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Original Articles
Folate, vitamin B12, and homocysteine status in the Korean population: data from the 2013-2015 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
Sihan Song, Bo Mi Song, Hyun-Young Park
Epidemiol Health. 2024;46:e2024007.   Published online December 11, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2024007
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
We aimed to assess the serum folate, vitamin B12, and homocysteine status in Korean adolescents and adults using national data.
METHODS
Blood samples were collected from participants aged ≥10 years in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2013-2015. The stored serum samples were used to measure folate, vitamin B12, and homocysteine concentrations. A total of 8,016 participants were included in this analysis. Unweighted descriptive statistics and adjusted geometric means of the B vitamins and homocysteine concentrations were estimated.
RESULTS
Females had higher serum folate and vitamin B12 concentrations and lower serum homocysteine concentrations than males. Folate deficiency (<6.8 nmol/L) and hyperhomocysteinemia (>15 μmol/L) were found in 8.6% and 11.8% of males, respectively. Approximately 3% of males had low or marginally low vitamin B12 status (≤221 pmol/L). Folate and vitamin B12 deficiencies and hyperhomocysteinemia were found in <2% of females. Suboptimal folate status was prevalent among adolescents and young adults, while suboptimal vitamin B12 status and hyperhomocysteinemia were relatively higher in older adults. Adjusted mean homocysteine concentrations were sharply decreased from the first to second decile of serum folate in males.
CONCLUSIONS
In the Korean population, the proportion of males who achieved desirable folate and homocysteine concentrations were lower than those of females. Although most Koreans have adequate vitamin B12, a suboptimal folate status is common, particularly among adolescents and young adults. These findings could establish a foundation for public health initiatives aimed at improving folate levels in the Korean population.
Summary
Korean summary
엽산과 비타민B12는 전 생애에 걸쳐 건강에 영향을 미치는 필수 비타민이다. 그러나 해당 비타민 상태에 대한 국내 자료는 부족한 실정이다. 본 연구는 국민건강영양조사 참여자로부터 수집된 혈청으로부터 엽산, 비타민B12, 그리고 이들의 기능성 지표인 호모시스테인 농도를 측정하였고 성별과 연령별 분포와 적합 상태를 평가하였다. 엽산 결핍과 고호모시스테인혈증은 남성에서 높은 유병률을 가졌다. 적정 엽산 상태를 충족하지 못하는 비율은 청소년과 젊은 성인에서 흔하게 관찰되었다. 대부분의 한국인은 충분한 비타민B12 수준을 가졌으나, 노인의 경우 정기적인 평가가 필요하다. 본 연구는 한국인이 최적의 엽산과 비타민B12 상태를 유지하기 위한 기반적 근거를 제공한다.
Key Message
Folate and vitamin B12 have significant health impacts throughout the life cycle. However, national-level data on B vitamins in Korea are limited. Serum folate, vitamin B12, and homocysteine concentrations were measured from samples stored during the national survey. In our study, the proportions of folate deficiency and hyperhomocysteinemia were higher in men than in women.Suboptimal folate status was common among adolescents and young adults. Most Koreans had adequate levels of vitamin B12; however, regular monitoring is warranted, especially in the older population. The current data provide a future direction for achieving optimal B vitamin status in the Korean population.
Trends in the effects of socioeconomic position on physical activity levels and sedentary behavior among Korean adolescents
Hunju Lee, Hyowon Choi, Sang Baek Koh, Hyeon Chang Kim
Epidemiol Health. 2023;45:e2023085.   Published online September 8, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2023085
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  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
We examined trends in physical activity and sedentary behavior in Korean adolescents, and their association with socioeconomic position (SEP).
METHODS
We used data from the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Survey, a nationwide study involving students aged 12-19 conducted between 2009 and 2021. SEP was assessed based on economic status, parental education attainment, and urbanization. Physical activity was categorized into vigorous physical activity, moderate physical activity, and muscle training, and sedentary time was also measured. We conducted the log-binomial regression to calculate prevalence ratios (PRs) and prevalence differences.
RESULTS
Our analysis included a total of 593,896 students. We observed an increasing trend in physical activity, but a worsening trend in sedentary behavior. A positive association was found between an adolescent’s physical activity and SEP indicators, except for urbanization. Adolescents with higher economic status engaged in more vigorous physical activity (high: PR, 1.26; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.25 to 1.28; middle: PR, 1.03; 95% CI, 1.02 to 1.04). Similar associations were observed for father’s education (tertiary or above: PR, 1.11; 95% CI, 1.09 to 1.13; upper secondary: PR, 1.05; 95% CI, 1.03 to 1.07) and mother’s education (tertiary or above: PR, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.15 to 1.20; upper secondary: PR, 1.06; 95% CI, 1.04 to 1.08). Adolescents with higher economic status also showed a higher compliance rate with the guideline restricting sedentary time to 2 hours per day (high: PR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.25 to 1.30; middle: PR, 1.03; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.05).
CONCLUSIONS
Adolescents with higher SEP exhibited more physical activity and less sedentary time than those with lower SEP.
Summary
Korean summary
본 연구는 2009년부터 2021년까지 청소년의 사회경제적 지위가 신체활동과 좌식생활습관에 미치는 영향을 분석하였다. 청소년의 경제적 상태, 아버지와 어머니의 교육수준이 높을수록 청소년의 신체활동이 증가하고 좌식생활이 감소하였다. 그러나 청소년이 사는 지역의 도시화 정도는 영향을 미치지 않았다.
Key Message
This article analyzes the effects of an adolescent's socio-economic position on their physical activity and sedentary behavior from 2009 to 2021. The higher the adolescent's economic status, father's education, or mother's education, the more they engaged in physical activity and the less time they spent in sedentary behaviors. However, the level of urbanization in the area where the adolescent resided had no effect.

Citations

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  • Using structural equation modeling to explore the influences of physical activity, mental health, well-being, and loneliness on Douyin usage at bedtime
    Hongcheng Luo, Xing Zhang, Songpeng Su, Mingyang Zhang, Mingyue Yin, Siyuan Feng, Rui Peng, Hansen Li
    Frontiers in Public Health.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
Korea Seroprevalence Study of Monitoring of SARS-COV-2 Antibody Retention and Transmission (K-SEROSMART): findings from national representative sample
Jina Han, Hye Jin Baek, Eunbi Noh, Kyuhyun Yoon, Jung Ae Kim, Sukhyun Ryu, Kay O Lee, No Yai Park, Eunok Jung, Sangil Kim, Hyukmin Lee, Yoo-Sung Hwang, Jaehun Jung, Hun Jae Lee, Sung-il Cho, Sangcheol Oh, Migyeong Kim, Chang-Mo Oh, Byengchul Yu, Young-Seoub Hong, Keonyeop Kim, Sun Jae Jung, Mi Ah Han, Moo-Sik Lee, Jung-Jeung Lee, Young Hwangbo, Hyeon Woo Yim, Yu-Mi Kim, Joongyub Lee, Weon-Young Lee, Jae-Hyun Park, Sungsoo Oh, Heui Sug Jo, Hyeongsu Kim, Gilwon Kang, Hae-Sung Nam, Ju-Hyung Lee, Gyung-Jae Oh, Min-Ho Shin, Soyeon Ryu, Tae-Yoon Hwang, Soon-Woo Park, Sang Kyu Kim, Roma Seol, Ki-Soo Park, Su Young Kim, Jun-wook Kwon, Sung Soon Kim, Byoungguk Kim, June-Woo Lee, Eun Young Jang, Ah-Ra Kim, Jeonghyun Nam, The Korea Community Health Survey Group, Soon Young Lee, Dong-Hyun Kim
Epidemiol Health. 2023;45:e2023075.   Published online August 17, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2023075
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
We estimated the population prevalence of antibodies to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), including unreported infections, through a Korea Seroprevalence Study of Monitoring of SARS-CoV-2 Antibody Retention and Transmission (K-SEROSMART) in 258 communities throughout Korea.
METHODS
In August 2022, a survey was conducted among 10,000 household members aged 5 years and older, in households selected through two stage probability random sampling. During face-to-face household interviews, participants self-reported their health status, COVID-19 diagnosis and vaccination history, and general characteristics. Subsequently, participants visited a community health center or medical clinic for blood sampling. Blood samples were analyzed for the presence of antibodies to spike proteins (anti-S) and antibodies to nucleocapsid proteins (anti-N) SARS-CoV-2 proteins using an electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. To estimate the population prevalence, the PROC SURVEYMEANS statistical procedure was employed, with weighting to reflect demographic data from July 2022.
RESULTS
In total, 9,945 individuals from 5,041 households were surveyed across 258 communities, representing all basic local governments in Korea. The overall population-adjusted prevalence rates of anti-S and anti-N were 97.6% and 57.1%, respectively. Since the Korea Disease Control and Prevention Agency has reported a cumulative incidence of confirmed cases of 37.8% through July 31, 2022, the proportion of unreported infections among all COVID-19 infection was suggested to be 33.9%.
CONCLUSIONS
The K-SEROSMART represents the first nationwide, community-based seroepidemiologic survey of COVID-19, confirming that most individuals possess antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 and that a significant number of unreported cases existed. Furthermore, this study lays the foundation for a surveillance system to continuously monitor transmission at the community level and the response to COVID-19.
Summary
Korean summary
인구집단을 기반으로 하여 대표성 있는 표본을 추출하여 COVID-19 항체유병률 조사를 전국적으로 수행함으로 지역사회 단위에서 지속적으로 모니터링할 수 있는 COVID-19 감시체계 구축의 기반을 마련하였다. 2022년 8월 우리나라 국민의 대부분이 COVID-19에 대한 항체를 보유하고 있었고 인구 3명 중 1명은 미확진 감염자로 추정되었다.
Key Message
The K-SEROSMART represents the first nationwide, community-based seroepidemiologic survey of COVID-19. In August 2022, most of the Korean people had antibodies to COVID-19, and one in three people was estimated to have an unreported infection. This study lays the foundation for a surveillance system to continuously monitor transmission at the community level and the response to COVID-19.
Cohort Profile
Epidemiologic Questionnaire (EPI-Q) – a scalable, app-based health survey linked to electronic health record and genotype data
Maxwell Salvatore, Dylan Clark-Boucher, Lars G. Fritsche, Jacob Ortlieb, Janet Houghtby, Anisa Driscoll, Bryanne Caldwell-Larkins, Jennifer A. Smith, Chad M. Brummett, Sachin Kheterpal, Lynda Lisabeth, Bhramar Mukherjee
Epidemiol Health. 2023;45:e2023074.   Published online August 8, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2023074
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
The Epidemiologic Questionnaire (EPI-Q) was established to collect broad, uniform, self-reported health data to supplement electronic health record (EHR) and genotype information from participants in the University of Michigan (UM) Precision Health cohorts. Recruitment of EPI-Q participants, who were already enrolled in 1 of 3 ongoing UM Precision Health cohorts—the Michigan Genomics Initiative, Mental Health Biobank, and Metabolism, Endocrinology, and Diabetes cohorts—began in March 2020. Of 54,043 retrospective invitations, 5,577 individuals enrolled, representing a 10.3% response rate. Of these, 3,502 (63.7%) were female, and the average age was 56.1 years (standard deviation, 15.4). The baseline survey comprises 11 modules on topics including personal and family health history, lifestyle, and cancer screening and history. Additionally, 11 optional modules cover topics including financial toxicity, occupational exposure, and life meaning. The questions are based on standardized and validated instruments used in other cohorts, and we share resources to expedite development of similar surveys. Data are collected via the MyDataHelps platform, which enables current and future participants to share non-Michigan Medicine EHR data. Recruitment is ongoing. Cohort data are available to those with institutional review board approval; for details, contact the Data Office for Clinical and Translational Research (DataOffice@umich.edu).
Summary
Key Message
The Epidemiologic Questionnaire (EPI-Q) is an app-based, scalable health survey that collects broad, self-reported data to augment an electronic health record-linked biobank – the Michigan Genomics Initiative. Of an initial 54,043 invitations (recruitment is ongoing), 5,577 participants enrolled (10.3% response rate) and were invited to complete 11 baseline modules (including personal and family health history, lifestyle, and cancer screening and history) and 11 optional modules (including financial toxicity, occupational exposure, and life meaning). Questions are based on standardized and validated instruments used in other cohort studies and documentation is shared publicly to accelerate development of similar surveys.
COVID-19: Original Article
Barriers to COVID-19 vaccine surveillance: the issue of under-reporting adverse events
Yunha Noh, Hwa Yeon Ko, Ju Hwan Kim, Dongwon Yoon, Young June Choe, Seung-Ah Choe, Jaehun Jung, Ju-Young Shin
Epidemiol Health. 2023;45:e2023054.   Published online June 7, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2023054
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  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
This study investigated the reporting rates of adverse events following immunization (AEFIs) to the spontaneous reporting system (SRS) and its predictors among individuals with AEFIs after coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination.
METHODS
A cross-sectional, web-based survey was conducted from December 2, 2021 to December 20, 2021, recruiting participants >14 days after completion of a primary COVID-19 vaccination series. Reporting rates were calculated by dividing the number of participants who reported AEFIs to the SRS by the total number of participants who experienced AEFIs. We estimated adjusted odds ratios (aORs) using multivariate logistic regression to determine factors associated with spontaneous AEFIs reporting.
RESULTS
Among 2,993 participants, 90.9% and 88.7% experienced AEFIs after the first and second vaccine doses, respectively (reporting rates, 11.6 and 12.7%). Furthermore, 3.3% and 4.2% suffered moderate to severe AEFIs, respectively (reporting rates, 50.5 and 50.0%). Spontaneous reporting was more prevalent in female (aOR, 1.54; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.31 to 1.81); those with moderate to severe AEFIs (aOR, 5.47; 95% CI, 4.45 to 6.73), comorbidities (aOR, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.09 to 1.57), a history of severe allergic reactions (aOR, 2.02; 95% CI, 1.47 to 2.77); and those who had received mRNA-1273 (aOR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.05 to 1.49) or ChAdOx1 (aOR, 1.62; 95% CI, 1.15 to 2.30) vaccines versus BNT162b2. Reporting was less likely in older individuals (aOR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.98 to 0.99 per 1-year age increment).
CONCLUSIONS
Spontaneous reporting of AEFIs after COVID-19 vaccination was associated with younger age, female sex, moderate to severe AEFIs, comorbidities, history of allergic reactions, and vaccine type. AEFIs under-reporting should be considered when delivering information to the community and in public health decision-making.
Summary
Korean summary
본 연구는 국내 19-49세 성인을 대상으로, 코로나19 예방 백신 접종 후 이상반응 경험에 대한 자발적 보고율을 조사하고, 자발적 보고와 관련된 요인을 파악하고자 하였다. 2021년 12월 2일부터 20일까지 온라인 설문조사를 통하여 자료를 수집하였으며, 연구대상자는 코로나19 예방 백신의 기초접종을 완료한 후 2주 경과한 19-49세 성인으로, 전국 대표성을 확보하기 위해 성별, 연령, 지역별로 층화하여 모집하였다. 이상반응 자발적 보고율은 1차 접종과 2차 접종 후 각각 약 11.6%, 12.7%로 나타났으며, 중등도에서 중증의 이상반응에 대한 자발적 보고율은 약 50.5%, 50.0%로 나타났다. 이상반응 자발적 보고율 관련 영향요인으로는 젊은 연령층, 여성, 이상반응의 중증도, 동반질환, 알러지 반응 이력, 기초접종 백신 종류가 포함되었다.
Key Message
Spontaneous reporting rates of adverse events following immunization (AEFIs) against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) were low, at around 12 % of any AEFIs and 50 % of moderate-to-severe AEFIs. Younger age, female sex, severe AEFIs, comorbidities, history of allergic reactions, and the type of COVID-19 vaccine were associated with the AEFIs reporting.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • The effect of covid vaccination on menstruation and attitude to the vaccine among Indian women – Results of a prospective survey
    Anbukkani Subbian, Jeevithan Shanmugam, Uma Ram
    Indian Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology Research.2024; 11(1): 70.     CrossRef
Original Articles
Association of the dietary inflammatory index with phenotypic age in the United States adults
Mengzi Sun, Jiaxin Fang, Wenhui Gao, Yue He, Yanan Ma, Lina Jin
Epidemiol Health. 2023;45:e2023051.   Published online May 4, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2023051
  • 2,993 View
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  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
One of the underlying mechanisms of aging is chronic inflammation, which has been closely associated with daily diet. Phenotypic age (PhenoAge) has been used as an index to track the aging process before diseases show clinical symptoms. The present study aimed to explore the association between the dietary inflammatory index (DII) and PhenoAge.
METHODS
In total, 9,275 adults aged 20 years old and over in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were involved in this study. Dietary patterns were classified as pro-inflammatory or anti-inflammatory according to the DII. PhenoAge was regarded as a continuous variable, and linear regression was used to explore its association with dietary inflammation. Stratified analyses by sex, age, race, physical exercise, smoking status, drinking status, and body mass index were used to test the sensitivity of these associations.
RESULTS
The median value of PhenoAge was 38.60 years and 39.76 years for the participants with anti-inflammatory and pro-inflammatory diets, respectively. A pro-inflammatory diet was positively associated with PhenoAge (β=0.73; 95% confidence interval, 0.31 to 1.14), compared with participants who had an anti-inflammatory diet. There was an interaction between dietary inflammation and age for PhenoAge (p<sub>interaction</sub><0.001). The strength of the association between a pro-inflammatory diet and PhenoAge was stronger as age increased.
CONCLUSIONS
A pro-inflammatory diet was associated with a higher PhenoAge, and the association was strongest in the elderly. We recommended reducing dietary inflammation to delay phenotypic aging, especially for the elderly.
Summary
Key Message
One of the underlying mechanisms of aging is chronic inflammation, which has been closely associated with daily diet, and phenotypic age (PhenoAge) has been used as an index to track the aging process before diseases show clinical symptoms. The present study found that a pro-inflammatory diet was associated with a higher PhenoAge, and the association was strongest in the elderly. We recommended reducing dietary inflammation to delay phenotypic aging, especially for the elderly.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • The association between methylmalonic acid, a biomarker of mitochondria dysfunction, and phenotypic age acceleration: A population-based study
    Bing Cao, Yu Xue, Dan Liu
    Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics.2024; 117: 105176.     CrossRef
Associations of breastfeeding duration and the total number of children breastfed with self-reported osteoarthritis in Korea women 50 years and older: a cross-sectional study
Dajeong Ham, Sanghyuk Bae
Epidemiol Health. 2023;45:e2023044.   Published online April 13, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2023044
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
Osteoarthritis is the most common joint disease, with a higher prevalence among women than men. The present study aimed to examine the associations of breastfeeding duration and the total number of children breastfed with osteoarthritis in Korean women aged 50 years and older.
METHODS
In this cross-sectional study, we used representative data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, phases 5 through 7 (2010-2018). Our analysis included 10,102 women aged ≥50 years. Osteoarthritis experience was defined as whether a physician had ever diagnosed osteoarthritis. Breastfeeding duration was categorized as 1-6 months, 7-24 months, and ≥25 months. The total number of children breastfed was categorized as 1-2, 3-4, and ≥5. The covariates were health behavior characteristics and risks of diseases (smoking, drinking, physical activity, body mass index, diabetes, hypertension, oral contraceptive use, and menopause) as well as socioeconomic characteristics (income, educational level, and occupation). A multiple logistic regression model was used to investigate associations between osteoarthritis and aspects of breastfeeding experience.
RESULTS
Compared to the non-breastfeeding group, the breastfeeding group had an odds ratio (OR) of 1.55 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.18 to 2.03) for osteoarthritis. Those who reported breastfeeding for >25 months had an OR of 1.56 (95% CI, 1.19 to 2.06).
CONCLUSIONS
The advantages of breastfeeding are already well known, but the present study suggests that women who breastfeed children for a longer time may have a higher risk of osteoarthritis after middle age.
Summary
Korean summary
골관절염은 가장 흔한 관절 질환이며 유병률은 여성에서 더 높다. 본 연구는 국민건강영양조사의 50세 이상 여성 10,130명을 대상으로 모유수유경험과 골관절염의 유병율 사이의 연관성을 분석하였다. 모유 수유의 이점은 이미 잘 알려져 있지만, 모유 수유 기간이 길수록 골관절염에 걸릴 가능성이 더 높음을 관찰하였다.
Key Message
Osteoarthritis is one of the most common disorders in elderly women and identifying risk factors may contribute to screening and early treatment. In the present article, we analyzed the association of breastfeeding and related factors with prevalent osteoarthritis in Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The advantages of breastfeeding are already well known, but we observed that the longer the breastfeeding duration was the more likely the woman has osteoarthritis.
Disease burden of prostate cancer from 2014 to 2019 in the United States: estimation from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019 and Medical Expenditure Panel Survey
Shen Lin, Dong Lin, Yiyuan Li, Lixian Zhong, Wei Zhou, Yajing Wu, Chen Xie, Shaohong Luo, Xiaoting Huang, Xiongwei Xu, Xiuhua Weng
Epidemiol Health. 2023;45:e2023038.   Published online March 21, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2023038
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
The aim of this study was to evaluate the disease burden of prostate cancer (PC) and assess key influencing factors associated with the disease expenditures of PC in the United States.
METHODS
The total deaths, incidence, prevalence, and disability-adjusted life-years of PC were obtained from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019. The Medical Expenditure Panel Survey was used to estimate healthcare expenditures and productivity loss and to investigate patterns of payment and use of healthcare resources in the United States. A multivariable logistic regression model was conducted to identify key factors influencing expenditures.
RESULTS
For patients aged 50 and older, the burden for all age groups showed a modest increase over the 6-year period. Annual medical expenditures were estimated to range from US$24.8 billion to US$39.2 billion from 2014 to 2019. The annual loss in productivity for patients was approximately US$1,200. The top 3 major components of medical costs were hospital inpatient stays, prescription medicines, and office-based visits. Medicare was the largest source of payments for survivors. In terms of drug consumption, genitourinary tract agents (57.0%) and antineoplastics (18.6%) were the main therapeutic drugs. High medical expenditures were positively associated with age (p=0.005), having private health insurance (p=0.016), more comorbidities, not currently smoking (p=0.001), and patient self-perception of fair/poor health status (p<0.001).
CONCLUSIONS
From 2014 to 2019, the national real-world data of PC revealed that the disease burden in the United States continued to increase, which was partly related to patient characteristics.
Summary
Key Message
This study quantified the disease burden of prostate cancer and showed that the burden is still substantial in the US from 2014-2019. This study explored the patients’ payment sources for healthcare expenditures and identified the top types of healthcare service expenditure for PC survivors. Moreover, this study also assessed key influencing factors for the high healthcare expenditures, which were associated with some demographic characteristics, such as age, having private health insurance, more comorbidities, smoking situation, and patients’ self-perceived health status.
Physical activity, sedentary behavior, and cardiovascular disease risk in Korea: a trajectory analysis
Jina Han, Yeong Jun Ju, Soon Young Lee
Epidemiol Health. 2023;45:e2023028.   Published online February 22, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2023028
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
To identify the distinct trajectories of sedentary behavior (SB) and explore whether reduced cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk was associated with a distinct trajectory of physical activity (PA).
METHODS
We analyzed data from 6,425 people who participated in the Korean Health Panel Survey over a period of 10 years. The participants’ self-reported SB and PA were assessed annually, and trajectory groups were identified using a group-based trajectory model for longitudinal data analysis. Logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the association between CVD risk (10-year cumulative incidence) and the trajectories of SB and PA. The adjusted variables included socio-demographic factors, the predisposing diseases of CVD, and baseline health behaviors.
RESULTS
Trajectory analysis identified 4 SB trajectory groups: SB group 1 (low and slightly increasing trend, 53.1%), SB group 2 (high and rapidly decreasing trend, 14.7%), SB group 3 (high and slightly decreasing trend, 9.9%), and SB group 4 (low and rapidly increasing trend, 22.2%). The 3 PA trajectory groups were PA group 1 (moderate and slightly decreasing trend, 32.1%), PA group 2 (low and slightly decreasing trend, 57.3%), and PA group 3 (maintained inactivity, 10.7%). By the 10-year follow-up, 577 cases of incident CVD had occurred. We also noted a 50% reduction in the risk of CVD when SB group 4 was accompanied by PA group 1 (odds ratio, 0.50; 95% confidence interval, 0.28 to 0.90).
CONCLUSIONS
Despite increased time spent in SB, maintaining PA about 2 days to 3 days per week reduced the occurrence of CVD.
Summary

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  • Effects of physical activity and sedentary behaviors on cardiovascular disease and the risk of all-cause mortality in overweight or obese middle-aged and older adults
    Yongqiang Zhang, Xia Liu
    Frontiers in Public Health.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
Trends and all-cause mortality associated with multimorbidity of non-communicable diseases among adults in the United States, 1999-2018: a retrospective cohort study
Mengzi Sun, Ling Wang, Xuhan Wang, Li Tong, Lina Jin, Bo Li
Epidemiol Health. 2023;45:e2023023.   Published online February 14, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2023023
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
Multimorbidity of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) has brought enormous challenges to public health, becoming a major medical burden. However, the patterns, temporal trends, and all-cause mortality associated with NCD multimorbidity over time have not been well described in the United States.
METHODS
All adult participants were sourced from nationally representative data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. In total, 55,081 participants were included in trend analysis, and 38,977 participants were included in Cox regression.
RESULTS
The 5 NCDs with the largest increases over the study period were diabetes, osteoporosis, obesity, liver conditions, and cancer. The estimated prevalence of multimorbidity increased with age, especially for middle-aged participants with 5 or more NCDs; in general, the prevalence of NCD multimorbidity was higher among females than males. Participants with 5 or more NCDs were at 4.49 times the risk of all-cause mortality of participants without any diseases. Significant interactions were found between multimorbidity and age group (p for interaction <0.001), race/ethnicity (p for interaction<0.001), and educational attainment (p for interaction=0.010).
CONCLUSIONS
The prevalence of multiple NCDs significantly increased from 1999 to 2018. Those with 5 or more NCDs had the highest risk of all-cause mortality, especially among the young population. The data reported by this study could serve as a reference for additional NCD research.
Summary
Key Message
This study included a series-cross sectional study and a retrospective cohort study, utilizing nationally representative data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Multimorbidity of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) has brought enormous challenges to public health, becoming a major medical burden. This study aimed to explore the patterns, temporal trends, and all-cause mortality of multimorbidity of NCDs in the United States from 1999 to 2018, by gender-specific and age-specific. The data reported by this study could serve as a reference for additional NCD research.
COVID-19: Special Article
Changes in mental health of Korean adolescents before and during the COVID-19 pandemic: a special report using the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Survey
Bomi Park, Jihee Kim, Jieun Yang, Sunhye Choi, Kyungwon Oh
Epidemiol Health. 2023;45:e2023019.   Published online February 14, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2023019
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  • 349 Download
  • 2 Web of Science
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
We aimed to study the effects of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on adolescents’ mental health in Korea.
METHODS
We used data from the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Survey 2018-2021 with 227,139 students aged 12-18 years. We estimated the differences in depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, and stress perception before (2018-2019) and during (2020-2021) the pandemic, as well as before (2019), the first year (2020) of, and the second year (2021) of the pandemic. We also examined whether COVID-19 is statistically associated with mental health.
RESULTS
In both male and female adolescents, the prevalence of depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, and stress perception was higher in the “not living with family,” “low household economic status,” and “self-rated unhealthy status” subgroups. The prevalence of depressive symptoms and stress perception was higher in middle school students. Adolescents were less likely to experience depressive symptoms (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 0.86; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.83 to 0.89), suicidal ideation (aOR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.76 to 0.83), and stress perception (aOR, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.74 to 0.79) in 2020 than in 2019. However, there were more depressive symptoms (aOR, 1.06; 95% CI, 1.02 to 1.09), suicidal ideation (aOR, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.10 to 1.21), and stress perception (aOR, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.16 to 1.23) in 2021 than in 2020.
CONCLUSIONS
The COVID-19 pandemic had positive impacts on mental health of adolescents in its early stages but has had negative impacts as the pandemic continues. Attention should be paid to adolescents who are particularly vulnerable to the mental health effects of the pandemic.
Summary
Korean summary
The results from a nationally representative data showed that mental health in adolescents was improved in the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic compared to before the COVID-19 pandemic, but it was deteriorated in the second year of the pandemic compared to the first year.
Key Message
본 연구에서는 대규모 건강조사를 이용하여 코로나19가 장기화됨에 따른 영향을 평가하고자 하였다. 2018년-2021년 청소년건강행태조사에 참여한 만 12-18세 청소년 227,139 명을 대상으로 분석한 결과, 코로나19 유행 첫번째 해(2020년)에는 코로나19 유행 이전에 비해 정신건강이 개선되었으나, 코로나19 유행 두 번째 해(2021년)에는 코로나19 유행 첫 번째 해에 비해 청소년 정신건강이 나빠졌다. 또한 가족과 함께 거주하지 않는 경우, 가정 경제 수준이 낮은 경우, 본인이 건강하지 않다고 인지하는 경우에 더 취약하였다.

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  • Excess mortality during the Coronavirus disease pandemic in Korea
    Changwoo Han, Hoyeon Jang, Juhwan Oh
    BMC Public Health.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • A Comparison of Changes in Health Behavior, Obesity, and Mental Health of Korean Adolescents Before and During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Online Cross-Sectional Study
    Mi-Sun Lee, Hooyeon Lee
    Psychiatry Investigation.2023; 20(11): 1086.     CrossRef
COVID-19: Special Article
Changes in health behaviors and obesity of Korean adolescents before and during the COVID-19 pandemic: a special report using the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Survey
Chang-Mo Oh, Yangha Kim, Jieun Yang, Sunhye Choi, Kyungwon Oh
Epidemiol Health. 2023;45:e2023018.   Published online February 14, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2023018
  • 5,618 View
  • 323 Download
  • 1 Web of Science
  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
This study aimed to investigate changes in health behaviors, including cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking, physical activity, dietary behaviors, and obesity, before and during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic using the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Survey (KYRBS) database.
METHODS
KYRBS data from 2015 to 2021 were used in this study. Differences in health behaviors between before (pre-pandemic period: 2018-2019) and during (pandemic period: 2020-2021) the pandemic were examined. Differences were compared using linear regression and the chi-square test considering the complex survey design after adjusting for grade level.
RESULTS
The prevalence of current cigarette smoking and current alcohol drinking significantly decreased in both male and female students during the pandemic compared to the pre-pandemic period. However, the prevalence of obesity significantly increased in both male and female students during the same period. When examining physical activity and dietary behaviors closely related to obesity, fast food consumption increased and fruit consumption decreased during the pandemic in both male and female students, whereas no significant changes in physical activity were observed in either male or female students.
CONCLUSIONS
The deterioration of adolescent dietary behaviors and an increase in the prevalence of obesity can increase the future disease burden, and concerted efforts at the individual and national levels are needed to reduce obesity and promote healthy dietary behaviors.
Summary
Korean summary
이 연구는 한국 청소년건강행태조사자료(KYRBS)를 사용하여 코로나19 유행 전후의 우리나라 청소년들의 흡연, 음주, 신체활동, 식습관, 비만 등의 건강행태의 변화에 대하여 살펴보고자 하였다. 이 연구에서는 2015년부터 2021년까지의 청소년건강행태조사자료를 사용하여, 코로나19 유행 이전 (2018-2019년)과 코로나 유행 이후 (2020-2021년) 기간의 건강행태의 변화에 대하여 조사하였다. 학년레벨을 보정한 후, 복합표본설계를 고려하여 로지스틱 회귀분석과 카이제곱검정을 이용하여 코로나19 유행 이전 (2018-2019년)과 비교하여, 코로나 유행 이후 (2020-2021년) 기간의 건강행태의 변화가 있었는지에 대하여 확인하였다. 그 결과, 코로나19 유행 이전 (2018-2019년)과 비교하여, 코로나19 유행 기간(2020-2021년) 동안에 현재흡연율과 현재음주율이 유의하게 감소하였다. 그러나 동일한 기간 동안에 남학생과 여학생 모두에서 비만율이 유의하게 증가하였는데, 비만율과 관련된 신체활동 및 식습관에 대하여 살펴보았을 때, 신체활동에서는 유의한 변화가 없었던 반면, 남학생과 여학생 모두에서 패스트푸드 섭취는 증가하고 과일섭취가 감소한 것으로 나타났다. 따라서 코로나19 유행기간 동안 흡연율 및 음주율 등의 청소년 건강에 유익한 변화도 있었으나, 비만율도 같이 증가한 것을 확인할 수 있었다. 청소년기의 식습관의 악화 및 비만율의 증가는 미래 우리나라의 질병부담을 증가시킬 수 있기 때문에, 청소년의 비만율을 낮추고 건강한 식습관을 증진시키기 위한 개인 및 사회 차원의 노력이 필요하다.
Key Message
-The current cigarette smoking and current alcohol drinking rates significantly decreased among Korean adolescents during the pandemic period compared to the pre-pandemic period. -On the other hand, the obesity rate increased significantly especially among Korean male adolescents, which is accompanied by changes in dietary habits such as an increase in fast food intake and a decrease in fruit intake.

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  • A Comparison of Changes in Health Behavior, Obesity, and Mental Health of Korean Adolescents Before and During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Online Cross-Sectional Study
    Mi-Sun Lee, Hooyeon Lee
    Psychiatry Investigation.2023; 20(11): 1086.     CrossRef
COVID-19: Health Statistics
Changes in food and nutrient intakes in Korean adults before and during the COVID-19 pandemic: data from the 2011-2020 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
Kyungwon Oh, Suyeon Park, Sihyun Park, Sungha Yun, Hongseok Choi, Eun Kyeong Jeong
Epidemiol Health. 2023;45:e2023015.   Published online February 1, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2023015
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
This study was to examine the changes in dietary habits and food and nutrient intakes between before (2019) and during (2020) the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES).
METHODS
A total of 54,995 participants aged ≥19 years who participated in the 2011-2020 KNHANES were included. The 10-year trend (2011-2020) and differences between 2019 and 2020 for dietary habits and food and nutrient intakes were estimated using SAS.
RESULTS
In the past 10 years (2011-2020), the dietary habits (increase in skipping meals and eating out), food intake (increase in meats and decrease in fruits and vegetables), and nutrient intake (increase in fat and decrease in sodium) in adults have changed. When comparing between 2019 and 2020, there were 4.6%p decrease in the eating out more than once a day. On the other hand, there were no significant differences in the intakes of food, energy and most of nutrients between 2019 and 2020, except for the proportion of energy intake from fat (1.0%p increase) and carbohydrate (1.0%p decrease).
CONCLUSIONS
Although a change in dietary habits from before to during the COVID-19 pandemic was observed, food and nutrient intakes have not deteriorated markedly and appear similar to the trends in the past 10 years. Throughout the COVID-19 pandemic, it is necessary to monitor the effects of changes in dietary habits on health as well as food and nutrient intakes.
Summary
Korean summary
코로나19 유행 전, 후 비교 시, 외식 감소, 가정식 섭취 증가 등 식생활은 변화가 있었으나 주요 식품 및 영양소 섭취는 큰 변화없이 최근 10년간의 추이가 지속되고 있었다.
Key Message
Although a change in dietary habits from before to during the COVID-19 pandemic was observed, food and nutrient intakes have not deteriorated markedly and appear similar to the trends in the past 10 years in Korean adults.
Original Articles
Trends in breast cancer screening rates among Korean women: results from the Korean National Cancer Screening Survey, 2005-2020
Soo Yeon Song, Yun Yeong Lee, Hye Young Shin, Bomi Park, Mina Suh, Kui Son Choi, Jae Kwan Jun
Epidemiol Health. 2022;44:e2022111.   Published online November 24, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2022111
  • 2,736 View
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  • 2 Web of Science
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
Since 2002, the Korean government has provided breast cancer screening as part of the National Cancer Screening Program. This study reported trends in the screening rate among Korean women from 2005 to 2020, including organized and opportunistic screening for breast cancer.
METHODS
Data from the Korean National Cancer Screening Survey, an annual cross-sectional nationwide survey, were collected using a structured questionnaire between 2005 and 2020. The study population included 23,702 women aged 40-74 years with no history of cancer. We estimated the screening rate based on the current recommendation of biennial mammographic screening for breast cancer. In addition, a joinpoint trend analysis was performed for breast cancer screening rates among various subgroups.
RESULTS
In 2020, the breast cancer screening rate was 63.5%, reflecting an annual increase of 7.72% (95% confidence interval 5.53 to 9.95) between 2005 and 2012, followed by non-significant trends thereafter. In particular, a significant decrease in the breast cancer screening rate was observed in the subgroups aged 50-59 years old, with 12-15 years of education, and living in rural areas.
CONCLUSIONS
Although there has been substantial improvement in breast cancer screening rates in Korean women, the trend has flattened in recent years. Therefore, continual efforts are required to identify subgroups with unmet needs and solve barriers to the uptake of breast cancer screening.
Summary
Korean summary
본 연구는 2005년에서 2020년까지 암검진수검행태조사 자료를 이용하여 40세 이상의 우리나라 여성의 유방암 검진 수검률이 추이에 대해 분석하였다. 우리나라 유방암 검진 수검률은 2020년 현재 63.5%이다. 하지만 지속적으로 증가하던 유방암 검진 수검률의 추이는 2012년 이후 정체되어 있으며 일부 사회경제적 계층에서는 감소하는 경향을 보였다.
Key Message
In Korea, despite of the high level of breast cancer screening rate, decreasing trends in some socioeconomic classes after 2012. Continual efforts are required to identify subgroup with unmet needs and barriers to the uptake of breast cancer screening.

Citations

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  • Why is the screening rate in lung cancer still low? A seven-country analysis of the factors affecting adoption
    Charlotte Poon, Tim Wilsdon, Iqra Sarwar, Alexander Roediger, Megan Yuan
    Frontiers in Public Health.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Mammographic Breast Density and Risk of Ovarian Cancer in Korean Women
    Thi Xuan Mai Tran, Soyeoun Kim, Boyoung Park
    Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention.2023; 32(12): 1690.     CrossRef
Smokeless tobacco consumption and its association with tobacco control factors in the Western Pacific Region: results from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey 2015-2019
Chandrashekhar T. Sreeramareddy, Anusha Manoharan
Epidemiol Health. 2022;44:e2022103.   Published online November 8, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2022103
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
We estimated the prevalence of smokeless tobacco (ST) consumption and its associations with tobacco control factors among school-going youth in 18 Western Pacific Region (WPR) countries.
METHODS
We analyzed school-based Global Youth Tobacco Survey (2014-2019) microdata from 18 WPR countries and estimated weighted prevalence rates of ST consumption, cigarette smoking, and dual use. We used multilevel binary logistic regression to examine the associations of ST consumption and dual use with demographic variables, exposure to pro-tobacco and anti-tobacco factors, national income, and MPOWER indicators.
RESULTS
Data from 58,263 school-going youth were analyzed. The prevalence of past 30-day ST consumption was highest in Kiribati (42.1%), the Marshall Islands (26.1%), Micronesia (21.3%), Palau (16.0%), and Papua New Guinea (15.2%). In adjusted multilevel models, ST consumption and dual use were significantly associated with sex, age, parental smoking, pro-tobacco factors, national income, and MPOWER score. For each unit increase in score for cessation programs, we observed approximately 1.4-fold increases in the odds of youth ST consumption (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.38; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.15 to 1.66) and dual use (aOR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.16 to 1.86). Similarly, for each unit increase in score for health-related warnings, the odds of both ST consumption (aOR, 0.47; 95% CI, 0.42 to 0.53) and dual use (aOR, 0.35; 95% CI, 0.30 to 0.42) decreased by approximately 60%.
CONCLUSIONS
The prevalence of youth ST consumption was substantial in the Pacific Islands, exceeding that of cigarette smoking in some countries. Implementing MPOWER measures for ST products could help reduce ST consumption.
Summary
Key Message
The prevalence of smokeless tobacco consumption, and cigarette smoking is considerably high among the school going youth in five pacific island nations of Western Pacific Region. Exposure to pro-tobacco factors and parental smoking were positively associated with youth smokeless tobacco consumption as well as dual use (both smokeless tobacco and cigarettes smoking) Closer monitoring and strict tobacco control policies are needed to prevent further escalation of smokeless tobacco consumption.

Epidemiol Health : Epidemiology and Health