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Hyesook Park 9 Articles
Multimorbidity adjusted years lost to disability rates calculated through Monte-Carlo simulation in Korea
Yoonhee Shin, Eun Jeong Choi, Bomi Park, Hye Ah Lee, Eun-Kyung Lee, Hyesook Park
Epidemiol Health. 2022;44:e2022090.   Published online October 17, 2022
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AbstractAbstract PDF
To efficiently utilize limited health and medical resources, it is necessary to accurately measure the level of health, which requires estimating the multimorbidity-corrected burden of disease.
This study used 2015 and 2016 data from the National Health Insurance Service, and employed the list of diseases defined in a Korean study of the burden of disease, the criteria for prevalence, and the “cause–sequelae–health state” disease system. When calculating the years lost to disability (YLD), multimorbidity was corrected using Monte-Carlo simulation.
Correcting for multimorbidity changed YLD at all ages in Korea by -1.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], -24.1 to 3.6) in males and -12.4% (95% CI, -23.0 to 0.3) in females in 2015, and by -10.8% (95% CI, -24.1 to 4.6) in males and -11.1% (95% CI, -22.8 to 1.7) in females in 2016. The YLD rate for non-communicable diseases in males decreased more than that of other disease groups in both years, by -11.8% (95% CI, -19.5 to 3.6) and -11.5% (95% CI, -19.3 to -3.0), respectively. The overall YLD rate changed by -1.3% in the 5-year to 9-year age group, and the magnitude of this change remained similar until the 10-19-year age group, gradually decreased after 20 years of age, and steeply increased to more than 10% in those aged 60 and older.
Calculations of YLD should adjust for multimorbidity, as the disease burden can otherwise be overestimated for the elderly, who tend to exhibit a high prevalence of multimorbidity.
Korean summary
Key Message
Changes in eating behaviors according to household income in adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic: Findings from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
Hye Ah Lee, Ho Jung Lee, Bomi Park, Yoonhee Shin, Hyunjin Park, Hyesook Park
Epidemiol Health. 2022;e2022102.   Published online November 9, 2022
DOI:    [Accepted]
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  • 21 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
To assess the social inequalities in changes of dietary behaviors among adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic, we compared changes in dietary behavior indicators by household income.
Using cross-sectional data from the 2019 and 2020 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, the prevalence of dietary behaviors in adolescents (12-18 years old) was estimated and changes in dietary behaviors before and after the COVID-19 pandemic were evaluated. We assessed changes in dietary behaviors with a household income (as a measure of socioeconomic status [SES]) disparity.
During the COVID-19 pandemic, average consumption of vegetables has decreased and food insecurity has worsened. Adolescents were more likely to skip breakfast than before COVID-19 (33.1 % and 37.4 %). Soft drink consumption also increased in 2020 than in 2019 (7.6 % and 14.8 %), especially among boys. Average sugar intake and sodium intake showed a tendency to decrease only in girls, but there was no difference according to SES level. Skip breakfast was particularly evident in the low SES group, and the difference according to household income level (high vs. low) was greater after COVID-19 than before. The prevalence of soft drink consumption increased significantly in low SES group, but the rate of increase did not differ by SES level.
We found that the social disparity in skipping breakfast was further aggravated. For a better understanding of the dietary behaviors of adolescents, continuous monitoring is necessary.
Korean summary
Key Message
Cohort profile: the Ewha Birth and Growth Study
Hye Ah Lee, Bohyun Park, Jungwon Min, Eun Jeong Choi, Ui Jeong Kim, Hyun Jin Park, Eun Ae Park, Su Jin Cho, Hae Soon Kim, Hwayoung Lee, Young Ju Kim, Young Sun Hong, Eui-Jung Kim, Eun Hee Ha, Hyesook Park
Epidemiol Health. 2021;43:e2021016.   Published online February 22, 2021
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  • 346 Download
  • 7 Citations
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
With the introduction of life-course epidemiology, researchers realized the importance of identifying risk factors in early life to prevent chronic diseases. This led to the establishment of the Ewha Birth and Growth Study in 2001; the study is a prospective birth cohort designed to provide evidence of early life risk factors for a child’s growth and health. Participants were recruited from those who visited Ewha Womans University Mokdong Hospital (a tertiary hospital in southwest Seoul, Korea) for prenatal care at 24-28 weeks of gestation. In total, 891 mothers enrolled in this study between 2001 and 2006 and their offspring (n=940) were followed-up. Regular check-up examinations of offspring were conducted at 3 years, 5 years, and 7 years of age and every year thereafter. To consider age-related health issues, extensive data were collected using questionnaires and measurements. In 2021, the study subjects will reach 19 years of age, and we are planning a check-up examination for early adulthood. About 20 years have passed since the cohort data were collected, and we have published results on childhood health outcomes associated with prenatal and birth characteristics, genetic and epigenetic characteristics related to childhood metabolism, the effects of exposure to endocrine disruptors, and dietary patterns in childhood. Recently, we started reporting on topics related to adolescent health. The findings will facilitate identification of early life risk factors for chronic diseases and the development of interventions for diseases later in life.
Korean summary
이화영아성장코호트는 만성질환 예방을 위한 생애초기 위험인자에 대한 근거를 제공하기 위해 2001년에 시작되었습니다. 이화영아성장코호트는 국내에서 선도적인 장기 추적관찰 연구로, 소아기 건강과 관련된 산전 및 출생 시 특징, 소아기 대사와 관련된 유전적 혹은 후성학적 특성, 내분비 장애물질 노출에 따른 영향, 소아기의 식이패턴과 같은 다양한 연구결과들을 발표하였습니다. 추후 청년기의 자료 수집을 계획하고 있으며, 우리의 연구결과는 만성질환 예방을 위한 중재 개발에 기여할 것으로 기대됩니다.
Key Message
To provide evidence of early life risk factors for the prevention of chronic diseases, the Ewha Birth and Growth Study was started in 2001. The Ewha Birth and Growth cohort is a leading long-term follow-up study in Korea, and we have published results on childhood health outcomes associated with prenatal and birth characteristics, genetic and epigenetic characteristics related to childhood metabolism, the effects of exposure to endocrine disruptors, and dietary patterns in childhood. We are planning to collect data for early adulthood, and our findings will contribute to the development of interventions to prevent chronic diseases.


Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Prospective association between phthalate exposure in childhood and liver function in adolescence: the Ewha Birth and Growth Cohort Study
    Seonhwa Lee, Hye Ah Lee, Bohyun Park, Hyejin Han, Young Sun Hong, Eun Hee Ha, Hyesook Park
    Environmental Health.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • BMI trajectory and inflammatory effects on metabolic syndrome in adolescents
    Ui-Jeong Kim, Eun Jeong Choi, Hyunjin Park, Hye Ah Lee, Bohyun Park, Jungwon Min, Eun Ae Park, Su Jin Cho, Hae Soon Kim, Hwayoung Lee, Young Ju Kim, Young Sun Hong, Eun Hee Ha, Seungyoun Jung, Hyesook Park
    Pediatric Research.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • The Effect of Childhood Obesity or Sarcopenic Obesity on Metabolic Syndrome Risk in Adolescence: The Ewha Birth and Growth Study
    Hyunjin Park, Seunghee Jun, Hye-Ah Lee, Hae Soon Kim, Young Sun Hong, Hyesook Park
    Metabolites.2023; 13(1): 133.     CrossRef
  • The Mediating Effect of Inflammation between the Dietary and Health-Related Behaviors and Metabolic Syndrome in Adolescence
    Ui-Jeong Kim, Eun-Jeong Choi, Hyunjin Park, Hye-Ah Lee, Bomi Park, Haesoon Kim, Youngsun Hong, Seungyoun Jung, Hyesook Park
    Nutrients.2022; 14(11): 2339.     CrossRef
  • Precision medicine via the integration of phenotype-genotype information in neonatal genome project
    Xinran Dong, Tiantian Xiao, Bin Chen, Yulan Lu, Wenhao Zhou
    Fundamental Research.2022; 2(6): 873.     CrossRef
  • Association of participation in the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 with mental disorders and suicidal behaviour
    Martta Kerkelä, Mika Gissler, Juha Veijola
    Epidemiology and Health.2022; 44: e2022005.     CrossRef
  • Trajectory patterns for continuous metabolic syndrome score in childhood and the cardiovascular risk in adolescence
    Eun Jeong Choi, Hye Ah Lee, Bomi Park, Bohyun Park, Hae Soon Kim, Young Sun Hong, Hyesook Park
    Scientific Reports.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
Comorbidity network analysis related to obesity in middle-aged and older adults: findings from Korean population-based survey data
Hye Ah Lee, Hyesook Park
Epidemiol Health. 2021;43:e2021018.   Published online March 5, 2021
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  • 3 Citations
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
We conducted a comorbidity network analysis using data from the seventh Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey to systematically quantify obesity-related comorbidities.
The study included 11,712 subjects aged 45 to 80 (5,075 male and 6,637 female). A prevalent disease was defined as a specific disease for which a subject had been diagnosed by a doctor and was being treated. Comorbidity network analysis was performed for diseases with a prevalence of 1% or more, including overweight and obesity. We estimated the observed-to-expected ratio of all possible disease pairs with comorbidity strength and visualized the network of obesity-related comorbidities.
In subjects over 45 years old, 37.3% of people had a body mass index over 25.0 kg/m2. The most common prevalent disease was hypertension (42.3%), followed by dyslipidemia (17.4%) and diabetes (17.0%). Overweight and obese subjects were 2.1 times (95% confidence interval, 1.9 to 2.3) more likely to have a comorbidity (i.e., 2 or more diseases) than normal-weight subjects. Metabolic diseases such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes, and osteoarthritis were directly associated with overweight and obesity. The probability of coexistence for each of those 4 diseases was 1.3 times higher than expected. In addition, hypertension and dyslipidemia frequently coexisted in overweight and obese female along with other diseases. In obese male, dyslipidemia and diabetes were the major diseases in the comorbidity network.
Our results provide evidence justifying the management of metabolic components in obese individuals. In addition, our results will help prioritize interventions for comorbidity reduction as a public health goal.
Korean summary
본 연구는 비만 관련 동반질환을 체계적으로 정량화하기 위해, 제7차 (2016-2018) 국민건강영양조사 자료를 이용하여 동반질환 네트워크 분석을 수행하였습니다. 45세 이상 성인에서 비만(체질량지수≥25.0 kg/m2)은 정상체중에 비해 동반질환에 대한 위험이 2.1배 높은 것으로 나타났습니다. 동반질환 네트워크에서는 고혈압과 이상지질혈증이 비만 여성의 주요 질환 이였으며, 이상지질혈증과 당뇨병은 비만 남성의 주요 질환인 것으로 나타났습니다. 본 연구결과는 비만 관련 동반질환 감소를 위한 중재의 우선 순위를 정하는데 도움이 될 것이라고 생각됩니다.
Key Message
We conducted a comorbidity network analysis using data from the seventh (2016-2018) Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey to systematically quantify obesity-related comorbidities. In subjects over 45 years old, obese (body mass index ≥ 25.0 kg/m2) subjects were 2.1 times more likely to have a comorbidity than normal-weight subjects. In the comorbidity network, hypertension and dyslipi¬demia were the major diseases in obese females, and dyslipidemia and diabetes were the major diseases in obese males. Our results will help prioritize interventions for reducing obesity-related comorbidities.


Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Body-mass index and risk of obesity-related complex multimorbidity: an observational multicohort study
    Mika Kivimäki, Timo Strandberg, Jaana Pentti, Solja T Nyberg, Philipp Frank, Markus Jokela, Jenni Ervasti, Sakari B Suominen, Jussi Vahtera, Pyry N Sipilä, Joni V Lindbohm, Jane E Ferrie
    The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology.2022; 10(4): 253.     CrossRef
  • A national survey on current clinical practice pattern of Korean Medicine doctors for treating obesity
    Kyung Hwan Jegal, Mi Mi Ko, Bo-Young Kim, Mi Ju Son, Sungha Kim, Alessandro de Sire
    PLOS ONE.2022; 17(3): e0266034.     CrossRef
  • Multimorbidity and combined interventions for patients with coronary heart disease in Chinese population: Latent class analysis of a multi-center study
    Yuanyuan Chen, Junru Wu, Yan Tang, Zhengxin Li, Qing Wen, Xuejing Sun, Hong Yuan, Yao Lu, Jingjing Cai
    International Journal of Cardiology.2022; 368: 17.     CrossRef
Employment status and mortality among Korean men over a 13-year period
Dohee Lim, Kyoung Ae Kong, Hyesook Park, Kyunghee Jung-Choi
Epidemiol Health. 2021;43:e2021055.   Published online August 18, 2021
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
This study explored the effect of employment status on mortality over a 13-year period in Korean men.
Data were used from the Korean Labor and Income Panel Study from 1999 to 2012. This study started with 2,737 subjects and included employed men in good health, aged 30-69 years. Deaths were tracked for 13 years from 2000 to 2012. Employment status classifications were: (1) regular employees, (2) precarious employees, (3) petty bourgeoisie, and (4) employers. Hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated using a Cox proportional hazards model, and were adjusted for age, education, income, and occupation, with regular employees as the reference category. To examine the effect of employment status and include employment history, the risk ratios of mortality were measured using the Poisson regression model, considering the duration of each employment and using 0 years as the reference category.
Over the course of the 13-year study, being a precarious employee (HR, 1.84) or petty bourgeoisie (HR, 1.87) at a particular point in time had a negative effect on mortality when compared with regular employees. Furthermore, working as precarious employees or petty bourgeoisie had no positive effect on mortality. A positive effect was observed, however, on the overall mortality risk for regular employees.
These results suggest that a healthy social policy is needed for precarious employees and petty bourgeoisie to avoid disadvantages in the workplace and the social safety net.
Korean summary
13년간 추적한 결과, 비정규직 노동자와 고용원이 없는 자영업자가 정규직 노동자에 비해 사망위험이 유의하게 높았다. 정규직 노동자에서는 일하는 것이 사망위험을 낮추는 긍정적인 효과를 관찰할 수 있었으나, 비정규직 노동자나 고용원이 없는 자영업자에서는 일하는 것의 긍정적인 효과를 관찰할 수 없었다. 이는 비정규직 노동자와 고용원이 없는 자영업자에 대한 건강한 사회 정책이 필요함을 시사한다.
Key Message
Over the course of the 13-year study, being a precarious employee or petty bourgeoisie had a negative effect on mortality when compared with regular employees. No positive effect of working was found for precarious employees or petty bourgeoisie, whereas cumulative work as a regular employee was observed to have a positive effect on mortality. These results suggest that a healthy social policy is needed for precarious employees and petty bourgeoisie to avoid disadvantages in the workplace and the social safety net.
Evaluation report on the causal association between humidifier disinfectants and lung injury
Mina Ha, Soon Young Lee, Seung-sik Hwang, Hyesook Park, Seungsoo Sheen, Hae Kwan Cheong, Bo Youl Choi
Epidemiol Health. 2016;38:e2016037.   Published online August 18, 2016
  • 18,336 View
  • 496 Download
  • 6 Citations
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
As of November 2011, the Korean government recalled and banned humidifier disinfectants (HDs) from the market, because four case-control studies and one retrospective epidemiological study proved the association between HDs and lung injury of unknown cause. The report reviewed the causal role of HDs in lung injury based on scientific evidences.
A careful examination on the association between the HDs and lung injury was based on the criteria of causality inference by Hill and the US Surgeon General Expert Committee.
We found that all the evidences on the causality fulfilled the criteria (strength of association, consistency, specificity, temporality, biologic gradient, plausibility, coherence, experiment, analogy, consideration of alternative explanations, and cessation of exposure), which proved the unknown cause lung injury reported in 2011 was caused by the HDs. In particular, there was no single reported case of lung injury since the ban in selling HDs in November 2011 as well as before the HDs were sold in markets.
Although only a few epidemiological studies in Korea have evaluated the association between lung injury and the use of HDs, those studies contributed to proving the strong association between the use of the HDs and lung injury, based on scientific evidence.
Korean summary
본 논문에서는 Hill의 기준과 US Surgeon General 전문위원회에서 제시하는 기준에 근거하여 가습기살균제와 폐손상과의 인과성을 검토하였다. 검토결과, 11개 조건(관련성의 강도, 일관성, 특이성, 시간적 선후관계, 생물학적 용량-반응 관계, 개연성, 기존 지식과의 일치성, 실험, 유사성, 다른 가능한 해석에 대한 고려 및 노출의 중단) 을 모두 충족함을 확인하므로 써, 2011년 발생한 원인미상 폐손상의 원인이 가습기살균제 노출로 인한 것임을 알 수 있었다. 무엇보다도 가습기살균제 시판 전에는 원인미상 폐손상이 보고된 바가 없었고, 2011년 11월 가습기살균제 판매중지 이후 폐손상이 한 건도 발생하지 않은 것은 원인미상의 폐손상이 가습기살균제로 인한 것임을 강력하게 지지하는 것으로 판단된다.
Key Message


Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • New-Onset and Exacerbation of Lung Diseases after Short-Term Exposures to Humidifier Disinfectant during Hospitalization
    Seula Lee, Kyunghee Han, Jeonggyo Yoon, Eun-Kyung Jo, Wonho Yang, Yoon-Hyeong Choi
    Toxics.2022; 10(7): 371.     CrossRef
  • Characterizing Subjects Exposed to Humidifier Disinfectants Using Computed-Tomography-Based Latent Traits: A Deep Learning Approach
    Frank Li, Jiwoong Choi, Xuan Zhang, Prathish K. Rajaraman, Chang-Hyun Lee, Hongseok Ko, Kum-Ju Chae, Eun-Kee Park, Alejandro P. Comellas, Eric A. Hoffman, Ching-Long Lin
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2022; 19(19): 11894.     CrossRef
  • Physical analysis reveals distinct responses of human bronchial epithelial cells to guanidine and isothiazolinone biocides
    Tae Yoon Kwon, Jaeseong Jeong, Eunyoung Park, Youngbin Cho, Dongyoung Lim, Ung Hyun Ko, Jennifer H. Shin, Jinhee Choi
    Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology.2021; 424: 115589.     CrossRef
  • Need for individual-based evaluation to determine the association between humidifier disinfectants and health injuries
    Hyeong-Cheol Kim, Hyunil Kim, Eun-Chan Mun, Yesung Lee, Soyoung Park
    Annals of Occupational and Environmental Medicine.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Strength of Association. Report 1. Graduations of Relative Risk
    А. Котеров, A. Koterov, Л. Ушенкова, L. Ushenkova, Э. Зубенкова, E. Zubenkova, А. Вайнсон, A. Vaynson, М. Калинина, M. Kalinina, А. Бирюков, A. Biryukov
    Medical Radiology and radiation safety.2019; : 5.     CrossRef
  • Causal inference in environmental epidemiology
    Sanghyuk Bae, Hwan-Cheol Kim, Byeongjin Ye, Won-Jun Choi, Young-Seoub Hong, Mina Ha
    Environmental Health and Toxicology.2017; 32: e2017015.     CrossRef
The effect of community-level smoke-free ordinances on smoking rates in men based on Community Health Surveys
Hye Ah Lee, Hyesook Park, Ho Kim, Kyunghee Jung-Choi
Epidemiol Health. 2014;36:e2014037.   Published online December 26, 2014
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  • 140 Download
  • 6 Citations
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
As one of smoke-free policies, communities have established the smoke-free ordinances since August 2010. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the effects of community-level smoke-free ordinances (SFO) on smoking rates in men using multiyear Community Health Survey (CHS) data.
Data on community-level SFO were collected from a website on Enhanced Local Laws and Regulation Information System. Regional smoking-related data were obtained from CHS data from 2008 to 2012 and the age-standardized rates of current smoking in men, attempts to quit smoking, and smoke-free campaign experiences including the mean number of cigarettes smoked (smoking amount) were calculated. Repeated measures analysis of variance was performed to evaluate the effects of regional implementation of SFO and the duration on change of smoking rates.
Overall current smoking rates and daily mean cigarettes smoked were lower in community where SFO had been implemented compared to those without implementation, and there was a significant difference in smoking rates between 2010 and 2008. Cross-sectional analysis of the effects of regional SFO revealed clear difference in rate of current smoking, but longitudinal analysis showed no significant differences. Stratifying by age groups, however, showed that groups less than 30 years of age had low smoking rates in community with ordinance compared to those without SFO since 2010. Yearly surveys measuring the number of cigarettes smoked, attempts to quit smoking, and experiences of smoke-free campaigns showed regional differences in the duration of implementation, but these differences were not significant in longitudinal analysis. Furthermore, there was a difference in regional socioeconomic characteristics between community with and without SFO implementation.
For effective smoking control, it is necessary to evaluate current policies and develop indices to evaluate the practical implementation of ordinances. As more communities to pass the SFO, long-term observation and assessments required.
Korean summary
2008년부터 2012년까지 조사된 지역사회건강조사 자료를 이용하여, 지역별 금연 조례 시행에 대한 효과를 평가한 연구 결과로, 종단적 분석을 통해 접근하였을 때 시간에 따른 흡연율 감소 폭은 조례 시행/미시행 지역간에 차이를 보이지 않았으며, 지역의 사회경제적 특성 요인에 차이가 존재하는 것으로 나타났다. 효과적인 흡연 규제를 위해, 현 시행중인 정책에 대한 효과 평가 및 장기적인 평가가 필요하다.
Key Message


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  • What explains the link between childhood ADHD and adolescent depression? Investigating the role of peer relationships and academic attainment
    Victoria Powell, Lucy Riglin, Gemma Hammerton, Olga Eyre, Joanna Martin, Richard Anney, Anita Thapar, Frances Rice
    European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry.2020; 29(11): 1581.     CrossRef
  • Attitudes of Korean smokers towards smoke-free public places: findings from the longitudinal ITC Korea Survey, 2005–2010
    Eunja Park, Sung-il Cho, Hong Gwan Seo, Yeol Kim, Hyun-Suk Jung, Pete Driezen, Janine Ouimet, Anne C K Quah, Geoffrey T. Fong
    BMJ Open.2019; 9(8): e025298.     CrossRef
  • Second-hand smoke prevalence in 252 regions of South Korea in three exposure locations
    Li-Yuan Sun, Jae-Hyun Park
    Japan Journal of Nursing Science.2018; 15(3): 210.     CrossRef
  • The effect of contextual factors on unintentional injury hospitalization: from the Korea National Hospital Discharge Survey
    Hye Ah Lee, Hyejin Han, Seonhwa Lee, Bomi Park, Bo Hyun Park, Won Kyung Lee, Ju Ok Park, Sungok Hong, Young Taek Kim, Hyesook Park
    BMC Public Health.2018;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • The Potential Roles of Extracellular Vesicles in Cigarette Smoke-Associated Diseases
    A-Reum Ryu, Do Hyun Kim, Eunjoo Kim, Mi Young Lee
    Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity.2018; 2018: 1.     CrossRef
  • Affecting Factors of Secondhand Smoke Exposure in Korea: Focused on Different Exposure Locations
    Li-Yuan Sun, Hae-Kwan Cheong, Eun-Whan Lee, Kyeong-Jin Kang, Jae-Hyun Park
    Journal of Korean Medical Science.2016; 31(9): 1362.     CrossRef
The Associations between Social Support, Health-Related Behaviors, Socioeconomic Status and Depression in Medical Students
Yoolwon Jeong, Jin Young Kim, Jae Seon Ryu, Ko eun Lee, Eun Hee Ha, Hyesook Park
Epidemiol Health. 2010;32:e2010009.   Published online November 24, 2010
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  • 137 Download
  • 26 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF

The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of depression in medical students and to evaluate whether interpersonal social support, health-related behaviors, and socio-economic factors were associated with depression in medical students.


The subjects in this study were 120 medical students in Seoul, Korea who were surveyed in September, 2008. The subjects were all women and over the age of 20. Their age, body mass index (BMI), quality of sleep, diet, household income, smoking, alcohol consumption, exercise levels, and self-reported health status were surveyed. The degree of perceived social support was measured using the interpersonal support evaluation list (ISEL). Depression was evaluated using the center for epidemiology studies depression scale (CES-D).


The mean CES-D score was 14.1±8.6 and 37.1% of the participants appeared to suffer from depression. Low levels of perceived interpersonal support increased the risk of depression by more than 10 times and having higher household income did not necessarily decrease the risk of depression.


Medical students have a relatively high level of depression. Efforts should be made to encourage social support in order to promote mental health in medical students.

Korean summary
Key Message


Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Prevalence of Depression Among Undergraduate Medical Students in India: A Systemic Review and Meta-Analysis
    Gitashree Dutta, Navin Rajendran, Tarun Kumar, Shoban B Varthya, Vinoth Rajendran
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A Trial for Association between Oxidative Stress in Midterm Pregnancy and Postnatal Growth during the First Year of Life.
Hyesook Park, Young Ju Kim, Hwa Young Lee, Eun Ae Park, Nam Soo Chang, Eun Hee Ha, Bo Hyun Park, Bo Eun Lee, Ju Hee Hong
Korean J Epidemiol. 2004;26(1):17-26.
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We aims to construct Infant Growth Cohort for evaluating whether oxidative stress in midterm pregnancy has an adverse effect on postnatal growth.
AND MATERIALS: From September 2001 to April 2004, we constructed an Ewha Infant Growth Cohort connected with the Ewha Pregnant Women Cohort. We excluded mother-and-child pairs in which the mother had experienced hypertension or diabetes during pregnancy and had multiple births for this study, which gave us 233 mother-and-child pairs for analysis. We measured maternal serum homocysteine and urinary 8-hydroxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and malondialdehyde (MDA) at 24~28 weeks of pregnancy, and infant weights at birth and at 6 and 12 months postnatally. We applied repeated measures ANOVA with PROC MIXED to assess the significance of differences.
We followed 64 and 85 infants at 6 and 12 months respectively. The mean body weights were 3146.4 g at birth, 8229.7 g at 6 months, and 1006.47 g at 12 months. The mean birth weight of infants was lower in mothers with higher homocysteine levels (third and fourth quartiles), but body weights from the first- and fourth-quartile groups of maternal homocysteine levels were lower than the others even though it was not statistically significant. Body weights at birth and at 6 months in third- and fourth-quartile groups of 8-OHdG levels were lower than the others. The body weights in the fourth quartile MDA group were significantly lower than the others at all time points.
Maternal oxidative stress in midterm pregnancy may cause postnatal growth retardation. But, there were high rate of follow up loss and various measurement errors. Therefore, we need to have efforts for compete follow up and valid and reliable measurements.
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Epidemiol Health : Epidemiology and Health