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Volume 36; 2014
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Lecture
Using fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis
Sophia Seung-yoon Lee
Epidemiol Health. 2014;36:e2014038.   Published online December 31, 2014
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih/e2014038
  • 14,729 View
  • 173 Download
  • 7 Citations
AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
Summary
Korean summary
퍼지셋 질적비교연구(Fs/QCA)는 사회과학 방법론에서 사례중심의 질적분석과 변수중심의 양적분석을 통합하기 위해 개발된 시도로 주요 특징으로는 양적 분석과 비교할 때, 결합된 요인들의 인과관계가 내포하는 인과적 복합성을 살펴보기 위하여 연구자에게 더 많은 자유도를 허용한다는 것이다. 또한 퍼지셋 질적비교연구는 사례중심 연구가 이론화 및 과학적 측정에 있어 갖게 되는 한계를 인식하여, 경험적 증거를 통한 과학성의 확보를 위해 집합소속 정도에 대한 눈금매기기를 실시한다. 그러면서도 동시에 변수중심의 연구가 갖는 한계로 지적되는 방법론과 이론과의 연결성을 높이기 위해 집합 이론적 접근을 시도한다. 즉, 눈금매기기를 통해 변수중심 연구의 속성을 가지면서도 집합 이론을 활용하여 사례중심 연구의 속성도 내포하고 있다고 볼 수 있는 것이다.
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  • Economic Elites and Support for Housing Affordability Policy: How a Housing-Health Belief Matters
    Selena E. Ortiz, Gary J. Adler, Bobbie L. Johannes
    Political Behavior.2022; 44(2): 505.     CrossRef
  • Explaining Cannabis Use by Adolescents: A Comparative Assessment of Fuzzy Set Qualitative Comparative Analysis and Ordered Logistic Regression
    Jorge de Andres-Sanchez, Angel Belzunegui-Eraso
    Healthcare.2022; 10(4): 669.     CrossRef
  • Exploring theoretical mechanisms of community-engaged research: a multilevel cross-sectional national study of structural and relational practices in community-academic partnerships
    John G. Oetzel, Blake Boursaw, Maya Magarati, Elizabeth Dickson, Shannon Sanchez-Youngman, Leo Morales, Sarah Kastelic, Milton “Mickey” Eder, Nina Wallerstein
    International Journal for Equity in Health.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Jessica Lee Bolin
    Human Ecology Review.2022; 27(2): 31.     CrossRef
  • Meaning Making as a Lifebuoy in Dementia Caregiving: Predicting Depression from a Generation Perspective Using a Fuzzy-Set Qualitative Comparative Analysis
    Vivian Weiqun Lou, Clio Yuen Man Cheng, Doris Sau Fung Yu, Daniel Fu Keung Wong, Daniel W. L. Lai, Alice Ming Lin Chong, Shuangzhou Chen, Kee Lee Chou
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2022; 19(23): 15711.     CrossRef
  • Applying fuzzy qualitative comparative analysis to identify typical symptoms of COVID-19 infection in a primary care unit, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
    Nádia Cristina Pinheiro Rodrigues, Mônica Kramer de Noronha Andrade, Joaquim Teixeira Netto, Denise Leite Maia Monteiro, Valéria Teresa Saraiva Lino, Eric Gustavo Ramos Almeida
    Scientific Reports.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Self-Reported California Hospital Palliative Care Program Composition, Certification, and Staffing Level Are Associated with Lower End-of-Life Medicare Utilization
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Original Articles
The effect of community-level smoke-free ordinances on smoking rates in men based on Community Health Surveys
Hye Ah Lee, Hyesook Park, Ho Kim, Kyunghee Jung-Choi
Epidemiol Health. 2014;36:e2014037.   Published online December 26, 2014
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih/e2014037
  • 13,586 View
  • 140 Download
  • 6 Citations
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
As one of smoke-free policies, communities have established the smoke-free ordinances since August 2010. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the effects of community-level smoke-free ordinances (SFO) on smoking rates in men using multiyear Community Health Survey (CHS) data.
METHODS
Data on community-level SFO were collected from a website on Enhanced Local Laws and Regulation Information System. Regional smoking-related data were obtained from CHS data from 2008 to 2012 and the age-standardized rates of current smoking in men, attempts to quit smoking, and smoke-free campaign experiences including the mean number of cigarettes smoked (smoking amount) were calculated. Repeated measures analysis of variance was performed to evaluate the effects of regional implementation of SFO and the duration on change of smoking rates.
RESULTS
Overall current smoking rates and daily mean cigarettes smoked were lower in community where SFO had been implemented compared to those without implementation, and there was a significant difference in smoking rates between 2010 and 2008. Cross-sectional analysis of the effects of regional SFO revealed clear difference in rate of current smoking, but longitudinal analysis showed no significant differences. Stratifying by age groups, however, showed that groups less than 30 years of age had low smoking rates in community with ordinance compared to those without SFO since 2010. Yearly surveys measuring the number of cigarettes smoked, attempts to quit smoking, and experiences of smoke-free campaigns showed regional differences in the duration of implementation, but these differences were not significant in longitudinal analysis. Furthermore, there was a difference in regional socioeconomic characteristics between community with and without SFO implementation.
CONCLUSIONS
For effective smoking control, it is necessary to evaluate current policies and develop indices to evaluate the practical implementation of ordinances. As more communities to pass the SFO, long-term observation and assessments required.
Summary
Korean summary
2008년부터 2012년까지 조사된 지역사회건강조사 자료를 이용하여, 지역별 금연 조례 시행에 대한 효과를 평가한 연구 결과로, 종단적 분석을 통해 접근하였을 때 시간에 따른 흡연율 감소 폭은 조례 시행/미시행 지역간에 차이를 보이지 않았으며, 지역의 사회경제적 특성 요인에 차이가 존재하는 것으로 나타났다. 효과적인 흡연 규제를 위해, 현 시행중인 정책에 대한 효과 평가 및 장기적인 평가가 필요하다.
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  • What explains the link between childhood ADHD and adolescent depression? Investigating the role of peer relationships and academic attainment
    Victoria Powell, Lucy Riglin, Gemma Hammerton, Olga Eyre, Joanna Martin, Richard Anney, Anita Thapar, Frances Rice
    European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry.2020; 29(11): 1581.     CrossRef
  • Attitudes of Korean smokers towards smoke-free public places: findings from the longitudinal ITC Korea Survey, 2005–2010
    Eunja Park, Sung-il Cho, Hong Gwan Seo, Yeol Kim, Hyun-Suk Jung, Pete Driezen, Janine Ouimet, Anne C K Quah, Geoffrey T. Fong
    BMJ Open.2019; 9(8): e025298.     CrossRef
  • Second-hand smoke prevalence in 252 regions of South Korea in three exposure locations
    Li-Yuan Sun, Jae-Hyun Park
    Japan Journal of Nursing Science.2018; 15(3): 210.     CrossRef
  • The effect of contextual factors on unintentional injury hospitalization: from the Korea National Hospital Discharge Survey
    Hye Ah Lee, Hyejin Han, Seonhwa Lee, Bomi Park, Bo Hyun Park, Won Kyung Lee, Ju Ok Park, Sungok Hong, Young Taek Kim, Hyesook Park
    BMC Public Health.2018;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • The Potential Roles of Extracellular Vesicles in Cigarette Smoke-Associated Diseases
    A-Reum Ryu, Do Hyun Kim, Eunjoo Kim, Mi Young Lee
    Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity.2018; 2018: 1.     CrossRef
  • Affecting Factors of Secondhand Smoke Exposure in Korea: Focused on Different Exposure Locations
    Li-Yuan Sun, Hae-Kwan Cheong, Eun-Whan Lee, Kyeong-Jin Kang, Jae-Hyun Park
    Journal of Korean Medical Science.2016; 31(9): 1362.     CrossRef
The effects of community environmental factors on obesity among Korean adults: a multilevel analysis
Nan-He Yoon, Soonman Kwon
Epidemiol Health. 2014;36:e2014036.   Published online December 24, 2014
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih/e2014036
  • 18,265 View
  • 162 Download
  • 8 Citations
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
This study explored multidimensional factors related to obesity by dividing them into individual and environmental factors, and performed multilevel analysis to investigate community environmental effects.
METHODS
Data from the 2011 and 2012 Community Health Surveys were used for the analysis. Community-level variables, constructed from various regional statistics, were included in the model as environmental factors. Respondents with body mass index (BMI)≥25 were defined as obese, and a multilevel logistic regression analysis was conducted to analyze individual and environmental factors related to obesity. Moreover, a stratified analysis was conducted to compare factors related to obesity between men and women.
RESULTS
Of 337,136 samples, 82,887 (24.6%) were obese, with BMI≥25. Sociodemographic characteristics at the individual level were mostly significantly related to obesity; however, while there were more obese men subjects among those with high socioeconomic status, there were more obese women among those with low socioeconomic status. There were fewer obese respondents among those who regularly walked and more obese respondents among those who reported short sleep duration or were highly stressed. At the community level, people living in areas with high socioeconomic status, high satisfaction with safety and public transportation, and high accessibility to sports facilities in their community had lower obesity risks.
CONCLUSIONS
Community-level environmental factors affected obesity, especially perceived community environment, more significant than physical environment. Thus, it is necessary to develop effective obesity prevention and management strategies by considering potential community environmental factors that affect obesity.
Summary
Korean summary
다수준 분석을 통해 개인의 비만 발생에 영향을 미치는 다차원의 요인들을 탐색한 결과, 비만과 개인적 요인들의 관계는 성별에 따라 다르게 나타났고, 지역사회 환경에 대한 주관적 인식이 개인의 비만 발생과 유의한 관계가 있는 것으로 확인되었다. 보다 효과적인 비만 예방 및 관리를 위해 다양한 차원의 환경적 특성과 배경, 맥락을 반영한 전략의 개발이 필요하다.
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  • Do the Self-Reported Changes in Physical Activity After the Emergence of the COVID-19 Pandemic Associate With Major Depression According to Moderate to Vigorous Physical Activity Status?
    Jeong Hyun Ahn, Jin Young Nam
    Journal of Physical Activity and Health.2022; : 1.     CrossRef
  • Employment Status Transition Predicts Adult Obesity Trajectory
    Young Joong Kang, Dong-wook Lee, Min Young Park, Mo-Yeol Kang
    Journal of Occupational & Environmental Medicine.2021; 63(12): e861.     CrossRef
  • Combined effects of disease management and food insecurity on physical and mental health in Korean adults
    Hyun Ja Kim, Kirang Kim
    Public Health Nutrition.2020; 23(1): 112.     CrossRef
  • Generational Differences: A Comparison of Weight-Related Cognitions and Behaviors of Generation X and Millennial Mothers of Preschool Children
    Ruiying Xiong, Kim Spaccarotella, Virginia Quick, Carol Byrd-Bredbenner
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2019; 16(13): 2431.     CrossRef
  • Influence of Neighborhood Environment on Korean Adult Obesity Using a Bayesian Spatial Multilevel Model
    Lee, Lee, Choi, Choi
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2019; 16(20): 3991.     CrossRef
  • Associations between Social and Physical Environments, and Physical Activity in Adults from Urban and Rural Regions
    Bongjeong Kim, Hye Sun Hyun
    Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives.2018; 9(1): 16.     CrossRef
  • Influences of physical activity environments on obesity among adolescents
    Nan-He Yoon
    Korean Journal of Health Education and Promotion.2018; 35(2): 25.     CrossRef
  • Childhood Overweight and Obesity and Associated Factors in Iranian Children and Adolescents: A Multilevel Analysis; the CASPIAN-IV Study
    Patricia Khashayar, Amir Kasaeian, Ramin Heshmat, Mohammad Esmaeil Motlagh, Armita Mahdavi Gorabi, Mehdi Noroozi, Mostafa Qorbani, Roya Kelishadi
    Frontiers in Pediatrics.2018;[Epub]     CrossRef
Perspective
Strategies for an effective tobacco harm reduction policy in Indonesia
Fariz Nurwidya, Fumiyuki Takahashi, Hario Baskoro, Moulid Hidayat, Faisal Yunus, Kazuhisa Takahashi
Epidemiol Health. 2014;36:e2014035.   Published online December 10, 2014
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih/e2014035
  • 14,965 View
  • 177 Download
  • 1 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Abstract
Tobacco consumption is a major causative agent for various deadly diseases such as coronary artery disease and cancer. It is the largest avoidable health risk in the world, causing more problems than alcohol, drug use, high blood pressure, excess body weight or high cholesterol. As countries like Indonesia prepare to develop national policy guidelines for tobacco harm reduction, the scientific community can help by providing continuous ideas and a forum for sharing and distributing information, drafting guidelines, reviewing best practices, raising funds, and establishing partnerships. We propose several strategies for reducing tobacco consumption, including advertisement interference, cigarette pricing policy, adolescent smoking prevention policy, support for smoking cessation therapy, special informed consent for smokers, smoking prohibition in public spaces, career incentives, economic incentives, and advertisement incentives. We hope that these strategies would assist people to avoid starting smoking or in smoking cessation.
Summary
Korean summary
Key Message

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  • Factors Affecting Secondhand Smoke Avoidance Behavior of Vietnamese Adolescents
    Ja-yin Lee, Hyunmi Ahn, Hyeonkyeong Lee
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2018; 15(8): 1632.     CrossRef
Editorials
Suggestions for establishing a sustainable risk communication platform for carcinogenic factors
Keeho Park, Yong-Chan Kim, Youngho Kim, Meeyoung Cha, Woon Heui Han, Dae-Kyu Oh
Epidemiol Health. 2014;36:e2014034.   Published online December 9, 2014
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih/e2014034
  • 13,267 View
  • 106 Download
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
no abstract due to Editorial
Summary
Korean summary
Key Message
Methodological issues in estimating sodium intake in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
Hyun Ja Kim, Kyungwon Oh
Epidemiol Health. 2014;36:e2014033.   Published online November 28, 2014
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih/e2014033
  • 14,854 View
  • 172 Download
  • 10 Citations
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
For policy goal setting, efficacy evaluations, and the development of related programs for reducing sodium intake, it is essential to accurately identify the amount of sodium intake in South Korea and constantly monitor its trends. The present study aimed to identify the status of sodium intake in South Korea and to review the methods and their validity for estimating sodium intake in each country; through this, we aim to determine more accurate methods for determining sodium intake and to monitor the trend in sodium intake for Korean citizens in the future. Using 24-hour dietary recall data from the 2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) to estimate daily sodium intake, the average daily sodium intake among Koreans was 4,546 mg (men, 5,212 mg; women, 3,868 mg). In addition to the nutrition survey that uses the 24-hour dietary recall method, sodium intake can also be calculated from the amount of sodium excreted in 24-hour urine, 8-hour overnight urine, and spot urine samples. Although KNHANES uses the 24-hour dietary recall method to estimate the sodium intake, the 24-hour dietary recall method has the disadvantage of not being able to accurately determine the amount of sodium intake owing to its unique characteristics of the research method and in the processing of data. Although measuring the amount of sodium excreted in 24-hour urine is known to be the most accurate method, because collecting 24-hour urine from the general population is difficult, using spot urine samples to estimate sodium intake has been suggested to be useful for examining the trend of sodium intake in the general population. Therefore, we planned to conduct a study for estimating of 24-hour sodium excretion from spot urine and 8-hour overnight urine samples and testing the validity among subsamples in the KNHANES. Based on this result, we will adopt the most appropriate urine collection method for estimating population sodium intake in South Korea.
Summary
Korean summary
이 연구에서는 나트륨 섭취량 조사방법과 각 조사방법의 타당성을 고찰하여 나트륨 섭취량과 추이를 보다 정확하게 파악할 수 있는 방법을 모색해보고자 하였다. 국민건강영양조사에서는 24시간 회상법을 이용하여 우리나라 국민의 나트륨 섭취량을 산출하고 있으나, 정확성과 추이 비교에 제한점을 가지므로 소변을 이용하여 나트륨 섭취량을 추정하는 방법에 대한 검토가 필요하다. 이에, 국민건강영양조사의 일부 대상자에서 단회뇨, 야간뇨, 24시간 소변을 수집∙이용하여 24시간 소변 나트륨 배설량을 추정하는 식을 개발하고 그 타당도를 검증하는 연구를 수행하여 가장 적절한 소변 수집 방법을 국민건강영양조사에 도입할 계획이다.
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    Anthony Kityo, Sang-Ah Lee
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    Si-Hyuck Kang, Sun-Hwa Kim, Jun Hwan Cho, Chang-Hwan Yoon, Seung-Sik Hwang, Hae-Young Lee, Tae-Jin Youn, In-Ho Chae, Cheol-Ho Kim
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    Frontiers in Nutrition.2018;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Young Gyu Cho
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Original Articles
Burden of transportation injuries among children and adolescents of Fars province: analysis of Iran’s 20-year trends
Seyed Taghi Heydari, Yaser Sarikhani, Kamran Bagheri Lankarani, Mohammad Khabaz Shirazi
Epidemiol Health. 2014;36:e2014032.   Published online November 24, 2014
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih/e2014032
  • 12,480 View
  • 143 Download
  • 4 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
Transportation injuries are among the top ten causes of burden of disease in all age groups worldwide. The burden of transportation injuries among children and adolescents in Iran is higher than the world average and that of other developing countries. The aims of this study were to investigate the burden of transportation injuries in children and adolescents in the province of Fars in Iran from 2009 to 2013, and to report the burden of these kinds of injuries in children and adolescents in Iran from 1990 to 2010.
METHODS
The number of deaths due to transportation injuries and the location of fatal injuries in the province of Fars in Iran from 2009 to 2013 were analyzed using data from the Fars Forensic Medicine Organization. The 20-year trend in the burden of transportation injuries in Iran was analyzed using data from the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation.
RESULTS
Similarly to the long-term trend in Iran, the burden of transportation injuries among the male population of Fars province was generally higher than in females. Most fatal accident injuries occurred on roads (males: n=4151, 61.51%; females: n=1182, 65.95%) and in urban areas (males: n=1994, 29.54%; females: n=473, 26.40%).
CONCLUSIONS
Considering that children and adolescents are high risk groups for transportation injuries, adopting an effective comprehensive multi-sectoral approach, including enacting and enforcing appropriate laws and regulations, developing general knowledge, and facilitating the availability of Personal protective equipment, could be helpful for reducing the burden of these injuries.
Summary
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  • Distribution, Clinical Characteristics, and Outcome of Traumatic Spinal Injuries in Pediatric Patients: Experience from a Tertiary Referral Center in South Iran
    Mohammad Sadegh Masoudi, Ghazal Ilami, Mehrgol Ilami
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    Reza Tabrizi, Maryam Akbari, Kamran B. Lankarani, Seyed Taghi Heydari, Alireza Masoudi, Amir Hossein Shams, Armin Akbarzadeh, Saba Moalemi, Maryam Mahmoodi Mehr, Ahmad Kalateh Sadati, Payam Peymani
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    Yaser Sarikhani, Seyed Taghi Heydari, Saeed Gholamzadeh, Maryam Mazloom, Payam Peymani, Kamran Bagheri Lankarani, Ahmad Kalateh Sadati, Reza Tabrizi, Maryam Akbari
    Chinese Journal of Traumatology.2017; 20(5): 259.     CrossRef
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    Seyed Taghi Heydari, Mehrdad Vossoughi, Armin Akbarzadeh, Kamran B. Lankarani, Yaser Sarikhani, Kazem Javanmardi, Ali Akbary, Maryam Akbari, Mojtaba Mahmoodi, Mohammad Khabaz Shirazi, Reza Tabrizi
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Predictors of miscarriage: a matched case-control study
Jalal Poorolajal, Parvin Cheraghi, Zahra Cheraghi, Masoomeh Ghahramani, Amin Doosti Irani
Epidemiol Health. 2014;36:e2014031.   Published online November 20, 2014
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih/e2014031
  • 16,861 View
  • 189 Download
  • 8 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
The risk factors for miscarriage vary across communities and countries. This study was conducted to investigate the predictors of miscarriage in the west of Iran.
METHODS
This matched case-control study was conducted in Hamadan Province from April 2013 to March 2014. Cases were selected from women who had a recent spontaneous abortion and controls were selected from women who had a recent live birth. Two controls were selected for every case and matched for date of pregnancy and area of residence. Multivariate conditional logistic regression analysis was performed and odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated.
RESULTS
Five hundred fifty cases were compared with 1,091 controls. The OR of miscarriage was 1.58 (95% CI=1.30-1.92) for every five-year increase in age, 0.20 (95% CI=0.14-0.28) for every live birth, and 3.43 (95% CI=2.03-5.79) for a history of previous spontaneous abortion. Compared to nulliparous women, primiparous or multiparous women had an OR of 17.85 (95% CI=6.65-47.91) for miscarriage. There was a strong association between miscarriage and abnormal amniotic status (OR, 2.46; 95% CI, 0.46-13.09) and also abnormal placenta status (OR, 10.44; 95% CI, 0.95-114.92); however, these associations were not statistically significant. No significant associations were observed between miscarriage and body mass index, previous history of stillbirth, low birth weight, congenital anomaly, ectopic pregnancy, impaired thyroid function, or high blood pressure.
CONCLUSIONS
Our study suggests that miscarriage is a multifactorial outcome associated with several modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors that may vary among different communities.
Summary
Korean summary
Key Message

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Data Profile
National Infectious Diseases Surveillance data of South Korea
Sunhee Park, Eunhee Cho
Epidemiol Health. 2014;36:e2014030.   Published online November 11, 2014
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih/e2014030
  • 15,305 View
  • 236 Download
  • 27 Citations
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
The Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (KCDC) operate infectious disease surveillance systems to monitor national disease incidence. Since 1954, Korea has collected data on various infectious diseases in accordance with the Infectious Disease Control and Prevention Act. All physicians (including those working in Oriental medicine) who diagnose a patient with an infectious disease or conduct a postmortem examination of an infectious disease case are obliged to report the disease to the system. These reported data are incorporated into the database of the National Infectious Disease Surveillance System, which has been providing web-based real-time surveillance data on infectious diseases since 2001. In addition, the KCDC analyzes reported data and publishes the Infectious Disease Surveillance Yearbook annually.
Summary
Korean summary
감염병웹통계(http://is.cdc.go.kr)에서는 전수감시 대상 54종 감염병에 대한지역별, 성별, 연령별, 감염지역별, 기간별, 전년대비 주간 발생현황 등 실시간 기간 검색이 가능하며, 검색된 통계를 표 또는 다양한 그래프로 볼 수 있으며, 또한 이러한 자료들은 엑셀로 다운로드하여 사용이 가능하다. 표본감시 대상 24종 감염병의 통계도 제공되고 있다.
Key Message

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Editorial
Korean translation of the CONSORT 2010 Statement: updated guidelines for reporting parallel group randomized trials
Jun Suh Lee, Soyeon Ahn, Kyoung Ho Lee, Jee Hyun Kim
Epidemiol Health. 2014;36:e2014029.   Published online November 8, 2014
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih/e2014029
  • 16,497 View
  • 330 Download
  • 15 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
The Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) 2010 Statement, updated in March 2010, includes a 25-item checklist and flow diagram. Adherence to this statement is a minimum requirement for the complete, clear, and transparent reporting of randomized trials. We translated the CONSORT 2010 Statement into Korean to promote the widespread adherence to CONSORT in South Korea and to facilitate the adoption of complete, clear, and transparent reporting. The Korean version of the CONSORT is available at http://www.e-epih.org/.
Summary
Korean summary
Key Message

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Original Articles
Risk factors for maternal mortality in the west of Iran: a nested case-control study
Jalal Poorolajal, Behnaz Alafchi, Roya Najafi Vosoogh, Sahar Hamzeh, Masoomeh Ghahramani
Epidemiol Health. 2014;36:e2014028.   Published online November 8, 2014
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih/e2014028
  • 13,225 View
  • 139 Download
  • 5 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
With a gradual decline in maternal mortality in recent years in Iran, this study was conducted to identify the remaining risk factors for maternal death.
METHODS
This 8-year nested case-control study was conducted in Hamadan Province, in the west of Iran, from April 2006 to March 2014. It included 185 women (37 cases and 148 controls). All maternal deaths that occurred during the study period were considered cases. For every case, four women with a live birth were selected as controls from the same area and date. Conditional logistic regression analysis was performed and the odds ratio (OR) and its 95% confidence interval (CI) were obtained for each risk factor.
RESULTS
The majority of cases were aged 20-34 years, died in hospital, and lived in urban areas. The most common causes of death were bleeding, systemic disease, infection, and pre-eclampsia. The OR estimate of maternal death was 8.48 (95% CI=1.26-56.99) for advanced maternal age (≥35 years); 2.10 (95% CI=0.07-65.43) for underweight and 10.99 (95% CI=1.65-73.22) for overweight or obese women compared to those with normal weight; 1.56 (95% CI=1.08-2.25) for every unit increase in gravidity compared to those with one gravidity; 1.73 (95% CI=0.34-8.88) for preterm labors compared to term labors; and 17.54 (95% CI= 2.71-113.42) for women with systemic diseases.
CONCLUSIONS
According to our results, advanced maternal age, abnormal body mass index, multiple gravidity, preterm labor, and systemic disease were the main risk factors for maternal death. However, more evidence based on large cohort studies in different settings is required to confirm our results.
Summary
Korean summary
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Distribution of dense breasts using screening mammography in Korean women: a retrospective observational study
Jong-Myon Bae, Sang Yop Shin, Eun Hee Kim, Yoon-Nam Kim, Chung Mo Nam
Epidemiol Health. 2014;36:e2014027.   Published online November 4, 2014
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih/e2014027
  • 13,742 View
  • 131 Download
  • 10 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
This retrospective observational study evaluated the distribution of dense breasts by age group among healthy Korean women.
METHODS
Participants were women aged 30 years and older who voluntarily underwent screening mammography between January 2007 and December 2011. Women who received the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System for mammographic density of 3 or 4 were defined as having dense breasts. The proportion of women with dense breasts (PDB, %) was calculated by dividing the number of participants with dense breasts by the total number of participants.
RESULTS
Among the 231,058 women who participated, 78.15% were classified as having dense breasts. PDB was highest in the youngest age group (PDB=94.87%) and lowest in the oldest age group. The greatest difference in PDB between adjacent age groups was observed in the group aged 60-64 years.
CONCLUSIONS
The results show that the proportion of dense breasts by age group increased in all age groups, except in those aged 35-39 years. These findings suggest an association between the age distribution of dense breasts and trends in breast cancer incidence. Further studies are needed to estimate the change in breast cancer incidence rate by age and the accumulation of fatty breast tissue in Korean women.
Summary
Korean summary
Key Message

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Factors associated with seeking treatment for postpartum morbidities in rural India
Aditya Singh, Abhishek Kumar
Epidemiol Health. 2014;36:e2014026.   Published online October 30, 2014
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih/e2014026
  • 14,109 View
  • 150 Download
  • 3 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
To understand the prevalence of postpartum morbidities and factors associated with treatment-seeking behaviour among currently married women aged 15-49 residing in rural India.
METHODS
We used data from the nationally representative District Level Household Survey from 2007-2008. Cross-tabulation was used to understand the differentials for the prevalence of postpartum morbidities and treatment-seeking behaviours across selected background characteristics. Two-level binary logistic regression was applied to understand the factors associated with treatment-seeking behaviour.
RESULTS
Approximately 39.8% of rural women suffered from at least one of the six postpartum morbidities including high fever, lower abdominal pain, foul-smelling vaginal discharge, excessive bleeding, convulsions, and severe headache. Morbidities were more prevalent among poor, illiterate, Muslim, and high-parity women. About 55.1% of these rural women sought treatment/consultation for their problems. The odds of seeking treatment/consultation increased as economic status and years of schooling among both the woman and her husband increased. Poor, uneducated, unemployed, Hindu, and tribal women were less likely to seek treatment/consultation for postpartum morbidities than their counterparts were. The odds of seeking treatment/consultation decreased as the distance to the nearest private health facility increased. Most women visited a private hospital (46.3%) or a friend/family member’s home (20.8%) for treatment/consultation. Only a small percentage visited publicly funded health institutions such as a primary health centre (8.8%), community health centre (6.5%), health sub-centre (2.8%), or district hospital (13.1%). Rural women from the northeast region of India were 50% less likely to seek treatment/consultation than women from the central region were.
CONCLUSIONS
Providing antenatal and delivery care, and ensuring nearby government healthcare facilities are available to serve rural women might increase the likelihood of care-seeking for postpartum morbidities. Targeted interventions for vulnerable groups should be considered in future policies to increase the likelihood women will seek treatment or advice postpartum.
Summary
Korean summary
Key Message

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Methods
The clinical decision analysis using decision tree
Jong-Myon Bae
Epidemiol Health. 2014;36:e2014025.   Published online October 30, 2014
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih/e2014025
  • 18,250 View
  • 361 Download
  • 34 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
The clinical decision analysis (CDA) has used to overcome complexity and uncertainty in medical problems. The CDA is a tool allowing decision-makers to apply evidence-based medicine to make objective clinical decisions when faced with complex situations. The usefulness and limitation including six steps in conducting CDA were reviewed. The application of CDA results should be done under shared decision with patients’ value.
Summary
Korean summary
Key Message

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Original Article
Predictors of tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus co-infection: a case-control study
Leila Molaeipoor, Jalal Poorolajal, Minoo Mohraz, Nader Esmailnasab
Epidemiol Health. 2014;36:e2014024.   Published online October 30, 2014
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih/e2014024
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and Mycobacterium tuberculosis co-infection is a major global challenge. It is not clear why some HIV-positive people are co-infected with tuberculosis (TB) while others are not. This study addressed that question.
METHODS
This case-control study was conducted in Tehran, Iran in June 2004, enrolling 2,388 HIV-positive people. Cases were selected from those who were co-infected with TB and controls from those without TB. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the association between M. tuberculosis/HIV co-infection and several predictors. Odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated.
RESULTS
In this study, 241 cases were compared with 2,147 controls. Sex, age, marital status, educational level, imprisonment, smoking, narcotic use, route of HIV transmission, previous TB infection, isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT), antiretroviral therapy (ART), and low CD4 count (<350 cells/mm3) were independently associated with M. tuberculosis/HIV co-infection (p<0.001). However, after adjusting for all other variables in the model, only the association between M. tuberculosis/HIV co-infection and the following predictors remained statistically significant: imprisonment (odds ratio [OR], 3.82; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.11-6.90), previous TB infection (OR, 5.54; 95% CI, 1.99-15.39), IPT (OR, 0.13; 95% CI, 0.06-0.31), ART (OR, 1.81; 95% CI, 1.26-2.61), and CD4 count <350 cells/mm3 (OR, 2.34; 95% CI, 1.36-4.02).
CONCLUSIONS
Several predictors are associated with M. tuberculosis/HIV co-infection, but only a few indicators were significantly associated with M. tuberculosis/HIV co-infection. It is estimated that a number of predictors of M. tuberculosis/HIV co-infection remain unknown and require further investigation.
Summary
Korean summary
Key Message

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Epidemiol Health : Epidemiology and Health