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Cancer incidence among male construction workers in Korea: a standardized incidence ratio analysis, 2009-2015
Soonsu Shin, Woo-Ri Lee, Jin-Ha Yoon, Wanhyung Lee
Epidemiol Health. 2023;45:e2023060.   Published online June 19, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2023060
  • 968 View
  • 99 Download
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
Construction workers face an elevated risk for several types of cancer. Nevertheless, there is a lack of large-scale epidemiological studies examining the risk of all cancers in construction workers. This study aimed to investigate the risk of various cancers in male construction workers using the Korean National Health Insurance Service (NHIS) database.
METHODS
We used data from the NHIS database from 2009 to 2015. Construction workers were identified using the Korean Standard Industrial Classification code. We calculated the age-standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for cancer occurrence in male construction workers compared to all male workers.
RESULTS
Compared to all male workers, the SIRs for esophageal cancer (SIR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.07 to 1.42) and malignant neoplasms of the liver and intrahepatic bile ducts (SIR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.13 to 1.24) were significantly higher in male construction workers. The SIRs for malignant neoplasms of the urinary tract (SIR, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.05 to 1.35) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (SIR, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.02 to 1.43) were significantly elevated in building construction workers. The SIR for malignant neoplasms of the trachea, bronchus, and lung (SIR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.03 to 1.29) was significantly higher in heavy and civil engineering workers.
CONCLUSIONS
Male construction workers have an increased risk for esophageal cancer, liver cancer, lung cancer, and non-Hodgkin’s cancer. Our results indicate that tailored strategies for cancer prevention should be developed for construction workers.
Summary
Korean summary
건설 노동자는 작업환경에서 수많은 유해 인자에 노출되지만, 건설 노동자에서 암의 연령 표준화 발생비를 조사한 역학 연구는 부족하다. 이번 연구에서 식도암과 간담도암의 연령 표준화 발생비는 전체 남성 근로자에 비해 남성 건설 근로자에게서 증가하였다. 이러한 결과는 건설 근로자에서 암 위험이 증가했음을 나타내며, 이 직업군에서 암 예방을 위한 추가 연구와 정책이 필요함을 의미한다.
Key Message
Despite the exposure of construction workers to numerous hazardous substances at workplace, epidemiological studies investigating the risk of all cancers in this occupational group are lacking. In this study, the age-standardized incidence ratio of esophageal cancer and hepatobiliary cancers increased in male construction workers compared to all male workers. Our results underscore the increased several cancer risks faced by male construction workers, necessitating the development of tailored strategies for cancer prevention in this occupational group.
National trends and projection of chronic kidney disease incidence according to etiology from 1990 to 2030 in Iran: a Bayesian age-period-cohort modeling study
Fatemeh Shahbazi, Amin Doosti-Irani, Alireza Soltanian, Jalal Poorolajal
Epidemiol Health. 2023;45:e2023027.   Published online February 17, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2023027
  • 1,161 View
  • 96 Download
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a major public health problem worldwide. Predicting CKD incidence rates and case numbers at the national and global levels is vital for planning CKD prevention programs.
METHODS
Data on CKD incidence rates and case numbers in Iran from 1990 to 2019 were extracted from the Global Burden of Disease online database. The average annual percentage change was computed to determine the temporal trends in CKD age-standardized incidence rates from 1990 to 2019. A Bayesian age-period-cohort model was used to predict the CKD incidence rate and case numbers through 2030.
RESULTS
Nationally, CKD cases increased from 97,300 in 1990 to 315,500 in 2019. The age-specific CKD incidence rate increased from 168.52 per 100,000 to 382.98 per 100,000 during the same period. Between 2020 and 2030, the number of CKD cases is projected to rise to 423,300. The age-specific CKD incidence rate is projected to increase to 469.04 in 2030 (95% credible interval, 399.20 to 538.87). In all age groups and etiological categories, the CKD incidence rate is forecasted to increase by 2030.
CONCLUSIONS
CKD case numbers and incidence rates are anticipated to increase in Iran through 2030. The high level of CKD incidence in people with diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and glomerulonephritis, as well as in older people, suggests a deficiency of attention to these populations in current prevention plans and highlights their importance in future programs for the national control of CKD.
Summary
Korean summary
Key Message
Based on our findings, it is predicted that the number of chronic kidney patients in Iran will reach 423,300 people by 2030. Additionally, the age-specific incidence rate of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is projected to increase to 469.04 in the same year. The CKD incidence rate is forecasted to increase by 2030 in all age groups and etiological categories, including type 1 diabetes mellitus, type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, glomerulonephritis, and other causes.
The associations of tobacco use, sexually transmitted infections, HPV vaccination, and screening with the global incidence of cervical cancer: an ecological time series modeling study
Luyan Zheng, Yushi Lin, Jie Wu, Min Zheng
Epidemiol Health. 2023;45:e2023005.   Published online December 13, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2023005
  • 1,621 View
  • 90 Download
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
We aimed to quantify the temporal associations between cervical cancer incidence and cervical cancer-related factors and to predict the number of new cervical cancer cases averted under counterfactual scenarios compared to the status quo scenario.
METHODS
We described temporal trends in cervical cancer and associated factors globally from 1990 to 2019. We then used generalized linear mixed models to explore the impact of tobacco use, sexually transmitted infections (STIs), human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination, and cervical screening on cervical cancer incidence. A counterfactual analysis was performed to simulate the most effective scenario for reducing cervical cancer incidence.
RESULTS
The worldwide incidence of cervical cancer showed a downward trend over the past 3 decades (estimated annual percentage change, -0.72%), although the incidence remained high (>30 cases per 100,000 persons) in sub-Saharan Africa, Latin America, and the Caribbean. Higher smoking and STI prevalence showed significant direct associations with the incidence of cervical cancer, whereas HPV vaccination and screening coverage showed significant inverse associations. If the strategic goals for accelerating the elimination of cervical cancer and tobacco control programs had been achieved in 2019, the largest decrease in the number of new cervical cancer cases would have been observed, with 54,169 fewer new cases of cervical cancer in 2019.
CONCLUSIONS
Our counterfactual analysis found that a comprehensive intervention program emphasizing scaled-up cervical screening coverage (70%), HPV vaccination coverage (90%), and tobacco control (30% relative reduction) would be the most effective program for reducing cervical cancer incidence.
Summary
Korean summary
Key Message
A comprehensive intervention program emphasizing scaled-up cervical screening coverage (70%), HPV vaccination coverage (90%), and tobacco control (30% relative reduction) would be the most effective program for reducing cervical cancer incidence in our counterfactual analysis.
Nationwide trends in the incidence of tuberculosis among people with disabilities in Korea: a nationwide serial cross-sectional study
Jinsoo Min, So Young Kim, Jong Eun Park, Yeon Yong Kim, Jong Hyock Park
Epidemiol Health. 2022;44:e2022098.   Published online October 28, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2022098
  • 1,462 View
  • 95 Download
  • 3 Citations
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
Studies on the association between disabilities and tuberculosis (TB) are scarce. We aimed to assess the risk of active TB disease among people with disabilities.
METHODS
We conducted a nationwide serial cross-sectional study using national registry linkage databases from 2008 to 2017. The crude and age-standardized and sex-standardized incidence rates of TB were analyzed for each year according to the presence, type, and severity of disabilities. The crude incidence rate and odds of developing TB disease were examined with a multivariable logistic regression model using data from 2017.
RESULTS
The overall incidence of active TB decreased between 2008 and 2017. The age- and sex-standardized incidence rates of TB disease among people with disabilities were significantly higher than among those without disabilities throughout all observed years (p<0.001). As of 2017, the population with disabilities had a higher crude incidence rate of active TB disease than that without disabilities (119.9/100,000 vs. 48.5/100,000 person-years, p<0.001), regardless of sex, income level, and place of residence. Compared to those without disabilities, those with disabilities had higher odds of active TB (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.19; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.15 to 1.24). Individuals with mental disabilities (aOR, 1.51; 95% CI, 1.24 to1.84) had the highest odds of active TB incidence, followed by those with developmental disabilities (aOR, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.09 to 1.55).
CONCLUSIONS
People with disabilities are at a greater risk of developing TB disease. Active screening and care for TB cases would be beneficial for people with disabilities.
Summary
Korean summary
장애가 있는 사람은 이차적 건강 문제가 발생할 가능성이 더 높고 그들의 건강결정요인은 결핵 발생 위험 요인과 겹친다. 장애인은 비장애인에 비해 연령과 성별에 관계없이 활동성 결핵 발병률이 현저히 높았으며, 장애 유형 중 정신장애와 발달장애가 결핵에 더 취약한 것으로 나타났다. 장애인과 같이 결핵 감염 위험이 있는 취약계층을 파악하고 이들에게 결핵진단 및 항결핵치료의 어려움을 극복할 수 있도록 다학제적 지원을 제공하는 것이 중요하겠다.
Key Message
People with disabilities are more likely to develop secondary health conditions and their social determinants of health overlap with the risk factors for developing TB disease. We found that compared to people without disabilities, a markedly higher incidence of active TB disease among people with disabilities regardless of age and sex, and mental and developmental disabilities among types of disability were more prone to TB disease. It is critical to identify the vulnerable populations, such as people with disabilities, at risk of developing TB infection and provide them with multidisciplinary support to overcome any barriers during TB diagnosis and anti-TB treatment.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • The Korea National Disability Registration System
    Miso Kim, Wonyoung Jung, So Young Kim, Jong Hyock Park, Dong Wook Shin
    Epidemiology and Health.2023; : e2023053.     CrossRef
  • Nationwide Trends in Osteoporosis in Koreans With Disabilities From 2008 to 2017
    Ji Hyoun Kim, So Young Kim, Jong Eun Park, Hyo Jong Kim, Hyun Jeong Jeon, Yeon Yong Kim, Jong‐Hyock Park
    JBMR Plus.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Growing disparity in the prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease between people with and without disabilities: a Korean nationwide serial cross-sectional study
    Jinsoo Min, Jong Eun Park, So Young Kim, Yeon Yong Kim, Jong Hyock Park
    Scientific Reports.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
Incidence of edentulism among older adults using the Korean National Health Insurance Service database, 2013-2018
Hyeonjeong Go, Eun-Kyong Kim, Hoi-In Jung, Song Vogue Ahn, Hosung Shin, Atsuo Amano, Youn-Hee Choi
Epidemiol Health. 2022;44:e2022091.   Published online October 17, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2022091
  • 2,317 View
  • 231 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
Population aging is rapidly accelerating worldwide. Oral diseases related to aging are also on the rise. This study examined trends in the incidence of edentulism among the older Korean population using data from the Korean National Health Insurance Service (KNHIS).
METHODS
Data on older adults, aged ≥75 years of age, were obtained from the KNHIS for the period 2013-2018. Edentulism was defined as a treatment history of complete dentures in the KNHIS database. The exclusion criteria consisted of both disease codes and treatment codes related to conservative dental treatment, including periodontal and extraction treatment afterward. Crude incidence rates (CIRs) and age-standardized incidence rates (AIRs) with 95% confidence intervals were calculated and reported per 100,000 person-years by the direct method. Trends were tested by Cochrane Armitage models.
RESULTS
Statistically significant increasing trends in both CIRs and AIRs were found among the older Korean population registered in the KNHIS (CIRs, 707.92 to 895.92; AIRs, 705.11 to 889.68; p<0.01). The incidence tended to increase in both genders (p<0.01). Both CIRs and AIRs in specific regions also showed slight but significant annual increases except for Jeju Island (p<0.01 or <0.05). The incidence showed increasing trends (p<0.01) in all income quintiles apart from the highest quintile. The edentulism incidence was highest in the lowest income group (the first quintile).
CONCLUSIONS
Our data showed that the incidence of edentulism among the elderly showed an increasing trend from 2013 to 2018. This result provides a basis for future epidemiological studies on the incidence of edentulism in the older Korean population.
Summary
Korean summary
Key Message
Seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies during the third wave of COVID-19 in the Seoul metropolitan area of Korea
Kyuhyun Yoon, Jayeun Kim, Kyong Ran Peck, Hyun Soo Kim, Hyukmin Lee, Yoo-Sung Hwang, Soon Young Lee, Sung-il Cho, Hun Jae Lee, Yeong-gyeong Kim, Byoungguk Kim, June-Woo Lee, Ah-Ra Kim, Hyeon Nam Do, Dong-Hyun Kim
Epidemiol Health. 2022;44:e2022085.   Published online September 30, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2022085
  • 2,236 View
  • 151 Download
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
After the third wave of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), by mid-February 2021, approximately 0.16% of the Korean population was confirmed positive, which appeared to be among the lowest rates worldwide at that time. However, asymptomatic transmission is challenging for COVID-19 surveillance. Therefore, a community-based serosurvey of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection was conducted to understand the effectiveness of Korea’s strong containment strategy.
METHODS
We collected 5,002 residual sera samples from January 30 to March 3, 2021, from 265 medical facilities in Seoul, 346 in Gyeonggi Province, and 57 in Incheon. Sixty samples from tertiary institutions were excluded. We defined the sub-regions according to the addresses of the medical facilities where the specimens were collected. Elecsys Anti-SARS-CoV-2 was used for screening, and positivity was confirmed using the SARS-CoV-2 sVNT Kit. Prevalence was estimated using sampling weights and the Wilson score interval for a binomial proportion with a 95% confidence interval.
RESULTS
Among the 4,942 specimens, 32 and 25 tested positive for COVID-19 in the screening and confirmatory tests, respectively. The overall crude prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies was 0.51%. The population-adjusted overall prevalence was 0.55% in women and 0.38% in men. The region-specific estimation was 0.67% and 0.30% in Gyeonggi Province and Seoul, respectively. No positive cases were detected in Incheon.
CONCLUSIONS
The proportion of undetected cases in Korea remained low as of early 2021. Therefore, an infection control strategy with exhaustive tracing and widespread pre-emptive testing appears to be effective in containing community spread of COVID-19.
Summary
Korean summary
코로나19바이러스 감염병(COVID-19)의 한국 내 3차 대유행기인 2020년 말 이후, 2021년 1월 우리나라 인구의 약 0.16%가 누적 확진되었으며, 이는 세계에서 매우 낮은 비율을 보이는 국가 중 하나였습니다. 그러나 COVID-19의 무증상 전파는 감염 확산방지와 감시체계에 문제점들을 초래할 수 있어 지역사회 기반 혈청 조사를 통해 그 현황을 파악했습니다. 2021년 1월 30일부터 3월 3일까지 서울, 경기, 인천 등 수도권 소재 1, 2차 의료기관에서 수집된 혈액검체의 잔여혈청표본 4942개에 대해 Roche사의 Elecsys Anti-SARS-CoV-2를 이용한 1차 항체검사와, GenScript의 SARS-CoV-2 sVNT Kit를 이용하여 2차 중화항체유무를 확인하였다. 4942명의 검체 중 1차 검사와 2차 중화항체검사에서 각각 32명과 25명이 항체 양성이었다. SARS-CoV-2 항체의 전체 수도권 조유병률은 0.51%였습니다. 인구의 연령보정 전체 유병률은 0.47%였으며, 성별로는 여성에서 0.55%, 남성에서 0.38%였습니다. 지역별 추정치는 경기도와 서울이 각각 0.67%와 0.30%였고, 인천에서는 양성사례가 발견되지 않았습니다. 한국의 미발견 사례 비율은 누적 확진율의 3배에 달하지만, 여전히 1% 미만으로 ​​낮습니다. 철저한 추적과 광범위한 선제적 검사를 통한 감염 관리 전략이 지역사회에서 바이러스 확산을 억제하는 데 효과적이었던 것으로 보입니다.
Key Message
Around February 2021, the SARS-CoV-2 antibody test was conducted on the residual serum of adults (≥19 years) collected from primary and secondary medical institutions in the metropolitan area in South Korea. The estimated overall prevalence was 0.60% in the electrochemiluminescence immunoassay (ECLIA) detecting IgG against the nucleocapsid protein and 0.47% for the neutralization antibody. The positivity of the confirmed test using surrogate neutralizing antibodies was only 78% of the ECLIA’s results. For prevention and control measures against the spread of SARS-CoV-2 infections and new variants emerge, serosurvey targeting community-dwelling people is needed to understand the changing status in the community.
Review
Epidemiology of myocardial infarction in Korea: hospitalization incidence, prevalence, and mortality
Rock Bum Kim, Jang-Rak Kim, Jin Yong Hwang
Epidemiol Health. 2022;44:e2022057.   Published online July 12, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2022057
  • 6,139 View
  • 399 Download
  • 2 Citations
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Abstract
Few studies have comprehensively presented epidemiological indicators of myocardial infarction in Korea. However, multiple published articles and open-source secondary data on the epidemiology of myocardial infarction are now available. This review summarized the hospitalization incidence, prevalence, and mortality rate of myocardial infarction in Korea using articles and open-source data from the Health Insurance Service and the Department of Statistics, surveys of sample populations, registries of patients, and other sources. The epidemiological indicators of myocardial infarction were compared between Korea and other high-income countries. The incidence of hospitalization due to myocardial infarction in Korea was 43.2 cases per 100,000 population in 2016 and has consistently increased since 2011. It was 2.4 times higher among men than among women. The estimated prevalence among adults over 30 years of age ranged from 0.34% to 0.70% in 2020; it was higher among men and increased with age. The mortality in 2020, which was 19.3 per 100,000 population in 2020, remained relatively stable in recent years. Mortality was higher among men than among women. Based on representative inpatient registry data, the proportion of ST-elevated myocardial infarction decreased until recently, and the median time from symptom onset to hospital arrival was approximately 2 hours and 30 minutes. The hospitalization incidence, prevalence, and mortality rate of myocardial infarction were lower in Korea than in other countries, although there was an increasing trend. Comprehensive national-level support and surveillance systems are needed to routinely collect accurate epidemiological indicators.
Summary
Korean summary
○우리나라의 심근경색증 발생률은 2016년 기준 인구 10만명 당 43.2명으로 추정되며 2011년 이후 증가하고 있음. ○ 30세 이상 인구에서 심근경색증 유병률은 0.34% (건강보험청구데이터) 또는 1.0% (국민건강영양조사)로 추정됨. ○ 전체인구에서 심근경색증으로 인한 사망률은 2019년 인구 10만명 당 18.8명으로 최근 큰 변화가 없거나 약간 감소하는 추세임.
Key Message
This review article showed the hospitalized incidence, prevalence, mortality, and features on patient registry of myocardial infarction in Korea from published articles and opened data sources.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Prognostic role of sarcopenia on major adverse cardiac events among patients who underwent successful percutaneous coronary intervention: a retrospective cohort study
    Mi Hwa Won, Kyeong Ho Yun, Heeseon Kim, Youn-Jung Son
    European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Systematic review and meta-analysis of the intervention effect of curcumin on rodent models of myocardial infarction
    Bing-Yao Pang, Ya-Hong Wang, Xing-Wang Ji, Yan Leng, Hou-Bo Deng, Li-Hong Jiang
    Frontiers in Pharmacology.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
COVID-19: Original Article
The age-standardized incidence, mortality, and case fatality rates of COVID-19 in 79 countries: a cross-sectional comparison and their correlations with associated factors
Dongui Hong, Sohyae Lee, Yoon-Jung Choi, Sungji Moon, Yoonyoung Jang, Yoon-Min Cho, Hyojung Lee, Sukhong Min, Hyeree Park, Seokyung Hahn, Ji-Yeob Choi, Aesun Shin, Daehee Kang
Epidemiol Health. 2021;43:e2021061.   Published online September 8, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2021061
  • 15,982 View
  • 334 Download
  • 8 Citations
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, crude incidence and mortality rates have been widely reported; however, age-standardized rates are more suitable for comparisons. In this study, we estimated and compared the age-standardized incidence, mortality, and case fatality rates (CFRs) among countries and investigated the relationship between these rates and factors associated with healthcare resources: gross domestic product per capita, number of hospital beds per population, and number of doctors per population.
METHODS
The incidence, mortality, and CFRs of 79 countries were age-standardized using the World Health Organization standard population. The rates for persons 60 years or older were also calculated. The relationships among the rates were analysed using trend lines and coefficients of determination (R2). Pearson correlation coefficients between the rates and the healthcare resource-related factors were calculated.
RESULTS
The countries with the highest age-standardized incidence, mortality, and CFRs were Czechia (14,253 cases/100,000), Mexico (182 deaths/100,000), and Mexico (6.7%), respectively. The R2 between the incidence and mortality rates was 0.852 for all ages and 0.945 for those 60 years or older. The healthcare resources-related factors were associated positively with incidence rates and negatively with CFRs, with weaker correlations among the elderly.
CONCLUSIONS
Compared to age-standardized rates, crude rates showed greater variation among countries. Medical resources may be important in preventing COVID-19-related deaths; however, considering the small variation in fatality among the elderly, preventive measures such as vaccination are more important, especially for the elderly population, to minimize the mortality rates.
Summary
Korean summary
국가별 발생률, 사망률, 치명률을 WHO 표준 인구로 연령표준화하였고, 의료자원과 관계된 지표와의 상관관계를 파악하였다. 2021년 4월 6일 기준, 연령표준화 발생률, 사망률, 치명률이 가장 높은 나라는 각각 체코 (10만명당 14,253명), 멕시코 (10만명당 182명), 멕시코 (6.7%)이며, 60세 이상 노인은 사망률과 치명률이 더 높은 것으로 나타났다. 1인당GDP, 인구당 의사 수, 인구당 병상 수는 발생률과 양의 상관관계가, 치명률과는 음의 상관관계가 있었고 노인에게서는 상관관계가 약하게 나타났다. 코로나바이러스감염증-19로 인한 피해를 최소화하기 위해서 의료자원의 투입과 더불어 노인의 감염예방이 중요할 것이다.
Key Message
The incidence, mortality, and case fatality rates of 79 countries were age-standardized using the WHO standard population. The correlations between the rates and the healthcare resource-related factors were investigated. As of April 6, 2021, the countries with the highest age-standardized incidence, mortality, and case fatality rates were Czechia (14,253 cases/100,000), Mexico (182 deaths/100,000), and Mexico (6.7%), respectively; the mortality and case fatality rates were higher among the elderly. GDP per capita, number of hospital beds per population, and number of doctors per population were associated positively with incidence rate, and negatively with case fatality rates: the correlations were weaker among the elderly. To minimize the burden caused by COVID-19, preventing the elderly from infection is important as well as supply of medical resources.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • The First Wave of COVID-19 in Forensic Psychiatry: A Rapid Review Series
    Y. Bodryzlova, A. J. Lemieux, A. Crocker
    Victims & Offenders.2023; 18(5): 799.     CrossRef
  • Age-standardization and Standard Population
    Dongui Hong, Sohyae Lee, Kyu-Won Jung, Aesun Shin
    Journal of Health Informatics and Statistics.2023; 48(Suppl 1): S15.     CrossRef
  • Rapid establishment of a dedicated COVID-19 hospital in Mexico city during a public health crisis
    Roberto Tapia-Conyer, Rafael Ricardo Valdez-Vázquez, Julieta Lomelín-Gascón, Rodrigo Saucedo-Martínez, Luis Alberto Martinez-Juarez, Héctor Gallardo-Rincón
    Hospital Practice.2022; 50(3): 183.     CrossRef
  • Comparative epidemiology of five waves of COVID-19 in Mexico, March 2020–August 2022
    Iván de Jesús Ascencio-Montiel, Oscar David Ovalle-Luna, Ramón Alberto Rascón-Pacheco, Victor Hugo Borja-Aburto, Gerardo Chowell
    BMC Infectious Diseases.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Robert Tucker Omberg, Alex Tabarrok
    Oxford Review of Economic Policy.2022; 38(4): 851.     CrossRef
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    Yongmoon Kim, Bryan Inho Kim, Sangwoo Tak
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    Jinwook Bahk, Kyunghee Jung-Choi
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Brief Communication
Cancer incidence in the Tobruk area, eastern Libya: first results from Tobruk Medical Centre
Faisal Ismail, Ahmed G. Elsayed, Islam El-Garawani, Eman Abdelsameea
Epidemiol Health. 2021;43:e2021050.   Published online August 3, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2021050
  • 6,924 View
  • 288 Download
  • 1 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
Cancer is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, and it is an increasing problem in developing countries. Estimation of the incidence of cancer is important, especially in regions with limited epidemiological data on cancer. Therefore, the aim of this study was to provide an updated report on the incidence of cancers in the Tobruk region in eastern Libya.
METHODS
Data on cancer patients from the records of the Department of Histopathology of Tobruk Medical Centre from January 2013 to June 2020 were included.
RESULTS
In total, 402 cases were recorded. Men patients accounted for 30.3% (n=122) of cases, and women patients represented 69.6% (n=280). The overall mean age at the time of the first diagnosis was 49.0±17.1 years. The most common malignancies were breast and uterine cancer in women (18.4%, n=74; 15.9%, n=64, respectively), colorectal cancer (11.6%, n=47; 26 in women and 21 in men), bladder cancer (8.2%, n=33; 8 in women and 25 in men), and thyroid cancer (8.0%, n=32; 23 in women and 9 in men).
CONCLUSIONS
Breast and uterine cancers were the most common cancers in women, and bladder and colorectal cancer were the most common cancers in men, followed by colorectal cancer in both genders. These data will help health authorities launch preventive plans for cancer in the region. Further studies to identify aetiological factors and cancer-related risk factors need to be conducted in the region.
Summary
Korean summary
Key Message
Cancer incidence in the Tobruk area, eastern Libya: first results from Tobruk Medical Centre; cancer is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide and so in Libya; this is an updated report on the incidence of cancers in the Tobruk region in eastern Libya.

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  • Libyan cancer patients at King Hussein Cancer Center for more than a decade, the current situation, and a future vision
    Madiha Erashdi, Abdallah Al-Ani, Asem Mansour, Maysa Al-Hussaini
    Frontiers in Oncology.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
Systematic Review
Prevalence of high-risk HPV genotypes in sub-Saharan Africa according to HIV status: a 20-year systematic review
Jude Ogechukwu Okoye, Chukwudi Amaechi Ofodile, Oluwaseun Kelechi Adeleke, Okechi Obioma
Epidemiol Health. 2021;43:e2021039.   Published online May 25, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2021039
  • 9,705 View
  • 316 Download
  • 14 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
This review assessed the rate of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection among women living in sub-Saharan Africa. It also determined the prevalence of high-risk HPV (hrHPV) among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) seropositive (HIV+) and seronegative (HIV-) women in sub-Saharan Africa, pre-2010 and post-2010.
METHODS
In this systematic review, Google Scholar, PubMed Central, and Embase were searched to identify cohort and case-control studies that investigated the relationship between HIV and HPV infection. The database searches yielded 17 studies published between 1999 and 2018.
RESULTS
In the general population, the prevalence of any HPV/multiple HPV infections was higher among HIV+ (53.6/22.6%) than among HIV- women (26.5/7.3%) with odds ratios of 3.22 and 3.71, respectively (95% confidence interval, 3.00 to 3.42 and 2.39 to 5.75, p< 0.001). The prevalent HPV genotypes among HIV+ and HIV- women diagnosed with invasive cervical cancer (ICC) were HPV-16/18 and HPV-45. The prevalence of HPV-16, HPV-18, and HPV-45 was lower in 1999-2010 (3.8, 1.7, and 0.8%, respectively) than in 2011-2018 (19.1, 6.0, and 3.6%, respectively). Among women diagnosed with ICC, HIV+ women had a higher prevalence of HPV-56, HPV-31, and HPV-51 (7.3, 5.3, and 3.3%, respectively) than HIV- women (1.3, 2.2, and 0.4%, p< 0.001, p= 0.050, and p= 0.013, respectively).
CONCLUSIONS
The prevalence of HPV infection, multiple HPV infections, and non-vaccine HPV types were higher among HIV+ women than among HIV- women in sub-Saharan Africa. Although HIV infection influences the distribution of HPV types, this study suggests that cervical cancer incidence in sub-Saharan Africa is primarily driven by the prevalence of vaccine hrHPVs, especially HPV-16 and HPV-18.
Summary
Korean summary
Key Message
Despite increasing awareness of Human papillomavirus (HPV) among women and availability of HPV vaccines, mounting evidence shows that the age-standardized incidence rate of cervical cancer is increasing in sub-Saharan Africa. This review revealed the influences of some viruses on the trends of the disease between 1999-2010 and 2011-2018.

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  • Comparison of human papillomavirus‐based cervical cancer screening strategies in Tanzania among women with and without HIV
    Crispin Kahesa, Louise T. Thomsen, Ditte S. Linde, Bariki Mchome, Johnson Katanga, Patricia Swai, Rachel Manongi, Myassa Kjaerem, Thomas Iftner, Marianne Waldstrøm, Julius Mwaiselage, Vibeke Rasch, Susanne K. Kjær
    International Journal of Cancer.2023; 152(4): 686.     CrossRef
  • Human papillomavirus testing using existing nucleic acid testing platforms to screen women for cervical cancer: implementation studies from five sub-Saharan African countries
    Jessica Joseph, Owen Demke, Lola Ameyan, Joseph Bitilinyu-Bango, Blandine Bourgoin, Mamadou Diop, Babacar Guèye, Jibrin Kama, Marvin Lubega, Bernard Madzima, Tatenda Maparo, Tasimba Mhizha, Andrew Musoke, Susan Nabadda, Twambilire Phiri, Timothy Tchereni,
    BMJ Open.2023; 13(1): e065074.     CrossRef
  • Utilizing first void urine for high-risk HPV testing for cervical cancer screening in HIV-positive women in Katete, Zambia
    Marian Kaoma, Oladapo Olayemi, Mwila Hilton Mwaba, Kapembwa Sikwewa
    BMC Women's Health.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • High-risk human papillomavirus genotype distribution among women living with and at risk for HIV in Africa
    Mkunde Chachage, Ajay P. Parikh, Anifrid Mahenge, Emmanuel Bahemana, Jonathan Mnkai, Wilbert Mbuya, Ruby Mcharo, Lucas Maganga, Jaqueline Mwamwaja, Reginald Gervas, Hannah Kibuuka, Jonah Maswai, Valentine Singoei, Michael Iroezindu, Abiola Fasina, Allahna
    AIDS.2023; 37(4): 625.     CrossRef
  • The state of human papillomavirus research in Africa
    Kehinde Kazeem Kanmodi, Eyinade Adeduntan Egbedina, Jimoh Amzat, Kafayat Aminu, Lawrence Achilles Nnyanzi
    Public Health Challenges.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Measuring the impact of COVID-19 social distancing measures on sexual health behaviours and access to HIV and sexual and reproductive health services for people living with HIV in Botswana
    Samuel Ensor, Imogen Mechie, Rebecca Ryan, Aamirah Mussa, Bame Bame, Lefhela Tamuthiba, Neo Moshashane, Chelsea Morroni
    Frontiers in Global Women's Health.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Mahamadou Diakite, Kathryn Shaw-Saliba, Chuen-Yen Lau
    Frontiers in Virology.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Cervicovaginal Microbiota Profiles in Precancerous Lesions and Cervical Cancer among Ethiopian Women
    Brhanu Teka, Kyoko Yoshida-Court, Ededia Firdawoke, Zewditu Chanyalew, Muluken Gizaw, Adamu Addissie, Adane Mihret, Lauren E. Colbert, Tatiana Cisneros Napravnik, Molly B. El Alam, Erica J. Lynn, Melissa Mezzari, Jhingran Anuja, Eva Johanna Kantelhardt, A
    Microorganisms.2023; 11(4): 833.     CrossRef
  • High-risk human papillomavirus genotype distribution among women living with HIV; implication for cervical cancer prevention in a resource limited setting
    Patrick Kafui Akakpo, Sebastian Ken-Amoah, Nancy Innocentia Ebu Enyan, Elizabeth Agyare, Emmanuel Salia, Ibrahim Baidoo, Leonard Derkyi-Kwarteng, Matthew Asare, George Adjei, Stephen Ayisi Addo, Dorcas Obiri-Yeboah
    Infectious Agents and Cancer.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • HPV prevalence among young adult women living with and without HIV in Botswana for future HPV vaccine impact monitoring
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Original Articles
Epidemiological distribution of primary central nervous system tumors in the Western Province of Saudi Arabia: a local registry from neuroscience-affiliated centers
Maher Kurdi, Nadeem Shafique Butt, Saleh Baeesa, Badrah Alghamdi, Yazid Maghrabi, Anas Bardeesi, Rothaina Saeedi, Ahmed I. Lary
Epidemiol Health. 2021;43:e2021037.   Published online May 23, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2021037
  • 8,660 View
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  • 2 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
Central nervous system (CNS) tumors are a major and growing global healthcare challenge. Western Saudi Arabia has an inconsistent data registry; therefore, the epidemiology of CNS tumors is unclear across the country. This study is aimed to assemble the epidemiological matrix of CNS tumors in the Western Province of Saudi Arabia.
METHODS
A retrospective analysis was performed using clinical data obtained from 3 neuroscience centers in Western Saudi Arabia in the period 2014-2019. The sample size included 663 adult and pediatric cases from the local and expatriate populations diagnosed with CNS tumors. The distributions of age, sex, clinical presentation, tumor location, type of surgery, histological subtype, genetic characteristics, and recurrence rate were explored.
RESULTS
The analysis included 500 adult cases and 163 pediatric cases up to 18 years of age with a male-to-female ratio of 1.16. The mean age at diagnosis was 38.0±22.6 years. The supratentorium was the most common location (n=515, 77.7%). Most patients presented with headache (n=298, 44.9%), followed by a focal neurological deficit (19.9%). The most common primary CNS tumor was glioblastoma (n=234, 35.3%), followed by meningioma (n=100, 15.1%). The recurrence rate after surgery was estimated to be 40.9% among all CNS tumors.
CONCLUSIONS
This is the first tumor registry of Western Province of Saudi Arabia that describes the distribution of primary CNS tumors and highlights their epidemiological matrix. Several incidence trends in terms of histological type, age group, sex, location, and recurrence were determined, and some genetic characteristics were recognized.
Summary
Korean summary
Key Message
Incidence, prevalence and the recurrence of CNS tumors vary according to histological type, age at diagnosis, sex, and available treatments. Further research should be performed to identify potential risk factors for CNS tumors in Saudi Arabia. Genome technology provides an opportunity to relate incidence rates with risk factors.

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  • Nuclear Factor-Kappa B in Gliomas as a Predictive Factor for Tumor Recurrence – A Clinicopathological Study
    Basant H. Sayed, Samia M. Gabal, Ahmed M. Abdalaziz, Dalia Abd El-Kareem
    Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences.2023; 11(A): 221.     CrossRef
  • Epidemiological Trends in Childhood Cancer in Saudi Arabia
    Nazim Faisal Hamid, Fayez Muawwadh Albalawi, Abdulrahman Abdullah Aloufi, Rawapy Ali Hamas, Nasser Awadh H Alanazi, Tariq Hulayyil Alanazi
    Clinical Cancer Investigation Journal.2022; 11(5): 42.     CrossRef
Incidence and mortality of cervical cancer in Vietnam and Korea (1999-2017)
Kim Ngoc Tran, Yoon Park, Byung-Woo Kim, Jin-Kyoung Oh, Moran Ki
Epidemiol Health. 2020;42:e2020075.   Published online December 16, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2020075
  • 8,671 View
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  • 5 Citations
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
Cervical cancer is a major disease burden in Vietnam. This study aimed to estimate the incidence and mortality rates of cervical cancer in Vietnam (1999-2017) in comparison to those in Korea, where a population-based cancer registry and national cervical cancer screening program have been implemented.
METHODS
The estimated incidence and mortality of cervical cancer in Vietnam and Korea (1999-2017) were collected from Global Burden of Disease 2017 study. Estimated age-standardized rates (ASRs) in both countries were calculated utilizing the 1999-2017 population of each country and the World Health Organization standard population. The reported ASRs in Korea were also computed using data on incidence and mortality (1999-2017) and the Korean population from the Korea Statistical Information Service.
RESULTS
In Vietnam, the estimated incidence and mortality of cervical cancer decreased annually by 0.84% and 1.01%. In Korea, the trend of reported incidence showed a dramatic drop (1999-2007 annual percent change [APC], -4.53%) before stably declining (2007-2017 APC, -2.71%). Reported mortality also significantly decreased (2003-2008 APC, -6.63%), and then maintained a stable decline (2008-2017 APC, -3.78%). The incidence and mortality rates were higher in Vietnam than in Korea. The declining trend of incidence and mortality in Vietnam was slower than the corresponding trends in Korea.
CONCLUSIONS
A national screening program should be implemented for Vietnamese women aged over 30 to maintain, or even hasten, the decline in cervical cancer incidence and mortality. A population-based cancer registry may help monitor the effectiveness of a cervical cancer screening program.
Summary
Korean summary
국가 암 등록 체계와 국가 암 검진 프로그램이 아직 마련되지 않은 베트남에서 자궁경부암에 대한 질병부담을 줄일 수 있는 방향성을 제시하고자, 한국의 암 관리 현황과 질병부담을 비교한 연구입니다. 국가 암 등록자료를 구축하고 자궁경부암에 대한 국가 암 검진 프로그램을 도입한 한국과 베트남의 자궁경부암 발생률과 사망률 추이를 비교함으로 베트남에서도 체계적인 암 관리와 예방의 필요성을 강조하고자 한 연구입니다.
Key Message

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  • A questionnaire study on disparity of cervical cancer prevention programs in Asia‐Oceania
    Ka Yu Tse, Kimio Ushijima, Ai Ling Tan, Perapong Intasorn, Jitendra Pariyar, Chih‐Long Chang, Efren J. Domingo, Hiralal Konar, Suresh Kumarasamy, Brahmana Askandar Tjokroprawiro, Sarikapan Wilailak
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    Wenping Guo, Wang Jing
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    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2023; 20(12): 6150.     CrossRef
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    Dong Hyeok Kim, Kyung Eun Lee
    Biomedical Science Letters.2022; 28(4): 229.     CrossRef
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Temporal trend and spatial distribution of acute lymphoblastic leukemia in Iranian children during 2006-2014: a mixed ecological study
Sajjad Rahimi Pordanjani, Amir Kavousi, Babak Mirbagheri, Abbas Shahsavani, Koorosh Etemad
Epidemiol Health. 2020;42:e2020057.   Published online July 29, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2020057
  • 8,244 View
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  • 5 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
The present study investigated the spatiotemporal epidemiological status of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), the most common childhood cancer, in Iran.
METHODS
Using an exploratory mixed design, this ecological study examined 3,769 under-15 children with ALL recorded in the National Cancer Registry of Iran during 2006-2014. Data were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U test, the Getis-Ord general G (GOGG) index, optimized hot spot analysis, and Pearson correlation coefficients (PCC) at a significance level of 0.05.
RESULTS
The average annual incidence of the disease was 2.25 per 100,000 under-15 children, and the cumulative incidence rate (CIR) was 21.31 per 100,000 under-15 children. Patients’ mean age was 5.90 years (standard deviation, 3.68), and the peak incidence was observed among 2-year to 5-year-olds. No significant difference was found in mean age between boys and girls (p=0.261). The incidence of ALL was more common during spring and summer than in other seasons. The GOGG index was 0.039 and significant (p<0.001). Hot spots were identified in south, central, and eastern Iran and cold spots in the north and west of Iran. The PCC between the CIR and latitude was negative (r=-0.507; p=0.003) but that between the CIR and longitude was positive (r=0.347; p=0.055).
CONCLUSIONS
The incidence of ALL in Iranian children was lower than that observed in developed countries, but showed an increasing trend. It can be argued that the incidence of ALL is due to synergistic interactions between environmental, infectious, geographical, and genetic risk factors.
Summary
Korean summary
Key Message

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    Sajjad Rahimi Pordanjani, Maryam Mohammadian, Somayeh Derakhshan, Fatemeh Hadavandsiri, Seyed Saeed Hashemi Nazari, Mohammad Hossein Panahi
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Socio-demographic and lifestyle factors associated with multimorbidity in New Zealand
Nayyereh Aminisani, Christine Stephens, Joanne Allen, Fiona Alpass, Seyed Morteza Shamshirgaran
Epidemiol Health. 2020;42:e2020001.   Published online December 27, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2020001
  • 12,159 View
  • 307 Download
  • 14 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
The incidence of multimorbidity (MM) and its correlates among older adults remain poorly understood. This study aimed to examine the socio-demographic and lifestyle factors associated with MM in New Zealand.
METHODS
People aged 55-70 years were invited to participate in a population-based cohort study, the Health Work and Retirement Study, in 2006. Those who accepted the invitation and completed the baseline questionnaire were followed up on a biennial basis. Data on socio-demographic factors, health and lifestyle behaviours, and diagnoses of chronic diseases were obtained from baseline and 6 waves of follow-up. Generalised estimating equations (GEE) adjusted for both time-constant and time-varying factors were used to model factors associated with the onset of MM.
RESULTS
A total of 1,673 participants (with 0 or 1 chronic condition) contributed to an overall 8,616 person-years of observation. There were 590 new cases of MM over 10 years of follow-up, corresponding to an overall incidence of 68.5 per 1,000 person-years. The results of the age- and sex-adjusted GEE analysis showed that age, ethnicity, living alone, obesity, hypertension, and having 1 chronic condition at baseline were significant predictors of MM onset. Higher education, income, physical activity, and regular alcohol consumption were protective factors. In a fully adjusted model, marital status (odds ratio [OR], 1.18; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01 to 1.37; p=0.039), hypertension (OR, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.02 to 1.48; p=0.032) and having 1 chronic condition at baseline (OR, 2.92; 95% CI, 2.33 to 3.67; p<0.001) remained significant.
CONCLUSIONS
The higher incidence of MM among Māori people, socioeconomically disadvantaged groups, those with low physical activity, and obese individuals highlights the importance of targeted prevention strategies.
Summary
Korean summary
Key Message

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    Qingling Yang, Quanzhi Zhang, Fei Wan Ngai, Shaoling Wang, Dexing Zhang, Yang Gao, Chun Hao, Harry Haoxiang Wang, Oi Ching Bernice Lam Nogueira, Ming Liu, Alex Molasiotis, Alice Loke, Yaojie Xie
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Incidence and predictors of tuberculosis among HIV-positive children at Adama Referral Hospital and Medical College, Oromia, Ethiopia: a retrospective follow-up study
Masino Tessu Beshir, Aklil Hailu Beyene, Kenean Getaneh Tlaye, Tefera Mulugeta Demelew
Epidemiol Health. 2019;41:e2019028.   Published online June 22, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2019028
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
Tuberculosis (TB) is common in children with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), but its effect on the survival of HIV-infected children is not well understood. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the incidence and predictors of active TB among HIV-positive children at Adama Referral Hospital and Medical College, Oromia, Ethiopia.
METHODS
A retrospective study was conducted over 5 years using a checklist to gather data from 428 randomly selected pediatric patient charts. The checklist was adapted from the standardized antiretroviral therapy (ART) follow-up form currently used by the institution’s ART clinic. Data were analyzed by bivariate and multivariable analysis using Cox regression proportional hazards models, as appropriate. Survival was calculated and compared using the Kaplan-Meier and log-rank tests.
RESULTS
Of the 466 charts reviewed, 428 patient records were included in the analysis. A total of 67 new TB cases were observed during the follow-up period. Hence, the incidence rate in this cohort was found to be 6.03 per 100 child-years of observation. A baseline hemoglobin level <10 g/dL (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 7.04; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03 to 48.15), moderate wasting (aHR, 2.86; 95% CI, 1.02 to 7.99), and not receiving isoniazid preventive therapy (aHR, 8.23; 95% CI, 2.11 to 32.06) were among the independent predictors of TB occurrence.
CONCLUSIONS
The incidence of TB was high, particularly in pre-ART patients receiving chronic care for HIV. Close followup of HIV-positive children is crucial to protect them against the development of TB. Initiating isoniazid preventive therapy, averting malnutrition, and managing anemia are also of significant importance.
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