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Incidence and case fatality of stroke in Korea, 2011-2020
Jenny Moon, Yeeun Seo, Hyeok-Hee Lee, Hokyou Lee, Fumie Kaneko, Sojung Shin, Eunji Kim, Kyu Sun Yum, Young Dae Kim, Jang-Hyun Baek, Hyeon Chang Kim
Epidemiol Health. 2024;46:e2024003.   Published online December 26, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2024003
  • 5,797 View
  • 124 Download
  • 1 Web of Science
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
Stroke remains the second leading cause of death in Korea. This study was designed to estimate the crude, age-adjusted and age-specific incidence rates, as well as the case fatality rate of stroke, in Korea from 2011 to 2020.
METHODS
We utilized data from the National Health Insurance Services from January 1, 2002 to December 31, 2020, to calculate incidence rates and 30-day and 1-year case fatality rates of stroke. Additionally, we determined sex and age-specific incidence rates and computed age-standardized incidence rates by direct standardization to the 2005 population.
RESULTS
The crude incidence rate of stroke hovered around 200 (per 100,000 person-years) from 2011 to 2015, then surged to 218.4 in 2019, before marginally declining to 208.0 in 2020. Conversely, the age-standardized incidence rate consistently decreased by 25% between 2011 and 2020. When stratified by sex, the crude incidence rate increased between 2011 and 2019 for both sexes, followed by a decrease in 2020. Age-standardized incidence rates displayed a downward trend throughout the study period for both sexes. Across all age groups, the 30-day and 1-year case fatality rates of stroke consistently decreased from 2011 to 2019, only to increase in 2020.
CONCLUSIONS
Despite a decrease in the age-standardized incidence rate, the total number of stroke events in Korea continues to rise due to the rapidly aging population. Moreover, 2020 witnessed a decrease in incidence but an increase in case fatality rates.
Summary
Key Message
This nationwide study using Korean National Health Insurance System data reveals a decade-long downward trend in overall stroke incidence rates. While the crude incidence rate showed a temporary increase from 2016 to 2019 before a slight decline in 2020, the age-standardized incidence rate consistently decreased over the study period. The study emphasizes the significance of continuous monitoring and preventive strategies to address stroke as a public health concern in Korea
Incidence and case fatality of acute myocardial infarction in Korea, 2011-2020
Yeeun Seo, Jenny Moon, Hyeok-Hee Lee, Hyeon Chang Kim, Fumie Kaneko, Sojung Shin, Eunji Kim, Jang-Whan Bae, Byeong-Keuk Kim, Seung Jun Lee, Min Kim, Hokyou Lee
Epidemiol Health. 2024;46:e2024002.   Published online December 26, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2024002
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  • 112 Download
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
Cardiovascular diseases are a leading cause of mortality worldwide, and acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is particularly fatal condition. We evaluated the incidence and case fatality rates of AMI in Korea from 2011 to 2020.
METHODS
We utilized data from the National Health Insurance Services to calculate crude, age-standardized, and age-specific incidence rates, along with 30-day and 1-year case fatality rates, of AMI from 2011 to 2020. Age-standardized incidence rates were determined using direct standardization to the 2005 population.
RESULTS
The crude incidence rate of AMI per 100,000 person-years consistently increased from 44.7 in 2011 to 68.3 in 2019, before decreasing slightly to 66.2 in 2020. The age-standardized incidence rate of AMI displayed a 19% rise from 2011 to 2019, followed by a slight decline in 2020. The increasing trend for AMI incidence was more pronounced in males than in females. Both 30-day and 1-year case fatality rates remained stable among younger individuals but showed a decrease among older individuals. There was a minor surge in case fatality in 2020, particularly among recurrent AMI cases.
CONCLUSIONS
Over the past decade, the AMI incidence rate in Korea has consistently increased, with a slight downturn in 2020. The case fatality rate has remained relatively stable except for a minor increase in 2020. This study provides data for continuous surveillance, the implementation of targeted interventions, and the advancement of research aimed at AMI in Korea.
Summary
Key Message
This study observed the incidence rate of acute myocardial infarction using data from Korean National Health Insurance Service. From 2011 to 2019, the incidence rate increased, but there was a slight decrease in 2020. Additionally, the fatality rate remained relatively stable throughout the study period, except for an increase in 2020. The study emphasizes the importance of continuous monitoring and preventive strategies for effective management of acute myocardial infarction.
Systematic Review
Dietary intake and cancer incidence in Korean adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies
Ji Hyun Kim, Shinyoung Jun, Jeongseon Kim
Epidemiol Health. 2023;45:e2023102.   Published online November 30, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2023102
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
Cancer is a major health burden in Korea, and dietary factors have been suggested as putative risk factors for cancer development at various sites. This study systematically reviewed the published literature investigating the associations between dietary factors and cancer incidence among Korean adults, following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta- Analyses guidelines. We focused on the 5 most studied cancer sites (stomach, colorectum, breast, thyroid, and cervix) as outcomes and dietary exposures with evidence levels greater than limited-suggestive according to the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) panel’s judgment for any of the cancer sites. This resulted in the inclusion of 72 studies. Pooled estimates of the impact of dietary factors on cancer risk suggested protective associations of fruits and vegetables with risks for gastric cancer (GC), colorectal cancer (CRC), and breast cancer (BC) and dietary vitamin C with the risk of GC, as well as a harmful association between fermented soy products and the risk of GC. Despite the limited number of studies, we observed consistent protective associations of dietary fiber with GC and dietary fiber, coffee, and calcium with CRC. These findings are largely consistent with the WCRF/AICR expert report. However, pooled estimates for the associations of other salt-preserved foods with GC, meat with CRC, and dietary carotenoids and dairy products with BC did not reach statistical significance. Further studies with prospective designs, larger sample sizes, and diverse types of dietary factors and cancer sites are necessary.
Summary
Korean summary
한국 성인을 대상으로 주요 암종 발생과 관련된 식이 요인을 탐색한 72개 역학연구들을 체계적으로 리뷰하고 메타 분석한 결과, 과일 및 채소는 위암, 대장암, 유방암에 대한 보호 효과가 있으며, 식이 비타민 C는 위암 예방에 도움이 된다는 결과가 확인되었다. 반면, 염장 식품 중 발효 대두 제품은 위암 발생 위험을 증가시킬 수 있다. 향후 식이 섭취와 밀접하게 관련되었으나 기존 국내 연구가 부족한 암종과 다양한 식이 요인의 영향을 탐색하는 대규모 전향적 코호트 연구가 요구된다.
Key Message
We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis on the associations between dietary factors and cancer incidence among Korean adults. Pooled estimates suggested protective associations of fruits and vegetables with risks for gastric cancer (GC), colorectal cancer (CRC), and breast cancer (BC) and dietary vitamin C with the risk of GC, as well as a harmful association between fermented soy products and GC risk. Further research is warranted, emphasizing longitudinal designs, larger sample sizes, and a comprehensive exploration of dietary factors, with a specific focus on anatomical sites with a substantial burden of disease but understudied in the context of diet.
Original Articles
Regional disparities in major cancer incidence in Korea, 1999-2018
Eun Hye Park, Mee Joo Kang, Kyu-Won Jung, Eun Hye Park, E Hwa Yun, Hye-Jin Kim, Hyun-Joo Kong, Chang Kyun Choi, Jeong-Soo Im, Hong Gwan Seo, The Community of Population-Based Regional Cancer Registries
Epidemiol Health. 2023;45:e2023089.   Published online October 12, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2023089
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  • 2 Web of Science
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
This study investigated regional disparities in the incidence of 8 major cancers at the municipal level in Korea during 1999-2018 and evaluated the presence or absence of hot spots of cancer clusters during 2014-2018.
METHODS
The Korea National Cancer Incidence Database was used. Age-standardized incidence rates were calculated by gender and region at the municipal level for 4 periods of 5 years and 8 cancer types. Regional disparities were calculated as both absolute and relative measures. The possibility of clusters was examined using global Moran’s I with a spatial weight matrix based on adjacency or distance.
RESULTS
Regional disparities varied depending on cancer type and gender during the 20-year study period. For men, the regional disparities of stomach, colon and rectum, lung, and liver cancer declined, and those of thyroid and prostate cancer recently decreased, despite an overall increasing incidence. For women, regional disparities in stomach, colon and rectum, lung, liver, and cervical cancer declined, that of thyroid cancer recently decreased, despite an overall increasing incidence, and that of breast cancer steadily increased. In 2014-2018, breast cancer (I, 0.61; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.53 to 0.70) showed a high probability of cancer clusters in women, and liver cancer (I, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.40 to 0.56) showed a high probability of cancer clusters in men.
CONCLUSIONS
Disparities in cancer incidence that were not seen at the national level were discovered at the municipal level. These results could provide important directions for planning and implementing local cancer policies.
Summary
Korean summary
이 연구는 한국 시군구 단위에서 지난 20년(1999-2018)간 주요 8개 암 발생률의 지역 간 격차를 조사하고, 최근 5년(2014-2018)의 암 발생 군집 가능성을 평가했습니다. 지역 간 격차는 여성에서 갑상선암, 남성에서는 폐암이 가장 큰 격차를 보였습니다. 군집 가능성은 여성의 경우 유방암, 남성의 경우 간암에서 가장 높았습니다. 전국 단위에서는 볼 수 없었던 지역 간 격차 및 군집 발생 가능성이 시군구 단위에서 발견되었고, 이러한 결과는 지역에 맞는 암 정책을 기획하고 실행하는 데 중요한 방향을 제시할 수 있을 것입니다.
Key Message
This study investigated regional disparities in the incidence of eight major cancers in Korea at the municipal level during 1999-2018 and assessed the possibility of cancer clusters during 2014-2018. Thyroid cancer in women and lung cancer in men showed the most significant regional disparities. Breast cancer in women and liver cancer in men displayed the highest possibility of clustering. Regional disparities and cancer clusters were identified locally, which were not detected nationally. These findings could provide valuable guidance for developing and implementing cancer policies that are tailored to local needs.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Hormone Replacement Therapy and Risks of Various Cancers in Postmenopausal Women with De Novo or a History of Endometriosis
    Hee Joong Lee, Banghyun Lee, Hangseok Choi, Minkyung Lee, Kyungjin Lee, Tae Kyoung Lee, Sung Ook Hwang, Yong Beom Kim
    Cancers.2024; 16(4): 809.     CrossRef
  • What is the relationship between the local population change and cancer incidence in patients with dyslipidemia: Evidence of the impact of local extinction in Korea
    Wonjeong Jeong, Dong‐Woo Choi, Woorim Kim, Kyu‐Tae Han
    Cancer Medicine.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
Cancer incidence among male construction workers in Korea: a standardized incidence ratio analysis, 2009-2015
Soonsu Shin, Woo-Ri Lee, Jin-Ha Yoon, Wanhyung Lee
Epidemiol Health. 2023;45:e2023060.   Published online June 19, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2023060
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
Construction workers face an elevated risk for several types of cancer. Nevertheless, there is a lack of large-scale epidemiological studies examining the risk of all cancers in construction workers. This study aimed to investigate the risk of various cancers in male construction workers using the Korean National Health Insurance Service (NHIS) database.
METHODS
We used data from the NHIS database from 2009 to 2015. Construction workers were identified using the Korean Standard Industrial Classification code. We calculated the age-standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for cancer occurrence in male construction workers compared to all male workers.
RESULTS
Compared to all male workers, the SIRs for esophageal cancer (SIR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.07 to 1.42) and malignant neoplasms of the liver and intrahepatic bile ducts (SIR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.13 to 1.24) were significantly higher in male construction workers. The SIRs for malignant neoplasms of the urinary tract (SIR, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.05 to 1.35) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (SIR, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.02 to 1.43) were significantly elevated in building construction workers. The SIR for malignant neoplasms of the trachea, bronchus, and lung (SIR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.03 to 1.29) was significantly higher in heavy and civil engineering workers.
CONCLUSIONS
Male construction workers have an increased risk for esophageal cancer, liver cancer, lung cancer, and non-Hodgkin’s cancer. Our results indicate that tailored strategies for cancer prevention should be developed for construction workers.
Summary
Korean summary
건설 노동자는 작업환경에서 수많은 유해 인자에 노출되지만, 건설 노동자에서 암의 연령 표준화 발생비를 조사한 역학 연구는 부족하다. 이번 연구에서 식도암과 간담도암의 연령 표준화 발생비는 전체 남성 근로자에 비해 남성 건설 근로자에게서 증가하였다. 이러한 결과는 건설 근로자에서 암 위험이 증가했음을 나타내며, 이 직업군에서 암 예방을 위한 추가 연구와 정책이 필요함을 의미한다.
Key Message
Despite the exposure of construction workers to numerous hazardous substances at workplace, epidemiological studies investigating the risk of all cancers in this occupational group are lacking. In this study, the age-standardized incidence ratio of esophageal cancer and hepatobiliary cancers increased in male construction workers compared to all male workers. Our results underscore the increased several cancer risks faced by male construction workers, necessitating the development of tailored strategies for cancer prevention in this occupational group.
National trends and projection of chronic kidney disease incidence according to etiology from 1990 to 2030 in Iran: a Bayesian age-period-cohort modeling study
Fatemeh Shahbazi, Amin Doosti-Irani, Alireza Soltanian, Jalal Poorolajal
Epidemiol Health. 2023;45:e2023027.   Published online February 17, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2023027
  • 4,099 View
  • 166 Download
  • 1 Web of Science
  • 2 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a major public health problem worldwide. Predicting CKD incidence rates and case numbers at the national and global levels is vital for planning CKD prevention programs.
METHODS
Data on CKD incidence rates and case numbers in Iran from 1990 to 2019 were extracted from the Global Burden of Disease online database. The average annual percentage change was computed to determine the temporal trends in CKD age-standardized incidence rates from 1990 to 2019. A Bayesian age-period-cohort model was used to predict the CKD incidence rate and case numbers through 2030.
RESULTS
Nationally, CKD cases increased from 97,300 in 1990 to 315,500 in 2019. The age-specific CKD incidence rate increased from 168.52 per 100,000 to 382.98 per 100,000 during the same period. Between 2020 and 2030, the number of CKD cases is projected to rise to 423,300. The age-specific CKD incidence rate is projected to increase to 469.04 in 2030 (95% credible interval, 399.20 to 538.87). In all age groups and etiological categories, the CKD incidence rate is forecasted to increase by 2030.
CONCLUSIONS
CKD case numbers and incidence rates are anticipated to increase in Iran through 2030. The high level of CKD incidence in people with diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and glomerulonephritis, as well as in older people, suggests a deficiency of attention to these populations in current prevention plans and highlights their importance in future programs for the national control of CKD.
Summary
Key Message
Based on our findings, it is predicted that the number of chronic kidney patients in Iran will reach 423,300 people by 2030. Additionally, the age-specific incidence rate of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is projected to increase to 469.04 in the same year. The CKD incidence rate is forecasted to increase by 2030 in all age groups and etiological categories, including type 1 diabetes mellitus, type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, glomerulonephritis, and other causes.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Supporting Caregivers of Hemodialysis Patients: Applying the 5-A Self-management Model to Alleviate Caregiver Burden
    Zahra Zarmohammadi, Marzieh Khatooni, Mehdi Ranjbaran, Seyedeh Zahra Hosseinigolafshani
    Journal of Nursing and Midwifery Sciences.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Improving Drug- and Disease-related Knowledge of Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease: Randomized Controlled Trial from a Sri Lankan Outpatient Clinic
    Dilmi Wickramasinghe, Catherine Lynch, Judith Coombes, Shaluka Jayamanne, Shamila De Silva
    Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research and Health Care.2024; 16(2): 208.     CrossRef
The associations of tobacco use, sexually transmitted infections, HPV vaccination, and screening with the global incidence of cervical cancer: an ecological time series modeling study
Luyan Zheng, Yushi Lin, Jie Wu, Min Zheng
Epidemiol Health. 2023;45:e2023005.   Published online December 13, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2023005
  • 4,308 View
  • 126 Download
  • 1 Web of Science
  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
We aimed to quantify the temporal associations between cervical cancer incidence and cervical cancer-related factors and to predict the number of new cervical cancer cases averted under counterfactual scenarios compared to the status quo scenario.
METHODS
We described temporal trends in cervical cancer and associated factors globally from 1990 to 2019. We then used generalized linear mixed models to explore the impact of tobacco use, sexually transmitted infections (STIs), human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination, and cervical screening on cervical cancer incidence. A counterfactual analysis was performed to simulate the most effective scenario for reducing cervical cancer incidence.
RESULTS
The worldwide incidence of cervical cancer showed a downward trend over the past 3 decades (estimated annual percentage change, -0.72%), although the incidence remained high (>30 cases per 100,000 persons) in sub-Saharan Africa, Latin America, and the Caribbean. Higher smoking and STI prevalence showed significant direct associations with the incidence of cervical cancer, whereas HPV vaccination and screening coverage showed significant inverse associations. If the strategic goals for accelerating the elimination of cervical cancer and tobacco control programs had been achieved in 2019, the largest decrease in the number of new cervical cancer cases would have been observed, with 54,169 fewer new cases of cervical cancer in 2019.
CONCLUSIONS
Our counterfactual analysis found that a comprehensive intervention program emphasizing scaled-up cervical screening coverage (70%), HPV vaccination coverage (90%), and tobacco control (30% relative reduction) would be the most effective program for reducing cervical cancer incidence.
Summary
Key Message
A comprehensive intervention program emphasizing scaled-up cervical screening coverage (70%), HPV vaccination coverage (90%), and tobacco control (30% relative reduction) would be the most effective program for reducing cervical cancer incidence in our counterfactual analysis.

Citations

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  • Analysis of urinary tobacco-specific nitrosamine 4- (methylnitrosamino)1-(3-pyridyl)-1- butanol (NNAL) and HPV infection in American women: National health and nutrition examination survey
    Daiwen Liang, Qi Zhang, Wenyu Li, Youkun Lin, Ashis K. Basu
    PLOS ONE.2024; 19(5): e0304499.     CrossRef
Nationwide trends in the incidence of tuberculosis among people with disabilities in Korea: a nationwide serial cross-sectional study
Jinsoo Min, So Young Kim, Jong Eun Park, Yeon Yong Kim, Jong Hyock Park
Epidemiol Health. 2022;44:e2022098.   Published online October 28, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2022098
  • 4,478 View
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  • 4 Web of Science
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
Studies on the association between disabilities and tuberculosis (TB) are scarce. We aimed to assess the risk of active TB disease among people with disabilities.
METHODS
We conducted a nationwide serial cross-sectional study using national registry linkage databases from 2008 to 2017. The crude and age-standardized and sex-standardized incidence rates of TB were analyzed for each year according to the presence, type, and severity of disabilities. The crude incidence rate and odds of developing TB disease were examined with a multivariable logistic regression model using data from 2017.
RESULTS
The overall incidence of active TB decreased between 2008 and 2017. The age- and sex-standardized incidence rates of TB disease among people with disabilities were significantly higher than among those without disabilities throughout all observed years (p<0.001). As of 2017, the population with disabilities had a higher crude incidence rate of active TB disease than that without disabilities (119.9/100,000 vs. 48.5/100,000 person-years, p<0.001), regardless of sex, income level, and place of residence. Compared to those without disabilities, those with disabilities had higher odds of active TB (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.19; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.15 to 1.24). Individuals with mental disabilities (aOR, 1.51; 95% CI, 1.24 to1.84) had the highest odds of active TB incidence, followed by those with developmental disabilities (aOR, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.09 to 1.55).
CONCLUSIONS
People with disabilities are at a greater risk of developing TB disease. Active screening and care for TB cases would be beneficial for people with disabilities.
Summary
Korean summary
장애가 있는 사람은 이차적 건강 문제가 발생할 가능성이 더 높고 그들의 건강결정요인은 결핵 발생 위험 요인과 겹친다. 장애인은 비장애인에 비해 연령과 성별에 관계없이 활동성 결핵 발병률이 현저히 높았으며, 장애 유형 중 정신장애와 발달장애가 결핵에 더 취약한 것으로 나타났다. 장애인과 같이 결핵 감염 위험이 있는 취약계층을 파악하고 이들에게 결핵진단 및 항결핵치료의 어려움을 극복할 수 있도록 다학제적 지원을 제공하는 것이 중요하겠다.
Key Message
People with disabilities are more likely to develop secondary health conditions and their social determinants of health overlap with the risk factors for developing TB disease. We found that compared to people without disabilities, a markedly higher incidence of active TB disease among people with disabilities regardless of age and sex, and mental and developmental disabilities among types of disability were more prone to TB disease. It is critical to identify the vulnerable populations, such as people with disabilities, at risk of developing TB infection and provide them with multidisciplinary support to overcome any barriers during TB diagnosis and anti-TB treatment.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • HIV knowledge and access to testing for people with and without disabilities in low‐ and middle‐income countries: evidence from 37 Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys
    Sara Rotenberg, Shanquan Chen, Jill Hanass‐Hancock, Calum Davey, Lena Morgon Banks, Hannah Kuper
    Journal of the International AIDS Society.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • The Korea National Disability Registration System
    Miso Kim, Wonyoung Jung, So Young Kim, Jong Hyock Park, Dong Wook Shin
    Epidemiology and Health.2023; 45: e2023053.     CrossRef
  • Nationwide Trends in Osteoporosis in Koreans With Disabilities From 2008 to 2017
    Ji Hyoun Kim, So Young Kim, Jong Eun Park, Hyo Jong Kim, Hyun Jeong Jeon, Yeon Yong Kim, Jong‐Hyock Park
    JBMR Plus.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Growing disparity in the prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease between people with and without disabilities: a Korean nationwide serial cross-sectional study
    Jinsoo Min, Jong Eun Park, So Young Kim, Yeon Yong Kim, Jong Hyock Park
    Scientific Reports.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
Incidence of edentulism among older adults using the Korean National Health Insurance Service database, 2013-2018
Hyeonjeong Go, Eun-Kyong Kim, Hoi-In Jung, Song Vogue Ahn, Hosung Shin, Atsuo Amano, Youn-Hee Choi
Epidemiol Health. 2022;44:e2022091.   Published online October 17, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2022091
  • 5,136 View
  • 253 Download
  • 1 Web of Science
  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
Population aging is rapidly accelerating worldwide. Oral diseases related to aging are also on the rise. This study examined trends in the incidence of edentulism among the older Korean population using data from the Korean National Health Insurance Service (KNHIS).
METHODS
Data on older adults, aged ≥75 years of age, were obtained from the KNHIS for the period 2013-2018. Edentulism was defined as a treatment history of complete dentures in the KNHIS database. The exclusion criteria consisted of both disease codes and treatment codes related to conservative dental treatment, including periodontal and extraction treatment afterward. Crude incidence rates (CIRs) and age-standardized incidence rates (AIRs) with 95% confidence intervals were calculated and reported per 100,000 person-years by the direct method. Trends were tested by Cochrane Armitage models.
RESULTS
Statistically significant increasing trends in both CIRs and AIRs were found among the older Korean population registered in the KNHIS (CIRs, 707.92 to 895.92; AIRs, 705.11 to 889.68; p<0.01). The incidence tended to increase in both genders (p<0.01). Both CIRs and AIRs in specific regions also showed slight but significant annual increases except for Jeju Island (p<0.01 or <0.05). The incidence showed increasing trends (p<0.01) in all income quintiles apart from the highest quintile. The edentulism incidence was highest in the lowest income group (the first quintile).
CONCLUSIONS
Our data showed that the incidence of edentulism among the elderly showed an increasing trend from 2013 to 2018. This result provides a basis for future epidemiological studies on the incidence of edentulism in the older Korean population.
Summary

Citations

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  • Trend in the Incidence of Severe Partial Edentulism among Adults Using the Korean National Health Insurance Service Claim Data, 2014–2018
    Hyeonjeong Go, Hoi-In Jung, Song Vogue Ahn, Jeonghoon Ahn, Hosung Shin, Atsuo Amano, Youn-Hee Choi
    Yonsei Medical Journal.2024; 65(4): 234.     CrossRef
Seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies during the third wave of COVID-19 in the Seoul metropolitan area of Korea
Kyuhyun Yoon, Jayeun Kim, Kyong Ran Peck, Hyun Soo Kim, Hyukmin Lee, Yoo-Sung Hwang, Soon Young Lee, Sung-il Cho, Hun Jae Lee, Yeong-gyeong Kim, Byoungguk Kim, June-Woo Lee, Ah-Ra Kim, Hyeon Nam Do, Dong-Hyun Kim
Epidemiol Health. 2022;44:e2022085.   Published online September 30, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2022085
  • 5,328 View
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
After the third wave of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), by mid-February 2021, approximately 0.16% of the Korean population was confirmed positive, which appeared to be among the lowest rates worldwide at that time. However, asymptomatic transmission is challenging for COVID-19 surveillance. Therefore, a community-based serosurvey of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection was conducted to understand the effectiveness of Korea’s strong containment strategy.
METHODS
We collected 5,002 residual sera samples from January 30 to March 3, 2021, from 265 medical facilities in Seoul, 346 in Gyeonggi Province, and 57 in Incheon. Sixty samples from tertiary institutions were excluded. We defined the sub-regions according to the addresses of the medical facilities where the specimens were collected. Elecsys Anti-SARS-CoV-2 was used for screening, and positivity was confirmed using the SARS-CoV-2 sVNT Kit. Prevalence was estimated using sampling weights and the Wilson score interval for a binomial proportion with a 95% confidence interval.
RESULTS
Among the 4,942 specimens, 32 and 25 tested positive for COVID-19 in the screening and confirmatory tests, respectively. The overall crude prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies was 0.51%. The population-adjusted overall prevalence was 0.55% in women and 0.38% in men. The region-specific estimation was 0.67% and 0.30% in Gyeonggi Province and Seoul, respectively. No positive cases were detected in Incheon.
CONCLUSIONS
The proportion of undetected cases in Korea remained low as of early 2021. Therefore, an infection control strategy with exhaustive tracing and widespread pre-emptive testing appears to be effective in containing community spread of COVID-19.
Summary
Korean summary
코로나19바이러스 감염병(COVID-19)의 한국 내 3차 대유행기인 2020년 말 이후, 2021년 1월 우리나라 인구의 약 0.16%가 누적 확진되었으며, 이는 세계에서 매우 낮은 비율을 보이는 국가 중 하나였습니다. 그러나 COVID-19의 무증상 전파는 감염 확산방지와 감시체계에 문제점들을 초래할 수 있어 지역사회 기반 혈청 조사를 통해 그 현황을 파악했습니다. 2021년 1월 30일부터 3월 3일까지 서울, 경기, 인천 등 수도권 소재 1, 2차 의료기관에서 수집된 혈액검체의 잔여혈청표본 4942개에 대해 Roche사의 Elecsys Anti-SARS-CoV-2를 이용한 1차 항체검사와, GenScript의 SARS-CoV-2 sVNT Kit를 이용하여 2차 중화항체유무를 확인하였다. 4942명의 검체 중 1차 검사와 2차 중화항체검사에서 각각 32명과 25명이 항체 양성이었다. SARS-CoV-2 항체의 전체 수도권 조유병률은 0.51%였습니다. 인구의 연령보정 전체 유병률은 0.47%였으며, 성별로는 여성에서 0.55%, 남성에서 0.38%였습니다. 지역별 추정치는 경기도와 서울이 각각 0.67%와 0.30%였고, 인천에서는 양성사례가 발견되지 않았습니다. 한국의 미발견 사례 비율은 누적 확진율의 3배에 달하지만, 여전히 1% 미만으로 ​​낮습니다. 철저한 추적과 광범위한 선제적 검사를 통한 감염 관리 전략이 지역사회에서 바이러스 확산을 억제하는 데 효과적이었던 것으로 보입니다.
Key Message
Around February 2021, the SARS-CoV-2 antibody test was conducted on the residual serum of adults (≥19 years) collected from primary and secondary medical institutions in the metropolitan area in South Korea. The estimated overall prevalence was 0.60% in the electrochemiluminescence immunoassay (ECLIA) detecting IgG against the nucleocapsid protein and 0.47% for the neutralization antibody. The positivity of the confirmed test using surrogate neutralizing antibodies was only 78% of the ECLIA’s results. For prevention and control measures against the spread of SARS-CoV-2 infections and new variants emerge, serosurvey targeting community-dwelling people is needed to understand the changing status in the community.

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  • Realistic Estimation of COVID-19 Infection by Seroprevalence Surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 Antibodies: An Experience From Korea Metropolitan Area From January to May 2022
    In Hwa Jeong, Jong-Hun Kim, Min-Jung Kwon, Jayoung Kim, Hee Jin Huh, Byoungguk Kim, Junewoo Lee, Jeong-hyun Nam, Eun-Suk Kang
    Journal of Korean Medical Science.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Jina Han, Hye Jin Baek, Eunbi Noh, Kyuhyun Yoon, Jung Ae Kim, Sukhyun Ryu, Kay O Lee, No Yai Park, Eunok Jung, Sangil Kim, Hyukmin Lee, Yoo-Sung Hwang, Jaehun Jung, Hun Jae Lee, Sung-il Cho, Sangcheol Oh, Migyeong Kim, Chang-Mo Oh, Byengchul Yu, Young-Seo
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Review
Epidemiology of myocardial infarction in Korea: hospitalization incidence, prevalence, and mortality
Rock Bum Kim, Jang-Rak Kim, Jin Yong Hwang
Epidemiol Health. 2022;44:e2022057.   Published online July 12, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2022057
  • 11,300 View
  • 489 Download
  • 13 Web of Science
  • 15 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Abstract
Few studies have comprehensively presented epidemiological indicators of myocardial infarction in Korea. However, multiple published articles and open-source secondary data on the epidemiology of myocardial infarction are now available. This review summarized the hospitalization incidence, prevalence, and mortality rate of myocardial infarction in Korea using articles and open-source data from the Health Insurance Service and the Department of Statistics, surveys of sample populations, registries of patients, and other sources. The epidemiological indicators of myocardial infarction were compared between Korea and other high-income countries. The incidence of hospitalization due to myocardial infarction in Korea was 43.2 cases per 100,000 population in 2016 and has consistently increased since 2011. It was 2.4 times higher among men than among women. The estimated prevalence among adults over 30 years of age ranged from 0.34% to 0.70% in 2020; it was higher among men and increased with age. The mortality in 2020, which was 19.3 per 100,000 population in 2020, remained relatively stable in recent years. Mortality was higher among men than among women. Based on representative inpatient registry data, the proportion of ST-elevated myocardial infarction decreased until recently, and the median time from symptom onset to hospital arrival was approximately 2 hours and 30 minutes. The hospitalization incidence, prevalence, and mortality rate of myocardial infarction were lower in Korea than in other countries, although there was an increasing trend. Comprehensive national-level support and surveillance systems are needed to routinely collect accurate epidemiological indicators.
Summary
Korean summary
○우리나라의 심근경색증 발생률은 2016년 기준 인구 10만명 당 43.2명으로 추정되며 2011년 이후 증가하고 있음. ○ 30세 이상 인구에서 심근경색증 유병률은 0.34% (건강보험청구데이터) 또는 1.0% (국민건강영양조사)로 추정됨. ○ 전체인구에서 심근경색증으로 인한 사망률은 2019년 인구 10만명 당 18.8명으로 최근 큰 변화가 없거나 약간 감소하는 추세임.
Key Message
This review article showed the hospitalized incidence, prevalence, mortality, and features on patient registry of myocardial infarction in Korea from published articles and opened data sources.

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COVID-19: Original Article
The age-standardized incidence, mortality, and case fatality rates of COVID-19 in 79 countries: a cross-sectional comparison and their correlations with associated factors
Dongui Hong, Sohyae Lee, Yoon-Jung Choi, Sungji Moon, Yoonyoung Jang, Yoon-Min Cho, Hyojung Lee, Sukhong Min, Hyeree Park, Seokyung Hahn, Ji-Yeob Choi, Aesun Shin, Daehee Kang
Epidemiol Health. 2021;43:e2021061.   Published online September 8, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2021061
  • 21,905 View
  • 372 Download
  • 11 Web of Science
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, crude incidence and mortality rates have been widely reported; however, age-standardized rates are more suitable for comparisons. In this study, we estimated and compared the age-standardized incidence, mortality, and case fatality rates (CFRs) among countries and investigated the relationship between these rates and factors associated with healthcare resources: gross domestic product per capita, number of hospital beds per population, and number of doctors per population.
METHODS
The incidence, mortality, and CFRs of 79 countries were age-standardized using the World Health Organization standard population. The rates for persons 60 years or older were also calculated. The relationships among the rates were analysed using trend lines and coefficients of determination (R<sup>2</sup>). Pearson correlation coefficients between the rates and the healthcare resource-related factors were calculated.
RESULTS
The countries with the highest age-standardized incidence, mortality, and CFRs were Czechia (14,253 cases/100,000), Mexico (182 deaths/100,000), and Mexico (6.7%), respectively. The R<sup>2</sup> between the incidence and mortality rates was 0.852 for all ages and 0.945 for those 60 years or older. The healthcare resources-related factors were associated positively with incidence rates and negatively with CFRs, with weaker correlations among the elderly.
CONCLUSIONS
Compared to age-standardized rates, crude rates showed greater variation among countries. Medical resources may be important in preventing COVID-19-related deaths; however, considering the small variation in fatality among the elderly, preventive measures such as vaccination are more important, especially for the elderly population, to minimize the mortality rates.
Summary
Korean summary
국가별 발생률, 사망률, 치명률을 WHO 표준 인구로 연령표준화하였고, 의료자원과 관계된 지표와의 상관관계를 파악하였다. 2021년 4월 6일 기준, 연령표준화 발생률, 사망률, 치명률이 가장 높은 나라는 각각 체코 (10만명당 14,253명), 멕시코 (10만명당 182명), 멕시코 (6.7%)이며, 60세 이상 노인은 사망률과 치명률이 더 높은 것으로 나타났다. 1인당GDP, 인구당 의사 수, 인구당 병상 수는 발생률과 양의 상관관계가, 치명률과는 음의 상관관계가 있었고 노인에게서는 상관관계가 약하게 나타났다. 코로나바이러스감염증-19로 인한 피해를 최소화하기 위해서 의료자원의 투입과 더불어 노인의 감염예방이 중요할 것이다.
Key Message
The incidence, mortality, and case fatality rates of 79 countries were age-standardized using the WHO standard population. The correlations between the rates and the healthcare resource-related factors were investigated. As of April 6, 2021, the countries with the highest age-standardized incidence, mortality, and case fatality rates were Czechia (14,253 cases/100,000), Mexico (182 deaths/100,000), and Mexico (6.7%), respectively; the mortality and case fatality rates were higher among the elderly. GDP per capita, number of hospital beds per population, and number of doctors per population were associated positively with incidence rate, and negatively with case fatality rates: the correlations were weaker among the elderly. To minimize the burden caused by COVID-19, preventing the elderly from infection is important as well as supply of medical resources.

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Brief Communication
Cancer incidence in the Tobruk area, eastern Libya: first results from Tobruk Medical Centre
Faisal Ismail, Ahmed G. Elsayed, Islam El-Garawani, Eman Abdelsameea
Epidemiol Health. 2021;43:e2021050.   Published online August 3, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2021050
  • 9,894 View
  • 324 Download
  • 1 Web of Science
  • 2 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
Cancer is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, and it is an increasing problem in developing countries. Estimation of the incidence of cancer is important, especially in regions with limited epidemiological data on cancer. Therefore, the aim of this study was to provide an updated report on the incidence of cancers in the Tobruk region in eastern Libya.
METHODS
Data on cancer patients from the records of the Department of Histopathology of Tobruk Medical Centre from January 2013 to June 2020 were included.
RESULTS
In total, 402 cases were recorded. Men patients accounted for 30.3% (n=122) of cases, and women patients represented 69.6% (n=280). The overall mean age at the time of the first diagnosis was 49.0±17.1 years. The most common malignancies were breast and uterine cancer in women (18.4%, n=74; 15.9%, n=64, respectively), colorectal cancer (11.6%, n=47; 26 in women and 21 in men), bladder cancer (8.2%, n=33; 8 in women and 25 in men), and thyroid cancer (8.0%, n=32; 23 in women and 9 in men).
CONCLUSIONS
Breast and uterine cancers were the most common cancers in women, and bladder and colorectal cancer were the most common cancers in men, followed by colorectal cancer in both genders. These data will help health authorities launch preventive plans for cancer in the region. Further studies to identify aetiological factors and cancer-related risk factors need to be conducted in the region.
Summary
Key Message
Cancer incidence in the Tobruk area, eastern Libya: first results from Tobruk Medical Centre; cancer is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide and so in Libya; this is an updated report on the incidence of cancers in the Tobruk region in eastern Libya.

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Systematic Review
Prevalence of high-risk HPV genotypes in sub-Saharan Africa according to HIV status: a 20-year systematic review
Jude Ogechukwu Okoye, Chukwudi Amaechi Ofodile, Oluwaseun Kelechi Adeleke, Okechi Obioma
Epidemiol Health. 2021;43:e2021039.   Published online May 25, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2021039
  • 14,319 View
  • 373 Download
  • 21 Web of Science
  • 24 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
This review assessed the rate of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection among women living in sub-Saharan Africa. It also determined the prevalence of high-risk HPV (hrHPV) among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) seropositive (HIV+) and seronegative (HIV-) women in sub-Saharan Africa, pre-2010 and post-2010.
METHODS
In this systematic review, Google Scholar, PubMed Central, and Embase were searched to identify cohort and case-control studies that investigated the relationship between HIV and HPV infection. The database searches yielded 17 studies published between 1999 and 2018.
RESULTS
In the general population, the prevalence of any HPV/multiple HPV infections was higher among HIV+ (53.6/22.6%) than among HIV- women (26.5/7.3%) with odds ratios of 3.22 and 3.71, respectively (95% confidence interval, 3.00 to 3.42 and 2.39 to 5.75, p< 0.001). The prevalent HPV genotypes among HIV+ and HIV- women diagnosed with invasive cervical cancer (ICC) were HPV-16/18 and HPV-45. The prevalence of HPV-16, HPV-18, and HPV-45 was lower in 1999-2010 (3.8, 1.7, and 0.8%, respectively) than in 2011-2018 (19.1, 6.0, and 3.6%, respectively). Among women diagnosed with ICC, HIV+ women had a higher prevalence of HPV-56, HPV-31, and HPV-51 (7.3, 5.3, and 3.3%, respectively) than HIV- women (1.3, 2.2, and 0.4%, p< 0.001, p= 0.050, and p= 0.013, respectively).
CONCLUSIONS
The prevalence of HPV infection, multiple HPV infections, and non-vaccine HPV types were higher among HIV+ women than among HIV- women in sub-Saharan Africa. Although HIV infection influences the distribution of HPV types, this study suggests that cervical cancer incidence in sub-Saharan Africa is primarily driven by the prevalence of vaccine hrHPVs, especially HPV-16 and HPV-18.
Summary
Key Message
Despite increasing awareness of Human papillomavirus (HPV) among women and availability of HPV vaccines, mounting evidence shows that the age-standardized incidence rate of cervical cancer is increasing in sub-Saharan Africa. This review revealed the influences of some viruses on the trends of the disease between 1999-2010 and 2011-2018.

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Original Article
Epidemiological distribution of primary central nervous system tumors in the Western Province of Saudi Arabia: a local registry from neuroscience-affiliated centers
Maher Kurdi, Nadeem Shafique Butt, Saleh Baeesa, Badrah Alghamdi, Yazid Maghrabi, Anas Bardeesi, Rothaina Saeedi, Ahmed I. Lary
Epidemiol Health. 2021;43:e2021037.   Published online May 23, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2021037
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
Central nervous system (CNS) tumors are a major and growing global healthcare challenge. Western Saudi Arabia has an inconsistent data registry; therefore, the epidemiology of CNS tumors is unclear across the country. This study is aimed to assemble the epidemiological matrix of CNS tumors in the Western Province of Saudi Arabia.
METHODS
A retrospective analysis was performed using clinical data obtained from 3 neuroscience centers in Western Saudi Arabia in the period 2014-2019. The sample size included 663 adult and pediatric cases from the local and expatriate populations diagnosed with CNS tumors. The distributions of age, sex, clinical presentation, tumor location, type of surgery, histological subtype, genetic characteristics, and recurrence rate were explored.
RESULTS
The analysis included 500 adult cases and 163 pediatric cases up to 18 years of age with a male-to-female ratio of 1.16. The mean age at diagnosis was 38.0±22.6 years. The supratentorium was the most common location (n=515, 77.7%). Most patients presented with headache (n=298, 44.9%), followed by a focal neurological deficit (19.9%). The most common primary CNS tumor was glioblastoma (n=234, 35.3%), followed by meningioma (n=100, 15.1%). The recurrence rate after surgery was estimated to be 40.9% among all CNS tumors.
CONCLUSIONS
This is the first tumor registry of Western Province of Saudi Arabia that describes the distribution of primary CNS tumors and highlights their epidemiological matrix. Several incidence trends in terms of histological type, age group, sex, location, and recurrence were determined, and some genetic characteristics were recognized.
Summary
Key Message
Incidence, prevalence and the recurrence of CNS tumors vary according to histological type, age at diagnosis, sex, and available treatments. Further research should be performed to identify potential risk factors for CNS tumors in Saudi Arabia. Genome technology provides an opportunity to relate incidence rates with risk factors.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
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Epidemiol Health : Epidemiology and Health