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Original article A prospective association between dietary mushroom intake and the risk of type 2 diabetes: the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study–Cardiovascular Disease Association Study
Yu-Mi Kim1,2orcid , Hye Won Woo1,2orcid , Min-Ho Shin3orcid , Sang Baek Koh4orcid , Hyeon Chang Kim5orcid , Mi Kyung Kim1,2orcid
Epidemiol Health 2024;e2024017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2024017 [Accepted]
Published online: January 8, 2024
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1Deptartment of Preventive Medicine, College of Medicine, Hanyang University, Korea , Seoul, Korea
2Institute for Health and Society, Hanyang University, Seoul, Korea
3Department of Preventive Medicine, Chonnam National University, Medical School, Gwangju, Korea
4Department of Preventive Medicine and Institute of Occupational Medicine, Yonsei Wonju College of Medicine, Wonju, Korea
5Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Yonsei University, College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
Corresponding author:  Mi Kyung Kim,
Email: kmkkim@hanyang.ac.kr
Received: 25 July 2023   • Revised: 6 December 2023   • Accepted: 19 December 2023

OBJECTIVES
Mushrooms, known for their nutritious and functional components, are considered healthy and medicinal. This study investigated the prospective association between dietary mushroom consumption and the incidence of type 2 diabetes among Korean adults aged ≥ 40 years.
METHODS
In total, 16,666 participants who were not taking anti-diabetic medication or insulin and had normal fasting blood glucose (FBG) (< 126 mg/dL) were included. We used the cumulative average dietary consumption of mushrooms as an exposure metric, calculated from food frequency questionnaires at every follow-up, along with covariates collected during a baseline survey. To estimate incidence rate ratios (IRRs) for type 2 diabetes, a modified Poisson regression model with a robust error estimator was applied.
RESULTS
In multivariable models, dietary mushroom consumption was inversely associated with type 2 diabetes incidence in both sexes (men: IRR, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.47 to 0.90; plinearity = 0.0427 in the highest quartile (Q4) vs. the lowest quartile (Q1); women: IRR, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.54 to 0.93; plinearity = 0.1145 in Q4 vs. Q1). The inverse association remained after adjustment for dietary factors instead of dietary quality index, the baseline FBG, and the exclusion of incidence within the first year. Additionally, no significant interaction was found regarding the risk of type 2 diabetes between dietary mushroom consumption and participants’ sex or other factors.
CONCLUSIONS
Dietary mushroom consumption was inversely linked with the risk of type 2 diabetes incidence in both sexes, indicating the beneficial role of mushrooms in preventing the disease.


Epidemiol Health : Epidemiology and Health