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Original Articles
Long-term association of pericardial adipose tissue with incident diabetes and prediabetes: the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study
Minsuk Oh, Wonhee Cho, Dong Hoon Lee, Kara M. Whitaker, Pamela J. Schreiner, James G. Terry, Joon Young Kim
Epidemiol Health. 2023;45:e2023001.   Published online December 3, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2023001
  • 2,783 View
  • 99 Download
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
We examined whether pericardial adipose tissue (PAT) is predictive of prediabetes and type 2 diabetes over time.
METHODS
In total, 2,570 adults without prediabetes/diabetes from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study were followed up over 15 years. PAT volume was measured by computed tomography scans, and the new onset of prediabetes/diabetes was examined 5 years, 10 years, and 15 years after the PAT measurements. Multivariable Cox regression models were used to examine the association between the tertile of PAT and incident prediabetes/diabetes up to 15 years later. The predictive ability of PAT (vs. waist circumference [WC], body mass index [BMI], waist-to-height ratio [WHtR]) for prediabetes/diabetes was examined by comparing the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC).
RESULTS
The highest tertile of PAT was associated with a 1.56 times (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03 to 2.34) higher rate of diabetes than the lowest tertile; however, no association was found between the highest tertile of PAT and prediabetes in the fully adjusted models, including additional adjustment for BMI or WC. In the fully adjusted models, the AUCs of WC, BMI, WHtR, and PAT for predicting diabetes were not significantly different, whereas the AUC of WC for predicting prediabetes was higher than that of PAT.
CONCLUSIONS
PAT may be a significant predictor of hyperglycemia, but this association might depend on the effect of BMI or WC. Additional work is warranted to examine whether novel adiposity indicators can suggest advanced and optimal information to supplement the established diagnosis for prediabetes/diabetes.
Summary
Korean summary
본 연구는 심장 내 축적되는 내장지방과 5년에서 15년 뒤의 당뇨병 전조 단계 및 당뇨병의 발생률과 연관성이 있음을 제안한다. 또한, 본 연구는 심장 내 내장지방과 당뇨병 발생률의 관계는 체질량 지수 또는 허리둘레의 영향에 따라 상이할 수 있음을 제안한다.
Key Message
Pericardial adipose tissue may be a significant predictor of future hyperglycemia in adults, but this association might depend on the effect of body mass index or waist circumference.
Evaluation of the accessibility and its equity of the national public-private mix program for tuberculosis in Korea: a multilevel analysis
Hyunjin Son, Changhoon Kim
Epidemiol Health. 2023;45:e2023002.   Published online December 7, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2023002
  • 2,547 View
  • 124 Download
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
To examine the effect of individual and area-level characteristics on the probability of public-private mix (PPM) support (PPM coverage) for tuberculosis (TB).
METHODS
This study is a retrospective cohort design using TB reporting and treatment management data in Korea. We analyzed PPM coverage through multilevel logistic regression and empirical Bayesian estimation according to individual and area-level characteristics and their interaction.
RESULTS
Patients aged 0-29 years, women, of Korean nationality, treated at a general hospital, a one-time reporting, urban areas, and the lowest deprivation index (DI) showed higher PPM coverage. Due to the cross-level interaction, PPM coverage in the urban areas (slope=-0.048, p<0.001) had a higher level but a steeper negative deprivation gradient than in rural areas (slope= -0.015, p<0.001). For a general hospital, the PPM coverage in urban is high but more significantly decreased than in rural areas with the higher DI (urban: slope=-0.047, p<0.001; rural: slope=-0.031, p<0.001). For clinics and hospitals, the effect of DI did not appear in urban areas, but in rural areas, the higher the DI, the higher the PPM coverage with a slope of 0.046 (p<0.001) and 0.063 (p<0.001), respectively.
CONCLUSIONS
The PPM program created a significant disparity in PPM coverage between urban-rural areas and type of healthcare provider according to DI. Considering the high risk of TB incidence in areas with higher DI, institutional improvement and program redesign are needed to improve accessibility and equity.
Summary
Korean summary
다수준 분석을 통해 시행하여 PPM(Public-Private Mix) 사업의 주요한 평가 지표인 PPM coverage를 접근성과 형평성 관점에서 검토하였다. PPM 사업은 전반적으로 치료지원 수준을 높이는 효과가 있었지만, 도시화수준, 박탈 수준과 치료지원기관 선택의 3원 교차수준 교호작용의 결과로 지역간 PPM coverage에 지역박탈지수에 따른 큰 기울기를 가진 격차를 만들었다. 지역박탈수준이 큰 지역의 높은 결핵 발생 위험을 고려하면 효율성과 함께 형평성 수준을 향상시킬 수 있는 제도적 개선과 프로그램의 보완이 필요하다.
Key Message
This study analyzed the effect of individual and area-level characteristics on the probability of public-private mix (PPM) coverage for tuberculosis (TB) in Korea. The PPM program created a significant disparity in PPM coverage between urban-rural areas and type of healthcare provider according to deprivation index (DI). Given the high TB risk in areas with high DI, there is a need for institutional improvement and program redesign to improve accessibility and equity.
Parental concerns about COVID-19 vaccine safety and hesitancy in Korea: implications for vaccine communication
Hye-Kyung Cho, Hyunju Lee, Young June Choe, Shinkyeong Kim, Sujin Seo, Jiwon Moon, Eun Hwa Choi, Geun-Yong Kwon, Jee Yeon Shin, Sang-Yoon Choi, Mi Jin Jeong, Myoungsoon You
Epidemiol Health. 2023;45:e2023004.   Published online December 13, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2023004
  • 4,200 View
  • 136 Download
  • 2 Web of Science
  • 2 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
Vaccination is one of the most important strategies to contain the spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Vaccination in children is dependent on their parents, making it important to understand parents’ awareness and attitudes toward vaccines in order to devise strategies to raise vaccination rates in children.
METHODS
A web-based nationwide survey was conducted among Korean parents of 7-year-old to 18-year-old children in August 2021 to estimate parents’ intention to vaccinate their children against COVID-19 and identify key factors affecting parental acceptance and hesitancy through regression analysis.
RESULTS
Approximately 56.4% (575/1,019) were willing to vaccinate their children against COVID-19. Contributing factors to COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy were being a mother (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 0.36; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.25 to 0.52), a lower education level (aOR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.70 to 0.97), hesitancy to other childhood vaccines (aOR, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.64 to 0.96), and refusal to vaccinate themselves (aOR, 0.08; 95% CI, 0.02 to 0.20). Having older children (aOR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.13 to 1.28), trusting the child’s doctor (aOR, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.07 to 1.32), positive perceptions of the COVID-19 vaccine’s effectiveness (aOR, 2.60; 95% CI, 1.90 to 3.57) and perceiving the COVID-19 vaccine as low-risk (aOR, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.27 to 2.24) were associated with COVID-19 vaccine acceptance. Concerns about adverse reactions were the most common cause of hesitancy.
CONCLUSIONS
Providing parents with accurate and reliable information on vaccine effectiveness and safety is important to increase COVID-19 vaccine uptake in children. Differential or targeted approaches to parents according to gender, age, and their children’s age are necessary for effective communication about vaccination in children.
Summary
Korean summary
부모에게 백신 효과와 안전성에 대한 정확하고 믿을만한 정보를 제공하는 것이 소아 코로나19 백신 접종률을 높이는데 중요하다. 자녀의 백신 접종에 대한 의사소통을 효율적으로 하기 위해서는 부모의 성별과 연령, 자녀의 연령을 고려한 차별적인 접근 방법이 필요하다.
Key Message
To improve COVID-19 vaccine uptake in children, it's crucial to provide parents with reliable and precise information about vaccine safety and effectiveness. Targeted communication strategies that consider factors such as the age of the parents and their children, as well as gender, may be necessary to effectively convey this information.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Safety of BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine in children with chronic kidney disease: a national population study from South Korea
    Young June Choe, Yo-Han Ahn, Eunsun Gwak, Eunseo Jo, Jinseob Kim, Seung-Ah Choe
    Pediatric Nephrology.2024; 39(2): 625.     CrossRef
  • Willingness and hesitancy of parents to vaccinate against COVID-19 their children ages 6 months to 4 years with frail conditions in Italy
    Grazia Miraglia del Giudice, Giorgia Della Polla, Mario Postiglione, Italo Francesco Angelillo
    Frontiers in Public Health.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
The associations of tobacco use, sexually transmitted infections, HPV vaccination, and screening with the global incidence of cervical cancer: an ecological time series modeling study
Luyan Zheng, Yushi Lin, Jie Wu, Min Zheng
Epidemiol Health. 2023;45:e2023005.   Published online December 13, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2023005
  • 2,957 View
  • 114 Download
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
We aimed to quantify the temporal associations between cervical cancer incidence and cervical cancer-related factors and to predict the number of new cervical cancer cases averted under counterfactual scenarios compared to the status quo scenario.
METHODS
We described temporal trends in cervical cancer and associated factors globally from 1990 to 2019. We then used generalized linear mixed models to explore the impact of tobacco use, sexually transmitted infections (STIs), human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination, and cervical screening on cervical cancer incidence. A counterfactual analysis was performed to simulate the most effective scenario for reducing cervical cancer incidence.
RESULTS
The worldwide incidence of cervical cancer showed a downward trend over the past 3 decades (estimated annual percentage change, -0.72%), although the incidence remained high (>30 cases per 100,000 persons) in sub-Saharan Africa, Latin America, and the Caribbean. Higher smoking and STI prevalence showed significant direct associations with the incidence of cervical cancer, whereas HPV vaccination and screening coverage showed significant inverse associations. If the strategic goals for accelerating the elimination of cervical cancer and tobacco control programs had been achieved in 2019, the largest decrease in the number of new cervical cancer cases would have been observed, with 54,169 fewer new cases of cervical cancer in 2019.
CONCLUSIONS
Our counterfactual analysis found that a comprehensive intervention program emphasizing scaled-up cervical screening coverage (70%), HPV vaccination coverage (90%), and tobacco control (30% relative reduction) would be the most effective program for reducing cervical cancer incidence.
Summary
Key Message
A comprehensive intervention program emphasizing scaled-up cervical screening coverage (70%), HPV vaccination coverage (90%), and tobacco control (30% relative reduction) would be the most effective program for reducing cervical cancer incidence in our counterfactual analysis.
Viral shedding patterns of symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infections by periods of variant predominance and vaccination status in Gyeonggi Province, Korea
Gawon Choi, Ah-Young Lim, Sojin Choi, Kunhee Park, Soon Young Lee, Jong-Hun Kim
Epidemiol Health. 2023;45:e2023008.   Published online December 21, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2023008
  • 2,584 View
  • 121 Download
  • 1 Web of Science
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
We compared the viral cycle threshold (Ct) values of infected patients to better understand viral kinetics by vaccination status during different periods of variant predominance in Gyeonggi Province, Korea.
METHODS
We obtained case-specific data from the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) surveillance system, Gyeonggi in-depth epidemiological report system, and Health Insurance Review & Assessment Service from January 2020 to January 2022. We defined periods of variant predominance and explored Ct values by analyzing viral sequencing test results. Using a generalized additive model, we performed a nonlinear regression analysis to determine viral kinetics over time.
RESULTS
Cases in the Delta variant’s period of predominance had higher viral shedding patterns than cases in other periods. The temporal change of viral shedding did not vary by vaccination status in the Omicron-predominant period, but viral shedding decreased in patients who had completed their third vaccination in the Delta-predominant period. During the Delta-predominant and Omicron-predominant periods, the time from symptom onset to peak viral shedding based on the E gene was approximately 2.4 days (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.2 to 2.5) and 2.1 days (95% CI, 2.0 to 2.1), respectively.
CONCLUSIONS
In one-time tests conducted to diagnose COVID-19 in a large population, although no adjustment for individual characteristics was conducted, it was confirmed that viral shedding differed by the predominant strain and vaccination history. These results show the value of utilizing hundreds of thousands of test data produced at COVID-19 screening test centers.
Summary
Korean summary
코로나19 선별진료소에서는 확진 검사를 위해 수십만 건에서 수백만 건까지의 일회성 검사를 시행해왔다. 검사를 받은 개인의 특성과 관련된 데이터 제한으로 인해 분석 시 이를 보정할 수는 없지만, 대규모 인구집단에서 얻어진 검사 결과는 SARS-CoV-2 배출 특성을 평가하는 데 활용될 수 있다. 이번 연구에서는 바이러스 변이의 종류와 백신 접종 이력에 따라 증상 발생 후 시간 경과에 따라 바이러스 배출량이 달라지는 것을 확인하였다. 이러한 대규모 선별 검사자료는 향후에도 유용하게 활용 가능하다.
Key Message
The screening center for COVID-19 has conducted hundreds of thousands to millions of one-time confirmation tests for diagnosis. Although individual characteristics cannot be adjusted for due to data limitations, the test results from a large population can still be utilized to evaluate SARS-CoV-2 shedding. We confirmed that viral shedding varied over time after symptom onset, depending on the type of virus variant and vaccination history.
Age at first childbirth and the risk of hypertriglyceridemia among Korean women
Hye Rin Choi, Hyeon Chang Kim
Epidemiol Health. 2023;45:e2023010.   Published online December 29, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2023010
  • 3,956 View
  • 191 Download
  • 1 Web of Science
  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
We aimed to investigate the association of age at first childbirth with the risk of hypertriglyceridemia among Korean women.
METHODS
This study used data from the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study–Cardiovascular Disease Association Study. In total, 16,747 women were included in the cross-sectional analysis, and 6,250 women were included in the longitudinal analysis. The participants were divided based on their age at first childbirth (<20, 20-24, 25-29, and ≥30 years). Hypertriglyceridemia was defined as triglyceride levels of ≥150 mg/dL.
RESULTS
The multivariable-adjusted odds ratio for prevalent hypertriglyceridemia was 1.19 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01 to 1.40) in women whose first childbirth was before 20 years of age, compared to those whose first childbirth was at 25-29 years of age, after adjustment for age, study site, body mass index, blood pressure, diabetes, alcohol consumption, carbohydrate intake, income, marital status, education, parity, usage of oral contraceptives, and hormone replacement status. During a median follow-up of 5.2 years, 1,770 women developed hypertriglyceridemia. Compared with women who gave birth to their first child between 25 years and 29 years of age, those giving birth to their first child before 20 years of age had a higher risk for incident hypertriglyceridemia in later life (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.25; 95% CI, 0.99 to 1.57).
CONCLUSIONS
Giving birth to one’s first child before the age of 20 years was associated with an increased risk of hypertriglyceridemia among Korean women.
Summary
Korean summary
한국인유전체역학조사사업의 농촌기반 코호트 자료를 분석한 결과, 20세 이전에 초산을 경험한 한국 여성에서 25-29세에 경험한 군에 비해 고중성지방혈증에 걸릴 위험이 증가하였음 폐경 후 여성을 한정하여 보았을 때도 20세 이전 초산과 고중성지방혈증 간의 유의한 관련성을 보였음 여성의 출산 등 여성력이 심혈관계 질환 발생의 위험요인으로 작용할 수 있으며, 출산력에 따른 혈중 중성지방수치 관리 전략 마련이 필요함
Key Message
Among Korean women, having their first child before the age of 20 was associated with an increased risk of hypertriglyceridemia. Targeted preventive actions should be developed for those women who give birth at an early age in order to manage their blood triglyceride levels.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Adolescent childbirth and mobility disability among women ages 15–49: an analysis of population health surveys from 14 low-income and middle-income countries
    Katherine E Peck, Diego G Bassani, Saionara MA Camara, Marlos R Domingues, Tetine Sentell, Maria P Velez, Catherine M Pirkle
    BMJ Open.2023; 13(7): e072535.     CrossRef
Systematic Review
Associations of daily diet-related greenhouse gas emissions with the incidence and mortality of chronic diseases: a systematic review and meta-analysis of epidemiological studies
Jee Yeon Hong, Young Jun Kim, Sanghyuk Bae, Mi Kyung Kim
Epidemiol Health. 2023;45:e2023011.   Published online December 30, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2023011
  • 3,460 View
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
Although the entire process extending from food production to dietary consumption makes a large contribution to total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, little and inconsistent evidence exists on the epidemiological associations of daily diet-related GHG emissions with chronic disease risk or all-cause mortality. This systematic review and meta-analysis explored the observational epidemiological relationship between daily diet-related GHG emissions and health outcomes, including the risk of chronic diseases and all-cause mortality.
METHODS
Original articles published in English until May 2022 were identified by searching PubMed, Ovid-Embase, Web of Science, CINAHL, and Google Scholar. The extracted data were pooled using both fixed-effects and random-effects meta-analyses and presented as hazard and risk ratios (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs).
RESULTS
In total, 7 cohort studies (21 study arms) were included for qualitative synthesis and meta-analysis. The GHG emissions of dietary consumption showed a significant positive association with the risk of chronic disease incidence and mortality in both fixed-effects and random-effects models (fixed: RR, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.03 to 1.05; random: RR, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.02 to 1.06). This positive association was robust regardless of how daily diet-related GHG emissions were grouped. More strongly animal- based diets showed higher GHG emissions. However, there were only a few studies on specific chronic diseases, and the subgroup analysis showed insignificant results. There was no evidence of publication bias among the studies (Egger test: p=0.79).
CONCLUSIONS
A higher GHG-emission diet was found to be associated with a greater risk of all-cause mortality.
Summary
Korean summary
식이로부터 배출되는 GHG양은 메타분석의 고정 효과 모델과 확률 효과 모델 모두에서 만성 질환 발병률 및 사망 위험과 유의미한 양의 상관 관계를 보여주었습니다. 동물성 식단은 더 높은 GHG 배출량을 나타냈으나, 특정 만성질환에 대한 연구의 수가 적었고 질환 별 하위군 분석에서 유의미한 결과를 보이지 않았습니다. 결론적으로 온실가스 배출량이 많은 식단은 모든 원인으로 인한 사망 위험이 더 큰 것으로 나타났습니다.
Key Message
Daily food consumption contributes a large part of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, however, no review study was conducted. This study is the first review paper that reviews the relationship between greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from daily diet and chronic disease risk and all-cause mortality. GHG emissions from the daily diet were significantly positively associated with disease risk and mortality. Animal-based diets contributed most to diet-derived GHG emissions. Men tended to have diets with higher GHG emissions compared to women. At times when the response to climate change is urgent, this study can help many policymakers and health officials.
Original Articles
Associations between digital media use and lack of physical exercise among middle-school adolescents in Korea
Gyeongmin Kim, Hyunsuk Jeong, Hyeon Woo Yim
Epidemiol Health. 2023;45:e2023012.   Published online January 10, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2023012
  • 3,566 View
  • 219 Download
  • 2 Web of Science
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
The reported effects of digital media overuse on physical activity among adolescents are inconsistent. This study examined the association between hours of digital media use and lack of moderate-intensity physical exercise (mPE) according to the type of digital media.
METHODS
This study included 1,837 middle school students from the iCURE (Internet user Cohort for Unbiased Recognition of gaming disorder in Early Adolescence) study conducted in Korea. Hours spent using digital media were measured by self-reported daily usage time for Internet games, messengers, social media, and watching game streaming on weekdays. Lack of mPE was defined as performing a minimum of 30 minutes at a time less than twice weekly. Multivariable logistic regression analysis stratified by sex was performed.
RESULTS
Among male students, the group with the highest hours of using either Internet games or watching game streaming was more likely to lack mPE than each non-user group. In contrast, among male students, the group using either messengers or social media had a higher rate of mPE compared to each non-user group. Female students showed no association between hours spent using Internet games, messengers, social media, or watching game streaming and a lack of mPE.
CONCLUSIONS
Among male middle school students in Korea, the excessive use of Internet games or watching game streaming was associated with a lack of mPE. Thus, guidelines should be established regarding adolescent use of internet games and watching game streaming.
Summary
Korean summary
한국에서 남, 여 중학생을 대상으로 4개 인터넷 매체(인터넷 게임, 메신저, 소셜미디어, 게임 스트리밍 시청) 과다사용과 신체 운동 부재와의 연관성을 알아보기 위한 단면조사 연구를 시행하였다. 남자 중학생에서 인터넷 게임 사용 또는 게임 스트리밍 시청 시간이 가장 높은 사분위 그룹은 비이용 그룹보다 중간 강도의 신체운동 부재율이 유의하게 높았다.
Key Message
A cross-sectional study was conducted to find out the relationship between excessive use of four Internet media (internet games, messengers, social media, and game streaming) and lack of physical exercise targeting male and female middle school students in Korea. Among male middle school students, the upper quartile group with the highest Internet game use or game streaming viewing time had a significantly higher moderate-intensity physical exercise absence rate than the non-use group.
Associations of racial and ethnic discrimination with adverse changes in exercise and screen time during the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States
Tong Xia, Gilbert C. Gee, Jian Li, Xinyue Liu, Jin Dai, Lu Shi, Donglan Zhang, Zhuo Chen, Xuesong Han, Yan Li, Hongmei Li, Ming Wen, Dejun Su, Liwei Chen
Epidemiol Health. 2023;45:e2023013.   Published online January 28, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2023013
  • 4,910 View
  • 96 Download
  • 1 Web of Science
  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, a growing prevalence of racial and ethnic discrimination occurred when many Americans struggled to maintain healthy lifestyles. This study investigated the associations of racial and ethnic discrimination with changes in exercise and screen time during the pandemic in the United States.
METHODS
We included 2,613 adults who self-identified as non-Hispanic White, non-Hispanic Black, non-Hispanic Asian, or Hispanic from the Health, Ethnicity, and Pandemic study, a cross-sectional survey conducted among a nationally representative sample of United States adults between October and November 2020. We assessed self-reported racial and ethnic discrimination by measuring COVID-19-related racial and ethnic bias and examined its associations with changes in exercise and screen time using multivariable logistic regression models. We analyzed data between September 2021 and March 2022.
RESULTS
COVID-19-related racial and ethnic bias was associated with decreased exercise time among non-Hispanic Asian (odds ratio [OR], 1.46; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.13 to 1.89) and Hispanic people (OR, 1.91; 95% CI, 1.32 to 2.77), and with increased screen time among non-Hispanic Black people (OR, 1.94; 95% CI, 1.33 to 2.85), adjusting for age, sex, education, marital status, annual household income, insurance, and employment status.
CONCLUSIONS
Racial and ethnic discrimination may have adversely influenced exercise and screen time changes among racial and ethnic minorities during the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States. Further studies are needed to investigate the mechanisms through which racial and ethnic discrimination can impact lifestyles and to develop potential strategies to address racial and ethnic discrimination as a barrier to healthy lifestyles.
Summary
Key Message
In this study with a nationally representative sample of Americans, we found that racial discrimination during the COVID-19 pandemic was associated with undesired changes in exercise and screen time, particularly among minorities.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Asian American Women’s Experiences of Discrimination and Health Behaviors during the COVID-19 Pandemic
    Katarina Wang, Alice Guan, Janice Seto, Debora L. Oh, Kathie Lau, Christine Duffy, Esperanza Castillo, Valerie McGuire, Michelle Wadhwa, Clifford G. Tepper, Heather A. Wakelee, Mindy C. DeRouen, Salma Shariff-Marco, Iona Cheng, Scarlett Lin Gomez
    Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
Data Profile
Data resource profile: the Korean Community Health Status Indicators (K-CHSI) database
Hye-Eun Lee, Yeon-gyeong Kim, Jin-Young Jeong, Dong-Hyun Kim
Epidemiol Health. 2023;45:e2023016.   Published online February 2, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2023016
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
Korean Community Health Status Indicators (K-CHSI) is a model-based database containing annual data on health outcomes and determinants at the municipal level (<i>si/gun/gu</i>-level regions, including mid-sized cities, counties, and districts). K-CHSI’s health outcomes include overall mortality, disease incidence, prevalence rates, and self-reported health. Health determinants were measured in 5 domains: socio-demographic factors, health behaviors, social environment, physical environment, and the healthcare system. The data sources are 71 public databases, including Causes of Death Statistics, Cancer Registration Statistics, Community Health Survey, Population Census, and Census on Establishments and Statistics of Urban Plans. This dataset covers Korea’s 17 metropolitan cities and provinces, with data from approximately 250 municipal regions (<i>si/gun/gu</i>). The current version of the database (DB version 1.3) was built using 12 years of data from 2008 to 2019. All data included in K-CHSI may be downloaded via the Korea Community Health Survey site, with no login requirement (https://chs.kdca.go.kr/chs/recsRoom/dataBaseMain.do). K-CHSI covers extensive health outcomes and health determinants at the municipal level over a period of more than 10 years, which enables ecological and time-series analyses of the relationships among various health outcomes and related factors.
Summary
Korean summary
지역사회 건강관련요인 데이터베이스는 17개 광역시도와 약 250개 시군구의 건강 결과 및 결정 요인에 대한 연간 데이터를 포함하는 모델 기반 데이터베이스이다. 본 데이터베이스의 건강 결과에는 사망률, 질병 발생률, 유병률, 자가 보고 건강상태 등이 포함되며 건강 결정 요인은 인구사회학적 환경, 건강 행태, 사회적 환경, 물리적 환경, 보건의료 체계의 5개 영역으로 구성되었다. 데이터는 질병관리청 지역사회건강조사 사이트에서 로그인 없이 다운로드할 수 있다(https://chs.kdca.go.kr/chs/recsRoom/dataBaseMain.do).
Key Message
Korean Community Health Status Indicators (K-CHSI) is a model-based database containing annual data on health outcomes and determinants from 17 metropolitan cities and provinces, with data from approximately 250 municipal regions (si/gun/gu). K-CHSI’s health outcomes include overall mortality, disease incidence, prevalence rates, and self-reported health. Health determinants were measured in 5 domains: socio-demographic factors, health behaviors, social environment, physical environment, and the healthcare system. The data included in K-CHSI may be downloaded via the Korea Community Health Survey site, with no login requirement (https://chs.kdca.go.kr/chs/recsRoom/dataBaseMain.do).
Brief Communication
Prevalence and methodological quality of systematic reviews in Korean medical journals
Seong Jung Kim, Mi Ah Han, Jae Hung Jung, Eu Chang Hwang, Hae Ran Kim, Sang Eun Yoon, Seo-Hee Kim, Pius Kim, So-Yeong Kim
Epidemiol Health. 2023;45:e2023017.   Published online February 6, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2023017
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  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
This study aimed to assess and evaluate the prevalence and methodological quality of systematic reviews (SRs) published in major Korean medical journals (KMJs). The top 15 journals with the highest Korean Medical Citation Index, published between 2018 to 2021, were selected. We assessed the methodological quality of SRs using A Measurement Tool to Assess Systematic Reviews 2 (AMSTAR 2). In total, 126 SRs were included, with an average of 32 SRs being reported annually. The overall prevalence of SRs in KMJs was 2.8%, with an increase from 2.6% in 2018 to 3.4% in 2021. Overall, the methodological quality of SRs was low (9.5% low, 90.5% critically low). More than 80% of the studies adhered to critical domain items such as a comprehensive literature search and risk of bias assessment, but for items such as protocol registration and listing excluded studies and the justification for exclusion, the adherence rate was less than 15%. While the number of SRs in KMJs steadily increased, the overall confidence in the methodological quality was low to critically low. Therefore, in order to provide the best evidence for decision-making in clinical and public health areas, editors, reviewers, and authors need to pay more attention to improving the quality of SRs.
Summary
Korean summary
한국의학저널에서 체계적 문헌고찰의 수는 꾸준히 증가했지만 방법론적 품질은 전반적으로 낮았다. 임상 및 공중 보건 분야에서 의사 결정을 위한 최상의 근거를 제공하기 위해 편집자, 심사자 및 저자는 체계적 문헌고찰의 품질을 개선하는 데 더 많은 관심을 기울여야 할 것이다.
Key Message
While the number of systematic reviews in Korean medical journals steadily increased, the overall confidence of methodological quality was low to critically low. Therefore, in order to provide the best evidence for decision-making in clinical and public health areas, editors, reviewers, and authors need to pay more attention to improving the quality of systematic reviews.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • The status quo of systematic reviews published in high-impact journals in Korea: a study focused on protocol registration and GRADE use
    Mi Ah Han, Seong Jung Kim, Eu Chang Hwang, Jae Hung Jung
    Epidemiology and Health.2022; 44: e2022108.     CrossRef
Original Articles
Evaluation of an air quality warning system for vulnerable and susceptible individuals in Korea: an interrupted time series analysis
YouHyun Park, Jun Hyuk Koo, Hoyeon Jeong, Ji Ye Jung, Changsoo Kim, Dae Ryong Kang
Epidemiol Health. 2023;45:e2023020.   Published online February 14, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2023020
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
This study was conducted to elucidate the effects of an air quality warning system (AQWS) implemented in January 2015 in Korea by analyzing changes in the incidence and exacerbation rates of environmental diseases.
METHODS
Data from patients with environmental diseases were extracted from the National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort database from 2010 to 2019, and data on environmental risk factors were acquired from the AirKorea database. Patient and meteorological data were linked based on residential area. An interrupted time series analysis with Poisson segmented regression was used to compare the rates before and after AQWS introduction. Adjustment variables included seasonality, air pollutants (carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, particulate matter less than 10 μm in diameter, and ozone), temperature, and humidity.
RESULTS
After AQWS implementation, the incidence of asthma gradually decreased by 20.5%. Cardiovascular disease and stroke incidence also significantly decreased (by 34.3 and 43.0%, respectively). However, no immediate or gradual decrease was identified in the exacerbation rate of any environmental disease after AQWS implementation. Sensitivity analyses were performed according to age, disability, and health insurance coverage type. Overall, the AQWS effectively mitigated the occurrence of most environmental diseases in Korea. However, the relationships between alarm system implementation and reduced incidence differed among diseases based on the characteristics of vulnerable and sensitive individuals.
CONCLUSIONS
Our results suggest that by tailoring the AQWS to demographic and sociological characteristics and providing enhanced education about the warning system, interventions can become an efficient policy tool to decrease air pollution-related health risks.
Summary
Korean summary
한국에서 미세먼지경보제의 시행은 환경성질환의 발생률을 점진적으로 감소시켰으나, 민감·취약계층 특징에 따라 정책 시행에 영향을 받은 환경성질환 종류는 상이하였다. 한편, 기존 환경성질환 환자의 악화(입원 또는 응급실 방문)의 경우 미세먼지경보제 시행으로 인한 영향은 파악되지 않았다.
Key Message
Air Quality Warning System (AQWS) effectively mitigated the occurrence of most environmental diseases in Korea. The relationships between alarm system implementation and reduced incidence differed among diseases based on the characteristics of vulnerable and sensitive individuals.
Changes in the treatment rate of patients newly diagnosed with stage IV cancer near the end of life from 2012 to 2017 in Korea
Kyuwoong Kim, Hyun Jung Jho, So Jung Park, Bohyun Park, Jin Young Choi
Epidemiol Health. 2023;45:e2023021.   Published online February 14, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2023021
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
This study aimed to evaluate changes in the cancer treatment rate among patients newly diagnosed with stage IV cancer using socio-demographic and clinical subgroups in a nationwide cohort of Korean patients.
METHODS
This retrospective, national-level study used the Korea Central Cancer Registry (KCCR), which is linked to the National Health Insurance Service (NHIS) database, from January 1, 2012 to December 31, 2017. The records of patients newly diagnosed with stage IV of the 5 cancers with the highest cancer-related mortality rate were identified to analyze changes in the treatment rate. The main outcome examined in this study was the change in the cancer treatment rate between 2012 and 2017, as measured using the annual percent change (APC).
RESULTS
A total of 106,082 patients with newly diagnosed gastric, colorectal, liver, pancreatic, and lung cancers at the end of life (EoL) were identified from the KCCR-NHIS database. Of these patients, 76,533 (72.1%) received cancer treatment. Over the study period (2012-2017), the proportion of patients who received cancer treatment at EoL decreased by 8.3%, with an APC of -2.1% (95% confidence interval, -2.6 to -1.6). This declining trend of cancer treatment among patients with advanced cancer stage at EoL was consistent among socio-demographic and clinical subgroups.
CONCLUSIONS
The proportion of untreated patients with stage IV cancer is increasing in the Korea. For patients who are not undergoing standard cancer treatment near EoL, an alternative care plan, such as early palliative care, should be considered.
Summary
Korean summary
국민건강보험공단과 중앙암등록본부 자료를 활용하여 4기 암환자의 암 치료 비율 추이를 분석한 결과 2012년부터 2017년까지 위암, 대장암, 간암, 췌장암, 폐암으로 진단받은 4기 암환자들의 암 치료 비율의 연간비율변화는 8.3% 감소하는 것으로 나타났다. 이러한 결과는 인구사회학적 및 임상적 특성에 관계없이 일관되었다. 본 연구결과는 말기에 가까운 4기 암 환자들이 표준 치료를 받지 못하는 경우, 조기 완화의료와 같은 대안적인 계획을 고려할 필요가 있음을 시사한다.
Key Message
● Between 2012 and 2017, there was a significant decrease in the treatment rate among these patients, though most still received cancer treatment. ● Alternative clinical choices, such as the early utilization of hospice and palliative care, may improve quality of life and reduce the need for aggressive care for such patients.
Changes in mental health service utilization before and during the COVID-19 pandemic: a nationwide database analysis in Korea
Kyoung Hoon Kim, Sang Min Lee, Minha Hong, Kyu-Man Han, Jong-Woo Paik
Epidemiol Health. 2023;45:e2023022.   Published online February 14, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2023022
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  • 3 Web of Science
  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
The present study examined the impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on mental health service utilization through a comparative analysis of nationwide data regarding inpatient care users, outpatient visits, emergency department (ED) visits, and admissions via the ED before and during the pandemic.
METHODS
Data from approximately 350,000 Koreans diagnosed with mental illness were analyzed in terms of hospitalization, outpatient visits, and ED visits between January 2018 and June 2021. An interrupted time series analysis was conducted to determine the significance of changes in mental health service utilization indicators.
RESULTS
The number of hospital admissions per patient decreased by 1.2% at the start of the pandemic and 0.7% afterward. The length of hospital stay increased by 1.8% at the outbreak of the pandemic, and then decreased by 20.2%. Although the number of outpatients increased, the number of outpatient visits per patient decreased; the number of outpatient visits for schizophrenia (3.4%) and bipolar disorder (3.5%) significantly decreased immediately post-outbreak. The number of ED visits per patient decreased both immediately post-outbreak and afterward, and ED visits for schizophrenia (19.2%), bipolar disorder (22.3%), and depression (17.4%) decreased significantly immediately post-outbreak. Admissions via the ED did not show a significant change immediately post-outbreak.
CONCLUSIONS
Mental health service utilization increased during the pandemic, but medical service use decreased overall, with a particularly significant decrease in ED utilization. As the pandemic worsened, the decline in outpatient visits became more pronounced among those with severe mental illness.
Summary
Korean summary
이 연구는 COVID-19 전후 정신질환 의료서비스 이용 변화를 분석하였다. 팬데믹 기간 중에 정신질환 의료서비스는 전반적으로 감소하였고, 특히 중증 정신질환의 외래 방문이 감소하였다. 따라서, 정신질환자의 진료 연속성을 보장하기 위한 조치가 요구된다.
Key Message
This study examined the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on mental health service utilization. The mental health service utilization decreased overall after the outbreak of COVID-19, especially outpatient visits for severe mental illness significantly decreased. Therefore, countermeasures are needed to maintain the continuity of care.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Adult Mental Health Presentations to Emergency Departments in Victoria, Australia between January 2018 and October 2020: Changes Associated with COVID-19 Pandemic Public Health Restrictions
    Jackson Newberry-Dupé, Wanyu Chu, Simon Craig, Rohan Borschmann, Gerard O’Reilly, Paul Yates, Glenn Melvin, Kylie King, Harriet Hiscock
    Psychiatric Quarterly.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
Trends and all-cause mortality associated with multimorbidity of non-communicable diseases among adults in the United States, 1999-2018: a retrospective cohort study
Mengzi Sun, Ling Wang, Xuhan Wang, Li Tong, Lina Jin, Bo Li
Epidemiol Health. 2023;45:e2023023.   Published online February 14, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2023023
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
Multimorbidity of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) has brought enormous challenges to public health, becoming a major medical burden. However, the patterns, temporal trends, and all-cause mortality associated with NCD multimorbidity over time have not been well described in the United States.
METHODS
All adult participants were sourced from nationally representative data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. In total, 55,081 participants were included in trend analysis, and 38,977 participants were included in Cox regression.
RESULTS
The 5 NCDs with the largest increases over the study period were diabetes, osteoporosis, obesity, liver conditions, and cancer. The estimated prevalence of multimorbidity increased with age, especially for middle-aged participants with 5 or more NCDs; in general, the prevalence of NCD multimorbidity was higher among females than males. Participants with 5 or more NCDs were at 4.49 times the risk of all-cause mortality of participants without any diseases. Significant interactions were found between multimorbidity and age group (p for interaction <0.001), race/ethnicity (p for interaction<0.001), and educational attainment (p for interaction=0.010).
CONCLUSIONS
The prevalence of multiple NCDs significantly increased from 1999 to 2018. Those with 5 or more NCDs had the highest risk of all-cause mortality, especially among the young population. The data reported by this study could serve as a reference for additional NCD research.
Summary
Key Message
This study included a series-cross sectional study and a retrospective cohort study, utilizing nationally representative data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Multimorbidity of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) has brought enormous challenges to public health, becoming a major medical burden. This study aimed to explore the patterns, temporal trends, and all-cause mortality of multimorbidity of NCDs in the United States from 1999 to 2018, by gender-specific and age-specific. The data reported by this study could serve as a reference for additional NCD research.

Epidemiol Health : Epidemiology and Health