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Soon Young Lee 23 Articles
Does having various types of fear related to COVID-19 disrupt individuals’ daily life?: Findings from a nationwide survey in Korea
Woorim Kim, Yeong Jun Ju, Soon Young Lee
Epidemiol Health. 2022;44:e2022004.   Published online January 3, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2022004
  • 5,596 View
  • 459 Download
  • 2 Citations
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
Unexpected changes in daily routines caused by the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic may affect psychological health. This study investigated the association between various types of COVID-19-related fear and the subjective level of disturbance in daily activities experienced by individuals.
METHODS
This cross-sectional study used the Korea Community Health Survey conducted from August through November 2020. COVID-19-related fear included fear of infection, death, public criticism, family members getting infected, and economic loss. The subjective level of disruption in daily activities was measured using a 0-100 numeric rating scale developed by the Korea Disease Control and Prevention Agency. Multivariable linear regression was used to analyze the associations between the independent and dependent variables. A subgroup analysis was performed based on income level.
RESULTS
Participants who reported fear of infection (β=-3.37, p<0.001), death (β=-0.33, p=0.030), public criticism (β=-1.63, p<0.001), a family member getting infected (β=-1.03, p<0.001), and economic loss (β=-3.52, p<0.001) experienced more disturbances in daily activities. The magnitude of this association was most significant in the lowest-income group.
CONCLUSIONS
Individuals reporting COVID-19-related fear experienced higher levels of subjective disruption in daily activities.
Summary
Korean summary
이 연구는 COVID-19 팬데믹과 관련된 심리적염려가 일상생활 활동에 부정적인 영향을 줄 수 있음을 관찰하였다. COVID-19 감염으로 인한 감염, 사망, 대중의 비판, 가족 중 건강취약자의 감염, 경제적 손실에 대해 염려하는 사람은 그렇지 않은 사람에 비해 일상생활에 더 부정적인 영향을 받고 있는 것으로 관찰되었다. 특히 다양한 유형의 감염염려를 동시에 경험하고 있을수록 일상생활 지장 정도가 더 증가하는 경향이 관찰되었으며 소득수준이 낮을수록 부정적인 영향정도가 더 두드러졌다.
Key Message
Our results revealed that fear related to the COVID-19 pandemic was associated with increased levels of subjective disruptions in daily activities. Compared to individuals without fear, those with fears of COVID-19 infection, dying from infection, public criticism, a family member getting infected, and economic loss reported higher levels of disruption in daily activities. Those who reported fear of COVID-19 infection and economic loss due to infection had particularly higher levels of disturbances. Considering the various types of fear concurrently, the level of disruption experienced tended to increase with the number of reported fears.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Is fear of COVID-19 higher in individuals residing in more deprived areas? A nationwide study
    Woorim Kim, Soon Young Lee, Yeong Jun Ju
    Journal of Public Health.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Association Between Changes in Family Life Due to COVID-19 and Depressive Mood and Stress Perception
    Min-Su Kim, Mi Ah Han, Jong Park, So Yeon Ryu
    Asia Pacific Journal of Public Health.2022; : 101053952211393.     CrossRef
Seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies during the third wave of COVID-19 in the Seoul metropolitan area of Korea
Kyuhyun Yoon, Jayeun Kim, Kyong Ran Peck, Hyun Soo Kim, Hyukmin Lee, Yoo-Sung Hwang, Soon Young Lee, Sung-il Cho, Hun Jae Lee, Yeong-gyeong Kim, Byoungguk Kim, June-Woo Lee, Ah-Ra Kim, Hyeon Nam Do, Dong-Hyun Kim
Epidemiol Health. 2022;44:e2022085.   Published online September 30, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2022085
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
After the third wave of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), by mid-February 2021, approximately 0.16% of the Korean population was confirmed positive, which appeared to be among the lowest rates worldwide at that time. However, asymptomatic transmission is challenging for COVID-19 surveillance. Therefore, a community-based serosurvey of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection was conducted to understand the effectiveness of Korea’s strong containment strategy.
METHODS
We collected 5,002 residual sera samples from January 30 to March 3, 2021, from 265 medical facilities in Seoul, 346 in Gyeonggi Province, and 57 in Incheon. Sixty samples from tertiary institutions were excluded. We defined the sub-regions according to the addresses of the medical facilities where the specimens were collected. Elecsys Anti-SARS-CoV-2 was used for screening, and positivity was confirmed using the SARS-CoV-2 sVNT Kit. Prevalence was estimated using sampling weights and the Wilson score interval for a binomial proportion with a 95% confidence interval.
RESULTS
Among the 4,942 specimens, 32 and 25 tested positive for COVID-19 in the screening and confirmatory tests, respectively. The overall crude prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies was 0.51%. The population-adjusted overall prevalence was 0.55% in women and 0.38% in men. The region-specific estimation was 0.67% and 0.30% in Gyeonggi Province and Seoul, respectively. No positive cases were detected in Incheon.
CONCLUSIONS
The proportion of undetected cases in Korea remained low as of early 2021. Therefore, an infection control strategy with exhaustive tracing and widespread pre-emptive testing appears to be effective in containing community spread of COVID-19.
Summary
Korean summary
Key Message
Viral shedding patterns of the symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection according to virus-type dominant periods and vaccination status in Gyeonggi Province, Korea
Gawon Choi, Ah-Young Lim, Sojin Choi, Kunhee Park, Soon Young Lee, Jong-Hun Kim
Epidemiol Health. 2022;e2023008.   Published online December 21, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2023008    [Accepted]
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  • 26 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Abstract
Objectives
We compared the viral cycle threshold (Ct) value of infected patients to better understand the viral kinetics during the dominant period in which a specific virus type according to the vaccination status in Gyeonggi Province, Republic of Korea.
Methods
We obtained case-specific data from the COVID-19 surveillance system, Gyeonggi in-depth epidemiologic report system, and Health Insurance Review & Assessment (HIRA) Service from January 2020 to January 2022. We defined the dominant periods according to the viral sequencing test result and explored Ct values. Using a generalized additive model, we performed a nonlinear regression analysis to determine viral kinetics over time.
Results
Cases in the delta variant dominant period had higher viral shedding patterns than cases in other periods. The temporal change of virus shedding did not differ according to the vaccination status in the omicron variant dominant period but decreased in patients who completed the third vaccination in the delta variant dominant period. The time from symptom onset to peak viral shedding based on the E gene in the case of the omicron and delta variant dominant periods was approximately 2.4 days (95% CI: 2.2-2.5) and 2.1 days (95% CI: 95% CI: 2.0-2.1), respectively.
Conclusions
In the one-time tests conducted to diagnose SARS-CoV-2 infection in a large population, although individual characteristics were not adjusted, it was confirmed that the viral shedding differed according to the dominant strain and vaccination history. These analysis results give utilization value for hundreds of thousands of test data produced at SARS-CoV-2 screening test centers.
Summary
Korean summary
Key Message
A comprehensive study of deaths due to exposure to humidifier disinfectant in Korea: focusing on medical records, assessment of exposure to humidifier disinfectants, and causes of death
Yeong Jun Ju, Seungho Lee, Seungsoo Sheen, Dong-Woo Choi, Jong-Han Leem, Soon Young Lee
Epidemiol Health. 2021;43:e2021091.   Published online November 1, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2021091
  • 5,441 View
  • 256 Download
  • 2 Citations
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
We aimed to determine the characteristics of the deceased victims of deaths caused by exposure to humidifier disinfectants, and present the distribution of the victims’ data submitted for damage application, demographic characteristics, imaging findings, characteristics of humidifier disinfectant exposure, and distribution of the causes of death.
METHODS
An integrated database of victims was established using the medical records data of 1,413 victims submitted during the application for death damage caused by exposure to humidifier disinfectants, and the demographic characteristics, medical records, imaging findings, exposure characteristics, and cause of death were examined.
RESULTS
The average numbers of data submissions of each applicant for death damage were 3.0 medical use records. A total of 608 (43.0%) victims had more than one finding of acute, subacute, or chronic interstitial lung diseases. The average daily and cumulative use times of the victims were 14.40 and 24,645.81 hours, respectively, indicating greater exposure in this group than in the survivors. The humidifier disinfectants’ components comprised polyhexamethylene guanidine (72.8%), chloromethylisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone (10.5%), other components (15.0%), and oligo-[2-(2-ethoxy)-ethoxyethyl] guanidine chloride (1.5%). The components’ distribution was 67.8% for single-component use, which was higher than that in the survivors (59.8%). The distribution of the causes of death were: respiratory diseases (54.4%), neoplasms (16.8%), and circulatory diseases (6.3%). Other interstitial lung diseases (65.5%) were the most common cause of death among those who died due to respiratory diseases.
CONCLUSIONS
Careful discussions of appropriate remedies should be conducted based on a comprehensive understanding of the characteristics of the deceased victims, considering their specificities and limitations.
Summary
Korean summary
가습기 살균제 사망 피해 신청자 들 중 건강피해를 인정받지 못한 신청자들이 여전히 많이 남아있으며 (약 40%), 피해판정의 복잡성과 다양한 이슈들이 산적해 있어 사망 피해 신청자들의 적정 구제를 위해 종합적인 특성파악을 바탕으로 세심한 관점에서의 검토가 필요하다. 특히, 가습기 살균제 사망 피해 신청자의 특수성과 피해구제의 제한점을 고려하여야 하며, 기계적인 건강피해 판정을 지양하고 사망 피해 신청자 중심의 세밀한 특성 파악을 바탕으로 다양한 전문가집단이 참여하는 종합적인 논의를 통해 적정구제를 이루어 나가야 함을 제안한다.
Key Message
Careful discussions of appropriate remedies should be conducted based on a comprehensive understanding of the characteristics of the deceased victims, considering their specificities and limitations.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Health Effects Associated With Humidifier Disinfectant Use: A Systematic Review for Exploration
    Ji-Hun Song, Joonho Ahn, Min Young Park, Jaeyoung Park, Yu Min Lee, Jun-Pyo Myong, Jung-Wan Koo, Jongin Lee
    Journal of Korean Medical Science.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Gene expression related to lung cancer altered by PHMG-p treatment in PBTE cells
    Yoon Hee Park, Sang Hoon Jeong, Hyejin Lee, Cherry Kim, Yoon Jeong Nam, Ja Young Kang, Jin Young Choi, Yu-Seon Lee, Su A. Park, Jaeyoung Kim, Eun-Kee Park, Yong-Wook Baek, Hong Lee, Ju-Han Lee
    Molecular & Cellular Toxicology.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
Why do some Korean parents hesitate to vaccinate their children?
Kyujin Chang, Soon Young Lee
Epidemiol Health. 2019;41:e2019031.   Published online July 9, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2019031
  • 9,940 View
  • 272 Download
  • 14 Citations
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
Vaccinations for infectious diseases are opposed despite their achievement, and this opposition has recently been revealed in Korea. However, research in Korea has not been vigorous. The authors studied why some Korean parents hesitate to vaccinate their children by applying the health belief model.
METHODS
Parents who hesitate to vaccinate and parents who do not were surveyed in alternative education preschools and elementary schools. They were classified into four types of hesitancy and statistically compared.
RESULTS
Among the 129 subjects, 43 vaccinated without hesitancy, 20 vaccinated on time with hesitancy, 32 vaccinated with a deliberate delay of one month or longer, and 34 did not vaccinate. Vaccination increased with an increase in the awareness that severe outcomes can occur when unvaccinated. Concerns about adverse reactions from vaccinations or direct/indirect experiences affected refusal. Furthermore, perceptions of the lack of meaningfulness of vaccinations, distrust of policy and safety management, influence of leaders or activists in joined organizations, and experts of Korean traditional or alternative medicine affected refusal. Explanations by doctors, text messages and mails from institutions, and concerns about disadvantages caused by not complying with government policies increased vaccination.
CONCLUSIONS
The reasons for vaccine hesitancy and acceptance were similar to the results of international research. Health authorities and professionals should communicate sufficiently and appropriately with hesitant parents and find ways to rationally resolve social conflicts. However, this sample was small and there is little Korean research, so more in-depth and diverse researchs are needed.
Summary
Korean summary
한국에도 있는 일부 소아 예방접종 망설임 부모들이 왜 그렇게 생각하고 결정하는지, 대안교육시설에서 129명을 대상으로 연구하였다. 예방접종 부작용 우려나 경험, 의미 격하, 정책 및 안전관리 불신, 관련 활동가, 한의학이나 대체의학 전문가가 미접종에 영향을 주었다. 보건관계자들은 망설임 부모들과 충분하고 적절한 의사소통을 하여, 사회적 갈등을 합리적으로 해소하는 방안을 찾아야 한다.
Key Message

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Asymptomatic Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus infection using a serologic survey in Korea
Yeong-jun Song, Jeong-Sun Yang, Hee Jung Yoon, Hae-Sung Nam, Soon Young Lee, Hae-Kwan Cheong, Woo-Jung Park, Sung Han Park, Bo Youl Choi, Sung Soon Kim, Moran Ki
Epidemiol Health. 2018;40:e2018014.   Published online April 15, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2018014
  • 12,630 View
  • 285 Download
  • 15 Citations
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
The rates of asymptomatic infection with Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) coronavirus vary. A serologic study was conducted to determine the asymptomatic MERS infection rate in healthcare workers and non-healthcare workers by exposure status.
METHODS
Study participants were selected from contacts of MERS patients based on a priority system in 4 regions strongly affected by the 2015 MERS outbreak. A sero-epidemiological survey was performed in 1,610 contacts (average duration from exposure to test, 4.8 months), and the collected sera were tested using an enzyme-linked immunespecific assay (ELISA), immunofluorescence assay (IFA), and plaque reduction neutralization antibody test (PRNT). Among the 1,610 contacts, there were 7 ELISA-positive cases, of which 1 exhibited positive IFA and PRNT results.
RESULTS
The asymptomatic infection rate was 0.060% (95% confidence interval, 0.002 to 0.346). The asymptomatic MERS case was a patient who had been hospitalized with patient zero on the same floor of the hospital at the same time. The case was quarantined at home for 2 weeks after discharge, and had underlying diseases, including hypertension, angina, and degenerative arthritis.
CONCLUSIONS
The asymptomatic infection was acquired via healthcare-associated transmission. Thus, it is necessary to extend serologic studies to include inpatient contacts who have no symptoms.
Summary
Korean summary
2015년 국내 MERS 유행시에 자가격리를 시행하였던 접촉자 약 15,000명 (의료인과 비의료인 포함) 중에서 주요 유행지역, 노출 강도 등을 고려하여 선별된 3,291명을 대상으로 무증상 감염여부를 확인하기 위한 혈청 역학조사를 수행하였다. 최종 검사에 참여한 1,610명 중에서 7명이 ELISA 양성 반응을 보였고, 그 중 1명이 IFA와 PRNT에서도 양성 반응을 보여 무증상 감염률은 0.060%(95% CI: 0.002-0.346)로 기존 연구에 비하여 낮았다. 최종 양성을 보인 1명은 노출 당시 1번환자와 가까운 병실에 입원하였던 환자였다.
Key Message

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Factors affecting screening for diabetic complications in the community: a multilevel analysis
Jin A Han, Soo Jeong Kim, Gawon Kim, Eun Ji Kim, Soon Young Lee
Epidemiol Health. 2016;38:e2016017.   Published online May 3, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2016017
  • 12,694 View
  • 206 Download
  • 2 Citations
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
The objective of the present study was to identify the factors that affect screening for diabetic complications by sex in the community.
METHODS
This study used individual-level data from the 2013 Community Health Survey (CHS) for 20,806 (male, 9,958; female, 10,848) adults aged 30 years or older who were diagnosed with diabetes. Community-level data for 253 communities were derived from either CHS or national statistics. A chi-square test and multilevel logistic regression analysis was performed.
RESULTS
There were significant differences in the rate of screening for diabetic complications according to individual-level and community-level variables. In the multilevel analysis, the community-level variance ratio of the null model was 7.4% and 9.2% for males and females, respectively. With regard to community-level variables, males were affected by the city type, number of physicians, and their living environment, while females were affected by number of physicians, natural and living environments, and public transportation.
CONCLUSIONS
The factors that influenced individual willingness to undergo screening for diabetic complications differed slightly by sex; however, both males and females were more likely to undergo screening when they recognized their health status as poor or when they actively sought to manage their health conditions. Moreover, in terms of community-level variables, both males and females were affected by the number of physicians. It is essential to provide sufficient and ongoing opportunities for education on diabetes and its management through collaboration with local communities and primary care medical centers.
Summary
Korean summary
본 연구는 지역사회의 당뇨병 환자들의 성별에 따른 합병증검사 수진율을 파악하고 개인의 특성과 지역사회의 특성이 합병증 검사 수진여부에 어떻게 영향을 미치는지 다수준 분석을 통해 살펴보고자 하였다. 당뇨병 치료자 중 약 1/3만이 합병증검사를 받았다. 성별에 따라 개인의 당뇨병 합병증 검사 수진행위에 영향을 미치는 요인이 다르긴 하지만 남성과 여성 모두 본인의 건강상태가 좋지 않다고 인지하거나 질병관리에 적극적인 행동을 취하는 경우, 그리고 지역변수로는 내과전문의 수에 영향을 받았다. 이는 지역사회와 1차 의료기관의 협업을 통해 당뇨병과 당뇨병 관리에 대한 충분하고 지속적인 학습기회의 제공이 중요하다고 할 수 있다.
Key Message

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  • Factors Influencing the Utilization of Diabetes Complication Tests Under the COVID-19 Pandemic: Machine Learning Approach
    Haewon Byeon
    Frontiers in Endocrinology.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Effects of Diabetes Quality Assessment on Diabetes Management Behaviors Based on a Nationwide Survey
    Chang Kyun Choi, Jungho Yang, Ji-An Jeong, Min-Ho Shin
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2022; 19(23): 15781.     CrossRef
Evaluation report on the causal association between humidifier disinfectants and lung injury
Mina Ha, Soon Young Lee, Seung-sik Hwang, Hyesook Park, Seungsoo Sheen, Hae Kwan Cheong, Bo Youl Choi
Epidemiol Health. 2016;38:e2016037.   Published online August 18, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2016037
  • 18,291 View
  • 496 Download
  • 6 Citations
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
As of November 2011, the Korean government recalled and banned humidifier disinfectants (HDs) from the market, because four case-control studies and one retrospective epidemiological study proved the association between HDs and lung injury of unknown cause. The report reviewed the causal role of HDs in lung injury based on scientific evidences.
METHODS
A careful examination on the association between the HDs and lung injury was based on the criteria of causality inference by Hill and the US Surgeon General Expert Committee.
RESULTS
We found that all the evidences on the causality fulfilled the criteria (strength of association, consistency, specificity, temporality, biologic gradient, plausibility, coherence, experiment, analogy, consideration of alternative explanations, and cessation of exposure), which proved the unknown cause lung injury reported in 2011 was caused by the HDs. In particular, there was no single reported case of lung injury since the ban in selling HDs in November 2011 as well as before the HDs were sold in markets.
CONCLUSIONS
Although only a few epidemiological studies in Korea have evaluated the association between lung injury and the use of HDs, those studies contributed to proving the strong association between the use of the HDs and lung injury, based on scientific evidence.
Summary
Korean summary
본 논문에서는 Hill의 기준과 US Surgeon General 전문위원회에서 제시하는 기준에 근거하여 가습기살균제와 폐손상과의 인과성을 검토하였다. 검토결과, 11개 조건(관련성의 강도, 일관성, 특이성, 시간적 선후관계, 생물학적 용량-반응 관계, 개연성, 기존 지식과의 일치성, 실험, 유사성, 다른 가능한 해석에 대한 고려 및 노출의 중단) 을 모두 충족함을 확인하므로 써, 2011년 발생한 원인미상 폐손상의 원인이 가습기살균제 노출로 인한 것임을 알 수 있었다. 무엇보다도 가습기살균제 시판 전에는 원인미상 폐손상이 보고된 바가 없었고, 2011년 11월 가습기살균제 판매중지 이후 폐손상이 한 건도 발생하지 않은 것은 원인미상의 폐손상이 가습기살균제로 인한 것임을 강력하게 지지하는 것으로 판단된다.
Key Message

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  • New-Onset and Exacerbation of Lung Diseases after Short-Term Exposures to Humidifier Disinfectant during Hospitalization
    Seula Lee, Kyunghee Han, Jeonggyo Yoon, Eun-Kyung Jo, Wonho Yang, Yoon-Hyeong Choi
    Toxics.2022; 10(7): 371.     CrossRef
  • Characterizing Subjects Exposed to Humidifier Disinfectants Using Computed-Tomography-Based Latent Traits: A Deep Learning Approach
    Frank Li, Jiwoong Choi, Xuan Zhang, Prathish K. Rajaraman, Chang-Hyun Lee, Hongseok Ko, Kum-Ju Chae, Eun-Kee Park, Alejandro P. Comellas, Eric A. Hoffman, Ching-Long Lin
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2022; 19(19): 11894.     CrossRef
  • Physical analysis reveals distinct responses of human bronchial epithelial cells to guanidine and isothiazolinone biocides
    Tae Yoon Kwon, Jaeseong Jeong, Eunyoung Park, Youngbin Cho, Dongyoung Lim, Ung Hyun Ko, Jennifer H. Shin, Jinhee Choi
    Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology.2021; 424: 115589.     CrossRef
  • Need for individual-based evaluation to determine the association between humidifier disinfectants and health injuries
    Hyeong-Cheol Kim, Hyunil Kim, Eun-Chan Mun, Yesung Lee, Soyoung Park
    Annals of Occupational and Environmental Medicine.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Strength of Association. Report 1. Graduations of Relative Risk
    А. Котеров, A. Koterov, Л. Ушенкова, L. Ushenkova, Э. Зубенкова, E. Zubenkova, А. Вайнсон, A. Vaynson, М. Калинина, M. Kalinina, А. Бирюков, A. Biryukov
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  • Causal inference in environmental epidemiology
    Sanghyuk Bae, Hwan-Cheol Kim, Byeongjin Ye, Won-Jun Choi, Young-Seoub Hong, Mina Ha
    Environmental Health and Toxicology.2017; 32: e2017015.     CrossRef
Preventive behaviors by the level of perceived infection sensitivity during the Korea outbreak of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome in 2015
Soon Young Lee, Hee Jeong Yang, Gawon Kim, Hae-Kwan Cheong, Bo Youl Choi
Epidemiol Health. 2016;38:e2016051.   Published online November 16, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2016051
  • 11,854 View
  • 239 Download
  • 15 Citations
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
This study was performed to investigate the relationship between community residents’ infection sensitivity and their levels of preventive behaviors during the 2015 Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) outbreak in Korea.
METHODS
Seven thousands two hundreds eighty one participants from nine areas in Gyeonggi-do including Pyeongtaek, the origin of the outbreak in 2015 agreed to participate in the survey and the data from 6,739 participants were included in the final analysis. The data on the perceived infection sensitivity were subjected to cluster analysis. The levels of stress, reliability/practice of preventive behaviors, hand washing practice and policy credibility during the outbreak period were analyzed for each cluster.
RESULTS
Cluster analysis of infection sensitivity due to the MERS outbreak resulted in classification of participants into four groups: the non-sensitive group (14.5%), social concern group (17.4%), neutral group (29.1%), and overall sensitive group (39.0%). A logistic regression analysis found that the overall sensitive group with high sensitivity had higher stress levels (17.80; 95% confidence interval [CI], 13.77 to 23.00), higher reliability on preventive behaviors (5.81; 95% CI, 4.84 to 6.98), higher practice of preventive behaviors (4.53; 95% CI, 3.83 to 5.37) and higher practice of hand washing (2.71; 95% CI, 2.13 to 3.43) during the outbreak period, compared to the non-sensitive group.
CONCLUSIONS
Infection sensitivity of community residents during the MERS outbreak correlated with gender, age, occupation, and health behaviors. When there is an outbreak in the community, there is need to maintain a certain level of sensitivity while reducing excessive stress, as well as promote the practice of preventive behaviors among local residents. In particular, target groups need to be notified and policies need to be established with a consideration of the socio-demographic characteristics of the community.
Summary
Korean summary
2015년 한국에서 발생한 메르스 유행 시 지역 주민이 인식하는 민감도와 예방행위 수준을 파악하고 연관성을 밝히고자 2015년 경기도 9개 시의 지역사회건강조사 대상자 6,739명을 대상으로 감염 민감도와 예방행위 등을 조사 분석하였다. 감염 민감도는 성별, 연령, 직업, 건강행위와 연관성이 있었으며, 감염에 대한 민감도가 높을수록 스트레스를 많이 받는 한편, 예방행위 실천에 긍정적인 영향을 미침을 알 수 있었다. 따라서 감염병 유행 시 지나친 스트레스는 줄이되 공중보건 위기에 대한 적정 수준의 민감도를 유지하고, 인구사회학적 특성을 고려한 관리정책이 요구된다.
Key Message

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    Ronel Sewpaul, Musawenkosi Mabaso, Allanise Cloete, Natisha Dukhi, Inbarani Naidoo, Adlai S Davids, Tholang Mokhele, Khangelani Zuma, Sasiragha Priscilla Reddy
    Psychology, Health & Medicine.2022; : 1.     CrossRef
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    Li Ping Wong, Haridah Alias
    Journal of Behavioral Medicine.2021; 44(1): 18.     CrossRef
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    Seyed Taghi Heydari, Leila Zarei, Ahmad Kalateh Sadati, Najmeh Moradi, Maryam Akbari, Gholamhossin Mehralian, Kamran Bagheri Lankarani
    BMC Public Health.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Kyung Jin Hong, Noo Lee Park, Soo Yeon Heo, Seo Hyun Jung, Ye Been Lee, Ji Hoon Hwang
    Healthcare.2021; 9(5): 573.     CrossRef
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    Ronel Sewpaul, Musawenkosi Mabaso, Natisha Dukhi, Inbarani Naidoo, Noloyiso Vondo, Adlai Steven Davids, Tholang Mokhele, Sasiragha Priscilla Reddy
    Frontiers in Public Health.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) Virus—Pathophysiological Axis and the Current Treatment Strategies
    Abdullah M Alnuqaydan, Abdulmajeed G Almutary, Arulmalar Sukamaran, Brian Tay Wei Yang, Xiao Ting Lee, Wei Xuan Lim, Yee Min Ng, Rania Ibrahim, Thiviya Darmarajan, Satheeshkumar Nanjappan, Jestin Chellian, Mayuren Candasamy, Thiagarajan Madheswaran, Ankur
    AAPS PharmSciTech.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Min Ah Chung, Hocheol Lee, Eun Woo Nam
    Korean Journal of Health Education and Promotion.2021; 38(2): 43.     CrossRef
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    Seung Hoo Lee, Hyun Dae Shin, Soo Min Cha, Eun Seok Choi
    Archives of Hand and Microsurgery.2021; 26(4): 218.     CrossRef
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    Jeongmin Ha, Dahye Park
    PeerJ.2021; 9: e12541.     CrossRef
  • Influence of trust on two different risk perceptions as an affective and cognitive dimension during Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) outbreak in South Korea: serial cross-sectional surveys
    Won Mo Jang, Un-Na Kim, Deok Hyun Jang, Hyemin Jung, Sanghyun Cho, Sang Jun Eun, Jin Yong Lee
    BMJ Open.2020; 10(3): e033026.     CrossRef
  • Complementary and alternative medicine use among outpatients during the 2015 MERS outbreak in South Korea: a cross-sectional study
    Jung Hye Hwang, Hyun Jeong Cho, Hyea Bin Im, Young Sun Jung, Soo Jeung Choi, Dongwoon Han
    BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies.2020;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Won Mo Jang, Deok Hyun Jang, Jin Yong Lee
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    Mi Ah Han
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    Sunhee Kim, Seoyong Kim
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    Hye-Jin Paek
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Monitoring targets and indicators for the prevention and control of non-communicable diseases in Korea
Soon Young Lee
Epidemiol Health. 2015;37:e2015023.   Published online May 4, 2015
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih/e2015023
  • 17,032 View
  • 180 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Abstract
In order to respond to the increasing burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) worldwide, the World Health Organization developed the global action plan (GAP), which included nine targets and 25 indicators to monitor the targets. Owing to space constraints, the article reviewed the status of 17 indicators for seven targets out of nine targets in the GAP in Korea. Most of these 17 indicators required additional analysis with existing national data to evaluate the status in Korea. Based on the result from evaluating indicators, the current NCD policy strategy and resources in Korea seemed unlikely to reach the GAP goals, unless innovative policy changes was planned to reduce NCD risk factors particularly focusing on smoking, excessive drinking, and insufficient physical activity.
Summary
Korean summary
Key Message
MERS epidemiological investigation to detect potential mode of transmission in the 178th MERS confirmed case in Pyeongtaek, Korea
Kyujin Chang, Moran Ki, Eun Gyu Lee, Soon Young Lee, Byoungin Yoo, Jong Hyuk Choi
Epidemiol Health. 2015;37:e2015036.   Published online August 15, 2015
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih/e2015036
  • 16,410 View
  • 161 Download
  • 6 Citations
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
Most cases of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) infection in Korea (outbreak: May 11-July 4, 2015) occurred in hospital settings, with uncertain transmission modes in some cases. We performed an in-depth investigation epidemiological survey on the 178th case to determine the precise mode of transmission. A 29- year-old man living in Pyeongtaek presented on June 16 with a febrile sensation, chills, and myalgia. Upon confirmatory diagnosis on June 23, he was treated in an isolation room and discharged on July 2 after cure. An epidemiological investigation of all possible infection routes indicated two likely modes of transmission: exposure to MERS in Pyeongtaek St. Mary’s Hospital during a visit to his hospitalized father (May 18-29), and infection through frequent contact with his father between the latter’s referral to Pyeongtaek Good Samaritan Bagae Hospital for treatment without confirmatory diagnosis until his death (May 29-June 6). Although lack of clear proof or evidence to the contrary does not allow a definitive conclusion, all other possibilities could be excluded by epidemiological inferences. While it is impossible to trace back the modes of transmission of all cases in a large-scale outbreak, case-by-case tracking and isolation of infected individuals and those in close contact with them is important in preventing the spread. Efforts should be made to establish a methodology for rapid tracking of all possible contacts and elimination-based identification of the precise modes of transmission.
Summary
Korean summary
이 논문은 2015년 한국에서 새롭게 발생한 감염병인 메르스 유행 중, 감염경로가 불분명하였던 178번째 환자에 대한 심층 역학조사 과정과 결과를 기술한 것이며, 조사를 통해 얻은 교훈을 학계 및 관계자들과 공유하고자 한다. 조사 결과, 다른 사례들과 마찬가지로 병원감염으로 볼 수 있음을 밝힌다.
Key Message

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    Salman Khan, Bilal Shaker, Sajjad Ahmad, Sumra Wajid Abbasi, Muhammad Arshad, Abdul Haleem, Saba Ismail, Anita Zaib, Wasim Sajjad
    Journal of Molecular Liquids.2021; 324: 114706.     CrossRef
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    Abdullah M Alnuqaydan, Abdulmajeed G Almutary, Arulmalar Sukamaran, Brian Tay Wei Yang, Xiao Ting Lee, Wei Xuan Lim, Yee Min Ng, Rania Ibrahim, Thiviya Darmarajan, Satheeshkumar Nanjappan, Jestin Chellian, Mayuren Candasamy, Thiagarajan Madheswaran, Ankur
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    Rebecca E. Ramshaw, Ian D. Letourneau, Amy Y. Hong, Julia Hon, Julia D. Morgan, Joshua C. P. Osborne, Shreya Shirude, Maria D. Van Kerkhove, Simon I. Hay, David M. Pigott
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Test-retest reliability of health behavior items in the Community Health Survey in South Korea
Soo Jeong Kim, Jin A Han, Young Hwa Kim, Bo Youl Choi, Su Young Kim, Hun Je Lee, In Hwan Oh, Sung-il Cho, Jakyoung Lee, Soon Young Lee
Epidemiol Health. 2015;37:e2015045.   Published online October 20, 2015
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih/e2015045
  • 15,168 View
  • 137 Download
  • 6 Citations
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
Responses to health-related items on the Community Health Survey (CHS) provide evidence that is used to develop community-based health policy. This study aimed to assess the test-retest reliability of selected health behavioral items on the CHS according to item category, response period, and response scale.
METHODS
A sample of 159 men and women 20 to 69 years of age participated in a test-retest with an interval of 14 to 21 days. A total of 28 items relating to smoking, alcohol consumption, diet and weight control, and mental health were selected. We evaluated the test-retest reliability of the items using kappa statistics.
RESULTS
Kappa values ranged from 0.44 to 0.93. Items concerning habits had higher kappa values (mean, 0.7; standard error, 0.05) than items concerning awareness or attitudes (p=0.012). The kappa value of items with two- to four-point scales was 0.63, which was higher than the value of 0.59 for items with scales involving five or more points, although this difference was not statistically significant. Different kappa values were observed for each reference period, but no statistically significant differences were noted.
CONCLUSIONS
The test-retest reliability of the CHS items that we studied was associated with item category. Further study of the relationship between item category and reliability in domains other than health behaviors is required.
Summary
Korean summary
이 연구는 지역사회건강조사의 건강행태 문항 중 28개 문항에 대하여 문항의 특성, 준거기간, 보기의 척도에 따라 조사-재조사 신뢰도의 차이를 분석하였다. 전체 문항의 카파값의 범위는 0.44-0.93이었다. 문항의 특성별로는 인지 또는 태도에 비해 습관에 관한 문항의 신뢰도가 높았으며, 보기의 척도가 5점 척도 이상에 비해 2-4점 척도의 신뢰도가 높음을 확인하였다.
Key Message

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Community mental health status six months after the Sewol ferry disaster in Ansan, Korea
Hee Jung Yang, Hae Kwan Cheong, Bo Youl Choi, Min-Ho Shin, Hyeon Woo Yim, Dong-Hyun Kim, Gawon Kim, Soon Young Lee
Epidemiol Health. 2015;37:e2015046.   Published online October 23, 2015
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih/e2015046
  • 14,188 View
  • 236 Download
  • 20 Citations
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
The disaster of the Sewol ferry that sank at sea off Korea’s southern coast of the Yellow Sea on April 16, 2014 was a tragedy that brought grief and despair to the whole country. The aim of this study was to evaluate the mental health effects of this disaster on the community of Ansan, where most victims and survivors resided.
METHODS
The self-administered questionnaire survey was conducted 4 to 6 months after the accident using the Korean Community Health Survey system, an annual nationwide cross-sectional survey. Subjects were 7,076 adults (≥19 years) living in two victimized communities in Ansan, four control communities from Gyeonggi-do, Jindo and Haenam near the accident site. Depression, stress, somatic symptoms, anxiety, and suicidal ideation were measured using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale, Brief Encounter Psychosocial Instrument, Patient Health Questionnaire-15, and Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-Item Scale, respectively.
RESULTS
The depression rate among the respondents from Ansan was 11.8%, and 18.4% reported suicidal ideation. Prevalence of other psychiatric disturbances was also higher compared with the other areas. A multiple logistic regression analysis revealed significantly higher odds ratios (ORs) in depression (1.66; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.36 to 2.04), stress (1.37; 95% CI, 1.10 to 1.71), somatic symptoms (1.31; 95% CI, 1.08 to 1.58), anxiety (1.82; 95% CI, 1.39 to 2.39), and suicidal ideation (1.33; 95% CI, 1.13 to 1.56) compared with Gyeonggi-do. In contrast, the accident areas of Jindo and Haenam showed the lowest prevalence and ORs.
CONCLUSIONS
Residents in the victimized area of Ansan had a significantly higher prevalence of psychiatric disturbances than in the control communities.
Summary
Korean summary
본 연구는 2014년 4월 16일 발생한 세월호 침몰 사고가 지역사회의 정신건강 수준에 미친 영향을 평가하기 위해 실시하였다. 2014년 지역사회건강조사를 활용, 사고 후 6개월 시점에 조사를 시행하였다. 대부분의 희생자가 발생한 안산시 대상자의 11.8%가 우울군으로 분류되었으며, 18.4%가 자살생각을 호소하였고, 그 밖의 유병률도 대조 지역에 비해 높았다.
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Epidemiological investigation of the 119th confirmed Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus case with an indefinite mode of transmission during the Pyeongtaek outbreak in Korea
Jong Hyuk Choi, Byoungin Yoo, Soon Young Lee, Eun Gyu Lee, Moran Ki, Woncheol Lee, Jong Rak Jung, Kyujin Chang
Epidemiol Health. 2015;37:e2015054.   Published online December 10, 2015
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih/e2015054
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
Since the first case was diagnosed on May 20, 2015, there were 186 confirmed cases of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) until the end of outbreak in South Korea. Although medical institutions were the most identifiable sources of MERS transmission in South Korea, similar to other countries, in-depth epidemiological investigation was required for some confirmed cases with indefinite contact history or hospital visit records. The subject of epidemiological investigation in the present study was a 35 year-old male patient diagnosed with MERS (#119) who lived in Asan-city and worked in Pyeongtaek-city. Various potential sources of transmission were carefully investigated. While he could have been exposed to MERS through a friend from Saudi Arabia or confirmed MERS cases in his workplace, neighboring areas, and medical institutions, as well as contacts in his home, the chances of transmission were low; however, the potential for transmission through his local community could not be excluded. Practically, it was difficult to determine the modes of transmission for all outbreak cases in communicable disease that occurred in this short period of time. The investigation to identify the mode of transmission in this case was ultimately unsuccessful. However, the various data collected and analyzed to reveal modes of transmission provided detailed information that could not be collected using only interview surveys.
Summary
Korean summary
2015년 한국에서 유행한 메르스 환자들 중, 감염 경로가 불분명한 119번째 환자에 대한 심층 역학조사를 통해 다양한 감염경로의 가능성을 검토하였다. 감염경로를 명확하게 밝혀내지 못한 한계점이 있지만, 지역사회 전파에 대한 가능성을 제시하였다. 감염병 대유행시 효율적인 감염경로 파악을 위해서는 다방면의 자료에 대한 확보체계와 이를 신속히 분석하고 판단할 수 있는 전문 인력 확충이 필요하다.
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  • A database of geopositioned Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus occurrences
    Rebecca E. Ramshaw, Ian D. Letourneau, Amy Y. Hong, Julia Hon, Julia D. Morgan, Joshua C. P. Osborne, Shreya Shirude, Maria D. Van Kerkhove, Simon I. Hay, David M. Pigott
    Scientific Data.2019;[Epub]     CrossRef
Cardiovascular Risk Factors for Incident Hypertension in the Prehypertensive Population
Soo Jeong Kim, Jakyoung Lee, Sun Ha Jee, Chung Mo Nam, Kihong Chun, Il Soo Park, Soon Young Lee
Epidemiol Health. 2010;32:e2010003.   Published online May 1, 2010
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih/e2010003
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Abstract
OBJECTIVES

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of changes in cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors on progression from prehypertension (PreHTN) to hypertension (HTN) using an 8-yr prospective Korean Cancer Prevention Study (KCPS) by the National Health Insurance Corporation (NHIC) in Korea.

METHODS

A total of 16,229 subjects, aged 30 to 54, with new onset preHTN at baseline (1994-1996) in a biennial national medical exam were selected and followed up till 2004 at 2-yr intervals. All subjects underwent a biennial health examination including biochemical measurements and behavior. The log-rank test was performed to assess the relationship between changes in CVD risk factors and progression to HTN. The Cox proportional hazard model was used to identify factors influencing progression to HTN.

RESULTS

With regards the progression rate in men, ex-smokers (42.9%), abstainers (37.5%), and regular exercisers (37.6%) showed a slower progression rate than continuous smokers (49.5%) and continuous drinkers (50.9%). In women, those who participated in regular exercise (22.6%) had a lower rate of progression than continuous non-exercisers (36.1%). According to the results of the Cox proportional hazard model, improvements in smoking (hazard ratio [HR], 0.756), drinking (HR, 0.669), regular exercise (HR, 0.653), body mass index (HR, 0.715), and total cholesterol (HR, 0.788) played a protective role in progression to HTN in men, while in women, participating in regular exercise (HR, 0.534) was beneficial.

CONCLUSION

Improvements in CVD-related behaviors diminished the progression rate of HTN. This study suggests that individuals with PreHTN should be targeted for specific health behavioral intervention to prevent the progression of HTN.

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The Current System and Future Directions of Health Examination Survey.
Soon Young Lee, Bo Youl Choi, Kyungwon Oh, Eunkyeong Jeong, Soo Jeong Kim
Korean J Epidemiol. 2007;29(2):129-138.
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Abstract
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A Review Study on Confounding Effect: Case-control Study.
Seonwoo Kim, Minji Kim, Soon Young Lee
Korean J Epidemiol. 1999;21(2):248-253.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Abstract
Confounding is the distortion of a disease/exposure association brought about by other factors which are not considered in the study design or the data analysis. These factors are called confounding factors. We should be cautious in data analysis of observational study of association of disease/exposure, since confounding often occurred in observational study. This study examines confounding effect according to data pattern (the ratio of controls to cases, the ratio of exposures to non-exposures for each level of confounding factor), criteria for treating a variable as a confounding variable, and some notes for the analysis in case-control study.
Summary
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A Review Study on Comparing Treatment Effects among Subgroups.
Seonwoo Kim, Minji Kim, Soon Young Lee
Korean J Epidemiol. 1999;21(1):104-110.
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Abstract
It is interested in examining treatment effect on a particular category of subjects or in comparing treatment effects among different subgroups as well as overall treatment effect due to heterogeneity of study subjects. Subgroup analyses are exceedingly common, but they are also often misleading. Conclusions based on subgroup analyses can do harm both when a particular category of people is denied effective treatment (a "false-negative" conclusion), and when ineffective or even harmful treatment is given to a subgroup of people (a "false-positive" conclusion). Because of the frequency and the importance of clinical application of subgroup analysis, researchers need to be cautious about doing subgroup analyses. This study presents guidelines to help conducting subgroup analyses correctly.
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The Cross-sectional Study on the Relationship of Health Behavior and Immune Function.
Soon Young Lee, Yeon Sook Yun, Ki Whan Kim, Seon Woo Kim, Ju Won Park
Korean J Epidemiol. 1998;20(2):212-218.
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Abstract
To investigate the association of individual health behaviors with imune response against tumor or viral infection, peripheral blood lymphocytes of 185 healthy males in aged from 35 to 44 years for natural killer(NK) cell activity, frequencies of lymphocytes subsets and proliferation response of T and B cell. NK cell activity was determined by Cr release activity assay and lymphocytes subsets were counted using surface antigens(CD4, CD8, CD56) by flow cytometry. The responsiveness of T and B were measured as proliferation stimulated by mitogens. Subjects were classified into four distinct lifestyle patterns, health promotive lifestyle, passive lifestyle, fitness lifestyle and hedonic lifestyle from information on their health behaviors(cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, and physical activity). Health promotive lifestyle had the highest NK cell activity(Lu30/10(6)CD56) which was significantly higher than hedonic lifestyle)p<0.05). The responsiveness of T cell was significantly lower in passive lifestyle and hedonic lifestyles compared to health promotive lifestyle and fitness lifestyles(p<0.05). However, there was no significant difference in the responsiveness of B cell, CD4, and CD8 among four lifestyles. This cross-sectional study showed the NK cell activity in individuals with desirable health behaviors was lower. The variation of immunity among individuals was not considered in this study, hence the intervention study reflection individual variations is recommended.
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Key Message
Relationship of health status and health practices.
Il Suh, Soon Young Lee
Korean J Epidemiol. 1995;17(1):48-63.
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Abstract
PURPOSE
The purpose of this study was to examine the health behaviors (such as smoking, alcohol consumption, exercise, duration of sleep, body weight, eating habit of breakfast and snack) affecting self-perceived health status, and to determine the relationships. RESEARCH METHODS: This study utilized the data from Korean National Health Survey (KNHS) in 1992. The data consisted of random sample of 2,799 individuals (1,304 male and 1,495 females) whose ages were between 20 and 59. The analytic methods for the study were chi square analysis, logistic regression.
RESULTS
The results of the study were as follows : (1) There was a negative relationship between duration of smoking and health status in linear pattern; (2) The frequency of alcohol drinking had a significant relationship with health status in quadratic pattern. That is, the health status of moderate drinkers was better than that of non-drinkers and heavy drinkers; (3) There was no significant relationship between the frequency of exercise and the health status. But in further analysis, the relationship between them was positive in linear pattern. That is, the health status of daily exercisers was better than that of the others; (4) Duration of sleep significantly influenced the health status in quadratic pattern. That is, the persons who sleep for 7-8 hours per day were better than that of the others; (5) The health status of persons with normal body weight was higher than that of persons with underweight or overweight; (6) Eating breakfast or not did not influence the health status, and taking snack or not influenced the health status; (7) In mutivariate analysis, The younger the persons were and the longer the level of education was, the higher the health status was in both male and female. In female, the higher the economic status was, the higher the health status was. And the smoking and the weight status significantly and independently influenced the health status in both male and female. And in male, the moderate drinking positively influenced the health status.
CONCLUSION
History of no smoking, moderate alcohol consumption, regular exercise, 7-8 hours sleeping and maintaining the normal body weight were health-promotive behaviors. And especially no smoking, moderate drinking and maintaing the normal body weight singnificantly influenced the self perceived health status.
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A study on statistics used to test the tracking phenomenon of bloodpressure in childhood.
Chung Mo Nam, Soon Young Lee, Il Suh, Chong Yon Park
Korean J Epidemiol. 1992;14(2):117-127.
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Abstract
This study was conducted to investigate the behavior of statistics, correlation analysis and 2X2 contingency table analysis, which were used to test the tracking phenomenon of blood pressure in childhood. Data were randomly generated by Blomqvist's model. The results of this study were as follows; 1. The correlation coefficients and probabilities of remaining in the upper quartile increased by the degree of tracking index θ, and decreased by the degree of within individual variation σe2. 2. The estimates of test statistics at θ=0.1, and σe2=82 were lower than those at θ= 0.0, and σe2=62 The results indicate that within individual variation must be considered to study the tracking phenomenon of blood pressure.
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Cholera in Korea, 1991: models of transmission.
Han Joong Kim, Il Suh, Hee Choul Oh, Kyoo Sang Kim, Sun Ha Jee, Soon Young Lee, Sun Hee Lee
Korean J Epidemiol. 1991;13(2):123-139.
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Abstract
In August-September 1991,Korea had a cholera epidemic caused by Vibrio El Tor Ogawa with 92 bacteriologically confirmed cases and 8 deaths. Seochun-gun Choongnam, Kunsan-si and Okgu-gun Chunbuk area, which are located near the mid-west coast of the country, were mainly affected. Vibrio cholerae were isolated from sewage water, sea water, squid and shell-fish tested during the epidemic, and an epidemiologic study found that consumption of raw shellfish or fish was the most probable source of cholera infection. Vibrio cholerae were thought to have spread from foreign countries and there were some evidence that an environmental reservoir of cholera might play a role in the transmission of cholera in this epidemic.
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Epidemiological characteristics of cholera epidemic in Korea, 1991.
Hee Choul Oh, Jong Ku Park, Mook Shik Kim, Kyoo Sang Kim, Sun Ha Jee, Soon Young Lee, Sun Hee Lee
Korean J Epidemiol. 1991;13(2):112-122.
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Abstract
From July 30th through September 9th, 1991, 188 cases of cholera were reported throughout most provinces in Korea. Of the cases 92 were bacteriologically confirmed and 96 were diagnosed by clinical symptoms. Through screening of the cholera epidemic area residents 58 inapparent infections were discovered and 8 deaths occurred. A population interview survey was conducted to the people inhabiting the five villages at the two epidemic foci, Sochon and Okgu. Other various information sources such as reported cases to health centers or quarantine stations, medical records of some hospitals, and laboratory findings of National Institute of Health were used to describe the cholera epidemic. Data from these sources were rearranged and analysed on an individual bases. Epidemiological characteristics of the 1991 cholera epidemic of Korea are as follows: 1. Vibrio cholerae biotype El Tor, sero type Ogawa was the causitive agent. 2. The epidemic duration was 25 days from August 13th to September 7th. 3. Epidemiological investigation of the two epidemic foci-Sochon, and Okgu counties-in the west coastal regions of the Korean penisula-revealed that 155 cases occurred in explosive outbreaks amounting to 82.5% of the total 188 noted cholera cases. 4. The epidemic curve of the 1991 cholera epidemic showed that of a typical point-source outbreak suggesting that there were few secondary infected cases. 5. Lower incidence rates among younger age groups and higher incidence rates among older age groups were noted. These findings support that this cholera outbreak was epidemic not endemic. These findings suggest that epidemiological characteristecs of the 1991 cholera epidemic differ from those of 1980 or before, in number of patients, duration of epidemic and the epidemic curve pattern. The authors suspect that improved national and personal hygiene might explain the difference.
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Key Message

Epidemiol Health : Epidemiology and Health