have been well known in developed countries. The influenza vaccination has been recommended as one of the tentative immunization schedule for indicated persons since 1997 in Korea. But there are still no available data about them, even though nearly 5 - 8 million doses of influenza vaccine were used in a winter season. PURPOSE: To assess the clinical efficacy of influenza vaccine against influenza-like illness(ILI) among Korean elderly(age over 65).
METHODS
Primary study design - a prospective field trial. Study subjects and method - We prospectively observed the 1,488 vaccinee and 1,425 non-vaccinee in a community(Nonsan city) from November 1 1998 to March 31 1999. The vaccinee were those who randomly selected 100-200 per 13 sub-region(Myon) in Nonsan city, and the non-vaccinee were those who had not vaccinated until January 1999 among the Nonsan city elderly cohort. This cohort was consisted of 5,787 elderly(over 1/3 of total elderly population) who had ever visited the community health center or 13 public health offices in Nonsan city in 1998. We followed up these two groups two times-in January and April 1999 - by telephone survey. The questionnaire included the questions about the health behaviors, medical history, socioeconomic condition, medical security type, physical function status, medical facility utilization in the season, symptom and signs of influenza-like illness, number and type of the flu, hospitalization or not. We did throat swap to isolate the virus of 490 patient who had influenza -like symptoms in the same period.
RESULTS
Influenza vaccination was significantly reduced the incidence of influenza -like illness(fever or chilling sensation and cough or sore throat) in the vaccinated. The preventive effect of influenza-like illness among influenza risk group was about 32%(95% CI, 20%-44%). The illness duration of main symptoms of influenza-like illness(fever, cough) was significantly shorter in the vaccinee. The consistency of the survey was noted quite high from the analysis of the result of test-retest(104 person).
CONCLUSION
Influenza vaccination significantly reduced the incidence of influenza-like illness(32%) among elderly.
Summary
Nested Case-control Study on the Association between Alcohol and the Risk of Proximal Hip Fracture in the Elderly People in Korea.
Byung Joo Park, Kui Oak Jung, Hye Won Koo, Jong Myon Bae
Korean J Epidemiol. 1999;21(1):93-103.
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Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between alcohol drinking and hip fracture in the elderly people in Korea. BACKGROUND: Hip fracture is known as one of the major health problems because of its high incidence and serious consequences in the elderly people. The association between alcohol consumption and hip fractures has not been directly evaluated yet in Korea. So we conducted a nested case-control study to investigate the relationship between alcohol consumption and hip fracture in the Korean elderly people. DESIGN: Nested case-control study from the Korea Elderly Pharmacoepidemiology Cohort (KEPEC), in Pusan, Korea.
METHODS
Seventy incident cases have been selected since 1993, and 280 controls have been matched with the cases by age and gender among the KEPEC. Average alcohol intake was calculated by multiplying frequency and amount of drinking and unit capacity of each alcohol type. Odds ratios of alcohol intake on the hip fracture and their confidence intervals were computed by using multiple logistic regression with Windows version SAS 6.12.
RESULTS
The elderly people's drinking rate is lower than the young people in Korea. In univariate analysis, crude odds ratio was 0.26 in male and adjusted odds ratio after contolling for age, smoking status, medication history, physical activity and body mass index was 0.36 in male. So current drinking reduces the risk of hip fracture. Adjusted odds ratio after controlling for age, smoking status, medication history, physical activity and body mass index odds ratio was 0.24 in female with moderate drinking.
CONCLUSION
We found that alcohol consumption reduces the risk of hip fracture in the elderly Korean. However, we could not explain the plausible mechanism with our data yet. So, we suggest the further study for elucidating the possible mechanism of the finding including the possible association between nutritional status, alcohol drinking and bone marrow density in the elderly.
Summary
Cohort Study on the Association getween Smoking and Proximal Hip Fracture in the Elderly People in Korea.
Byung Joo Park, Kui Oak Jung, Jong Myon Bae, Hye Won Koo, Dae Sung Kim
Korean J Epidemiol. 1998;20(2):246-256.
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Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between cigarette smoking and hip fracture by using the Korea Pharmacoepidemiology Cohort(KPEC). BACKGROUND: Hip fracture is known as one of the major health problems because of its high incidence and serious consequences in the elderly people. Cigarette smoking, old age, female and low body weight have been reported as risk factors for osteoporosis which is regarded as one of the risk factors for hip fracture. But the relationship between cigarette smoking and hip fracture has not been directly evaluated yet. So we conducted a prospective cohort study to investigate the relationship between cigarette smoking and hip fracture in the Korean elderly. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study on the 8,994 elderly person aged 65 or more in Pusan, Korea between 1993 to 1996. METHODS: The Korea Phamacoepidemiology Cohort(KPEC) has been constructed with three kinds of data sources. One is from the Korea Medical Insurance Corporation; Medical Insurance Claims Database and Enrollee's Database. Other sources are from directly constructed pharmacy database and questionnaire data. incidence density and relative risk of smoking for hip fracture were estimated by using the KPEC database. Age and gender specific incidence density was calculated by dividing the number of hip fracture cases by person-years of the follow-up the cohort. Relative risks and their confidence intervals were computed by using multiple logistic regression by Windows version SAS 6.12.
RESULTS
The level of incidence density in female was higher than that in male, which was increasing with age in both gender. In the multivariate analysis, we observed significant relationship between soking and hip fracture in female(PR=1.94(1.01-3.76)) in the larger amount smoking group, after adjusting for the confounders; age, alcohol drinking, medication history, physical activity and body mass index, the relative risk became slightly decreased to 1.70(0.84-3.46).
CONCLUSION
Accoding to this result, we suggest that effective anti-smoking campaign should be established as soon as possible for the Korean elderly women.
Summary

Epidemiol Health : Epidemiology and Health