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Systematic Review
Effectiveness of community-based interventions for older adults living alone: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Inhye Kim, Hyunseo An, Sohyeon Yun, Hae Yean Park
Epidemiol Health. 2024;46:e2024013.   Published online January 3, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2024013
  • 2,521 View
  • 145 Download
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
This study examined the effectiveness of community-based interventions designed for older adults living alone through a systematic review and meta-analysis.
METHODS
The study incorporated 4 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and 5 non-RCTs to evaluate various interventions. The methodological quality of these studies was assessed using the Downs and Black checklist, while Q-statistic and I-square tests were performed to examine statistical heterogeneity. Additionally, visual inspection of funnel plots and the trim-and-fill method were employed to investigate potential publication bias. Of the 2,729 identified studies, 9 met the criteria for inclusion in this review. Independent variables were categorized into 5 groups (physical activity, nutrition, social relationships, social participation, and combined intervention) to examine their effects. Dependent variables were similarly classified into 5 subgroups to identify the specific effects of the interventions.
RESULTS
Interventions focusing on nutrition and combined approaches were the most effective, yielding effect sizes of 0.96 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.66 to 1.25) and 0.43 (95% CI, 0.26 to 0.60), respectively. The interventions had the greatest impacts on the health behavior and mental health of the participants, with effect sizes of 0.98 (95% CI, 0.73 to 1.22) for health behavior and 0.67 (95% CI, 0.19 to 1.16) for mental health.
CONCLUSIONS
This study suggests a direction for the development of community-based interventions tailored to the needs of older adults living alone. Additionally, it provides evidence to inform policy decisions concerning this demographic.
Summary
Korean summary
본 연구는 독거 노인들 대상으로 한 지역사회 기반 중재의 효과에 대하여 탐색하고 그 효과 크기를 확인하기 위하여 체계적고찰 및 메타분석을 실시하였다. 영양 및 복합 중재가 특히 효과적이었으며, 이는 건강 행동과 정신건강에 있어 중요한 긍정적 효과를 나타내어 추후 개별적 맞춤 중재의 잠재적 효과성을 나타낸다. 이러한 발견은 독거노인 집단의 웰빙 향상을 위한 프로그램과 정책 입안에 근거로 활용될 수 있다.
Key Message
This systematic review and meta-analysis evaluated the impact of community-based interventions for older adults living alone, incorporating 9 studies to assess effectiveness in areas like nutrition and combined strategies. Results indicated significant benefits, particularly in health behavior and mental health, demonstrating the potential of tailored interventions. These findings support the development of targeted programs and policy decisions aimed at improving the well-being of this demographic.
Original Articles
Risk factors for early-onset lung cancer in Korea: analysis of a nationally representative population-based cohort
Jihun Kang, Taeyun Kim, Kyung-Do Han, Jin-Hyung Jung, Su-Min Jeong, Yo Hwan Yeo, Kyuwon Jung, Hyun Lee, Jong Ho Cho, Dong Wook Shin
Epidemiol Health. 2023;45:e2023101.   Published online November 21, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2023101
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
We examined the associations of socioeconomic factors, health behaviors, and comorbidities with early-onset lung cancer.
METHODS
The study included 6,794,287 individuals aged 20-39 years who participated in a Korean national health check-up program from 2009 to 2012. During the follow-up period, 4,684 participants developed lung cancer. Multivariable Cox regression analysis was used to estimate the independent associations of potential risk factors with incident lung cancer.
RESULTS
Older age (multivariable hazard ratio [mHR], 1.13; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.12 to 1.14) and female sex (mHR, 1.62; 95% CI, 1.49 to 1.75) were associated with increased lung cancer risk. Current smoking was also associated with elevated risk (<10 pack-years: mHR, 1.12; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.24; ≥10 pack-years: mHR, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.18 to 1.45), but past smoking was not. Although mild alcohol consumption (<10 g/day) was associated with lower lung cancer risk (mHR, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.86 to 0.99), heavier alcohol consumption (≥10 g/day) was not. Higher income (highest vs. lowest quartile: mHR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.78 to 0.94), physical activity for at least 1,500 metabolic equivalent of task-min/wk (vs. non-exercisers: mHR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.69 to 0.99) and obesity (vs. normal weight: mHR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.83 to 0.96) were associated with lower lung cancer risk, whereas metabolic syndrome was associated with increased risk (mHR, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.03 to 1.24).
CONCLUSIONS
In young adults, age, female sex, smoking, and metabolic syndrome were risk factors for early-onset lung cancer, while high income, physical activity, and obesity displayed protective effects.
Summary
Korean summary
나이, 여성, 흡연, 그리고 대사 증후군은 조기 발생 폐암의 위험도 증가와 연관이 있었다. 반면에 높은 소득, 신체 활동, 비만은 젊은 성인에서 폐암 발생의 위험도 감소와 연관성을 나타내었다.
Key Message
Age, female sex, smoking, and metabolic syndrome were risk factors for early-onset lung cancer. While, high income, physical activity, and obesity displayed protective effects on the development of lung cancer in young adults.
Higher energy consumption in the evening is associated with increased odds of obesity and metabolic syndrome: findings from the 2016-2018 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (7th KNHANES)
Sarang Jeong, Hajoung Lee, Sukyoung Jung, Jee Young Kim, Sohyun Park
Epidemiol Health. 2023;45:e2023087.   Published online September 19, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2023087
  • 2,844 View
  • 162 Download
  • 1 Web of Science
  • 2 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
Chrono-nutrition emphasizes meal timing in preventing obesity and metabolic disorders. This study explores the impact of temporal dietary patterns (TDPs) on obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in Korean adults aged 20 years to 65 years.
METHODS
We utilized dynamic time warping method and Kernel k-means clustering to investigate diet quality and the odds ratios (ORs) of obesity and MetS with different TDPs using data from the 7th Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.
RESULTS
Participants were divided into three groups based on relative energy intake over 24 hours. After adjusting for age and gender, Cluster 3 (with the highest proportion of energy intake in the evening) had the lowest Healthy Eating Index scores compared to other clusters. Following adjustment for key covariates, Cluster 3 showed the highest values for body mass index, waist circumference, blood pressure, total cholesterol, and triglycerides. Compared to Cluster 1 (with a lower proportion of energy intake in the evening), Cluster 2 and Cluster 3 had ORs for obesity of 1.12 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.97 to 1.30) and 1.19 (95% CI, 1.03 to 1.37), respectively. For MetS, the ORs were 1.26 (95% CI, 1.08 to 1.48) and 1.37 (95% CI, 1.17 to 1.61) when comparing Cluster 2 and Cluster 3 to Cluster 1.
CONCLUSIONS
This study reveals that individuals with higher energy intake in the evening have increased odds of obesity and MetS, even after adjusting for major covariates, including age and total energy intake.
Summary
Korean summary
본 연구는 하루 중 주요 에너지 섭취 사간에 따른 인구사회학적 특징과 건강지표의 상관성을 분석하였다. 제 7기 국민건강영양조사의 20~65세의 한국 성인을 대상으로 Dynamic Time Warping 방법을 이용하여 군집을 나누어 분석한 결과, 하루 중 저녁시간에 에너지 섭취가 높은 그룹이 그렇지 않은 그룹에 비해 연령이 낮고, 흡연자, 음주자, 스트레스를 느끼는 대상자의 비율이 높았다. 또한, 저녁에 에너지 섭취 비율이 높은 그룹이 그렇지 않은 그룹에 비해 체질량지수, 허리둘레, 혈압, 총 콜레스테롤, 중성지방이 높았으며, 식생활 평가 지수가 가장 낮았다. 마지막으로 하루 섭취하는 총 에너지 양과 생활습관 변수를 보정하고도 저녁에 섭취하는 에너지가 많은 그룹은 그렇지 않은 그룹에 비해 비만 및 대사 증후군 유병이 더 높은 것으로 나타났다.
Key Message
• This study examined the relationship between sociodemographic characteristics and health indicators based on the timing of major energy intake during the day. • Using the Dynamic Time Warping method, the analysis revealed that the group with higher evening energy intake was younger and had a higher proportion of smokers, alcohol consumers, and individuals experiencing stress. • Additionally, the group with higher evening energy intake exhibited higher levels of obesity and metabolic syndrome, even after adjusting for total daily energy intake and lifestyle variables.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Association of Dietary Fiber and Measures of Physical Fitness with High-Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein
    Ming-Zhen Su, Suyeon Lee, Dayeon Shin
    Nutrients.2024; 16(6): 888.     CrossRef
  • Advances in Gut Microbiota-Targeted Therapeutics for Metabolic Syndrome
    Yu Gao, Wujuan Li, Xiaoyu Huang, Yuhong Lyu, Changwu Yue
    Microorganisms.2024; 12(5): 851.     CrossRef
Trends in the effects of socioeconomic position on physical activity levels and sedentary behavior among Korean adolescents
Hunju Lee, Hyowon Choi, Sang Baek Koh, Hyeon Chang Kim
Epidemiol Health. 2023;45:e2023085.   Published online September 8, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2023085
  • 3,623 View
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
We examined trends in physical activity and sedentary behavior in Korean adolescents, and their association with socioeconomic position (SEP).
METHODS
We used data from the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Survey, a nationwide study involving students aged 12-19 conducted between 2009 and 2021. SEP was assessed based on economic status, parental education attainment, and urbanization. Physical activity was categorized into vigorous physical activity, moderate physical activity, and muscle training, and sedentary time was also measured. We conducted the log-binomial regression to calculate prevalence ratios (PRs) and prevalence differences.
RESULTS
Our analysis included a total of 593,896 students. We observed an increasing trend in physical activity, but a worsening trend in sedentary behavior. A positive association was found between an adolescent’s physical activity and SEP indicators, except for urbanization. Adolescents with higher economic status engaged in more vigorous physical activity (high: PR, 1.26; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.25 to 1.28; middle: PR, 1.03; 95% CI, 1.02 to 1.04). Similar associations were observed for father’s education (tertiary or above: PR, 1.11; 95% CI, 1.09 to 1.13; upper secondary: PR, 1.05; 95% CI, 1.03 to 1.07) and mother’s education (tertiary or above: PR, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.15 to 1.20; upper secondary: PR, 1.06; 95% CI, 1.04 to 1.08). Adolescents with higher economic status also showed a higher compliance rate with the guideline restricting sedentary time to 2 hours per day (high: PR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.25 to 1.30; middle: PR, 1.03; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.05).
CONCLUSIONS
Adolescents with higher SEP exhibited more physical activity and less sedentary time than those with lower SEP.
Summary
Korean summary
본 연구는 2009년부터 2021년까지 청소년의 사회경제적 지위가 신체활동과 좌식생활습관에 미치는 영향을 분석하였다. 청소년의 경제적 상태, 아버지와 어머니의 교육수준이 높을수록 청소년의 신체활동이 증가하고 좌식생활이 감소하였다. 그러나 청소년이 사는 지역의 도시화 정도는 영향을 미치지 않았다.
Key Message
This article analyzes the effects of an adolescent's socio-economic position on their physical activity and sedentary behavior from 2009 to 2021. The higher the adolescent's economic status, father's education, or mother's education, the more they engaged in physical activity and the less time they spent in sedentary behaviors. However, the level of urbanization in the area where the adolescent resided had no effect.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Using structural equation modeling to explore the influences of physical activity, mental health, well-being, and loneliness on Douyin usage at bedtime
    Hongcheng Luo, Xing Zhang, Songpeng Su, Mingyang Zhang, Mingyue Yin, Siyuan Feng, Rui Peng, Hansen Li
    Frontiers in Public Health.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
Physical activity, sedentary behavior, and cardiovascular disease risk in Korea: a trajectory analysis
Jina Han, Yeong Jun Ju, Soon Young Lee
Epidemiol Health. 2023;45:e2023028.   Published online February 22, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2023028
  • 4,389 View
  • 236 Download
  • 1 Web of Science
  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
To identify the distinct trajectories of sedentary behavior (SB) and explore whether reduced cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk was associated with a distinct trajectory of physical activity (PA).
METHODS
We analyzed data from 6,425 people who participated in the Korean Health Panel Survey over a period of 10 years. The participants’ self-reported SB and PA were assessed annually, and trajectory groups were identified using a group-based trajectory model for longitudinal data analysis. Logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the association between CVD risk (10-year cumulative incidence) and the trajectories of SB and PA. The adjusted variables included socio-demographic factors, the predisposing diseases of CVD, and baseline health behaviors.
RESULTS
Trajectory analysis identified 4 SB trajectory groups: SB group 1 (low and slightly increasing trend, 53.1%), SB group 2 (high and rapidly decreasing trend, 14.7%), SB group 3 (high and slightly decreasing trend, 9.9%), and SB group 4 (low and rapidly increasing trend, 22.2%). The 3 PA trajectory groups were PA group 1 (moderate and slightly decreasing trend, 32.1%), PA group 2 (low and slightly decreasing trend, 57.3%), and PA group 3 (maintained inactivity, 10.7%). By the 10-year follow-up, 577 cases of incident CVD had occurred. We also noted a 50% reduction in the risk of CVD when SB group 4 was accompanied by PA group 1 (odds ratio, 0.50; 95% confidence interval, 0.28 to 0.90).
CONCLUSIONS
Despite increased time spent in SB, maintaining PA about 2 days to 3 days per week reduced the occurrence of CVD.
Summary

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Effects of physical activity and sedentary behaviors on cardiovascular disease and the risk of all-cause mortality in overweight or obese middle-aged and older adults
    Yongqiang Zhang, Xia Liu
    Frontiers in Public Health.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
COVID-19: Special Article
Changes in health behaviors and obesity of Korean adolescents before and during the COVID-19 pandemic: a special report using the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Survey
Chang-Mo Oh, Yangha Kim, Jieun Yang, Sunhye Choi, Kyungwon Oh
Epidemiol Health. 2023;45:e2023018.   Published online February 14, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2023018
  • 7,021 View
  • 335 Download
  • 1 Web of Science
  • 2 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
This study aimed to investigate changes in health behaviors, including cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking, physical activity, dietary behaviors, and obesity, before and during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic using the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Survey (KYRBS) database.
METHODS
KYRBS data from 2015 to 2021 were used in this study. Differences in health behaviors between before (pre-pandemic period: 2018-2019) and during (pandemic period: 2020-2021) the pandemic were examined. Differences were compared using linear regression and the chi-square test considering the complex survey design after adjusting for grade level.
RESULTS
The prevalence of current cigarette smoking and current alcohol drinking significantly decreased in both male and female students during the pandemic compared to the pre-pandemic period. However, the prevalence of obesity significantly increased in both male and female students during the same period. When examining physical activity and dietary behaviors closely related to obesity, fast food consumption increased and fruit consumption decreased during the pandemic in both male and female students, whereas no significant changes in physical activity were observed in either male or female students.
CONCLUSIONS
The deterioration of adolescent dietary behaviors and an increase in the prevalence of obesity can increase the future disease burden, and concerted efforts at the individual and national levels are needed to reduce obesity and promote healthy dietary behaviors.
Summary
Korean summary
이 연구는 한국 청소년건강행태조사자료(KYRBS)를 사용하여 코로나19 유행 전후의 우리나라 청소년들의 흡연, 음주, 신체활동, 식습관, 비만 등의 건강행태의 변화에 대하여 살펴보고자 하였다. 이 연구에서는 2015년부터 2021년까지의 청소년건강행태조사자료를 사용하여, 코로나19 유행 이전 (2018-2019년)과 코로나 유행 이후 (2020-2021년) 기간의 건강행태의 변화에 대하여 조사하였다. 학년레벨을 보정한 후, 복합표본설계를 고려하여 로지스틱 회귀분석과 카이제곱검정을 이용하여 코로나19 유행 이전 (2018-2019년)과 비교하여, 코로나 유행 이후 (2020-2021년) 기간의 건강행태의 변화가 있었는지에 대하여 확인하였다. 그 결과, 코로나19 유행 이전 (2018-2019년)과 비교하여, 코로나19 유행 기간(2020-2021년) 동안에 현재흡연율과 현재음주율이 유의하게 감소하였다. 그러나 동일한 기간 동안에 남학생과 여학생 모두에서 비만율이 유의하게 증가하였는데, 비만율과 관련된 신체활동 및 식습관에 대하여 살펴보았을 때, 신체활동에서는 유의한 변화가 없었던 반면, 남학생과 여학생 모두에서 패스트푸드 섭취는 증가하고 과일섭취가 감소한 것으로 나타났다. 따라서 코로나19 유행기간 동안 흡연율 및 음주율 등의 청소년 건강에 유익한 변화도 있었으나, 비만율도 같이 증가한 것을 확인할 수 있었다. 청소년기의 식습관의 악화 및 비만율의 증가는 미래 우리나라의 질병부담을 증가시킬 수 있기 때문에, 청소년의 비만율을 낮추고 건강한 식습관을 증진시키기 위한 개인 및 사회 차원의 노력이 필요하다.
Key Message
-The current cigarette smoking and current alcohol drinking rates significantly decreased among Korean adolescents during the pandemic period compared to the pre-pandemic period. -On the other hand, the obesity rate increased significantly especially among Korean male adolescents, which is accompanied by changes in dietary habits such as an increase in fast food intake and a decrease in fruit intake.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Changes in Adolescent Health Behavior and the Exacerbation of Economic Hardship During the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Cross-sectional Study From the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Survey
    Chaeeun Kim, Haeun Lee, Kyunghee Jung-Choi, Hyesook Park
    Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health.2024; 57(1): 18.     CrossRef
  • A Comparison of Changes in Health Behavior, Obesity, and Mental Health of Korean Adolescents Before and During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Online Cross-Sectional Study
    Mi-Sun Lee, Hooyeon Lee
    Psychiatry Investigation.2023; 20(11): 1086.     CrossRef
COVID-19: Original Article
Changes in eating behaviors according to household income in adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic: findings from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
Hye Ah Lee, Ho Jung Lee, Bomi Park, Yoonhee Shin, Hyunjin Park, Hyesook Park
Epidemiol Health. 2022;44:e2022102.   Published online November 9, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2022102
  • 4,632 View
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  • 2 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
To assess social inequalities in changes in dietary behaviors among adolescents during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, we compared changes in dietary behavior indicators by household income.
METHODS
Using cross-sectional data from the 2019 and 2020 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, the prevalence of dietary behaviors in adolescents (12-18 years old) was estimated and changes in dietary behaviors during the COVID-19 pandemic were evaluated. We assessed changes in dietary behaviors with a household income (as a measure of socioeconomic status, SES) disparity.
RESULTS
During the COVID-19 pandemic, the average consumption of vegetables decreased and food insecurity worsened. Adolescents were more likely to skip breakfast than before COVID-19 (33.1 and 37.4%). Soft drink consumption also increased in 2020 from 2019 (7.6 and 14.8%), especially among boys. Average sugar intake and sodium intake showed a tendency to decrease only in girls, but there was no significant difference according to SES level. Skipping breakfast was particularly evident in the low-SES group, and the difference according to household income level (high vs. low) was greater during COVID-19 than before. The prevalence of soft drink consumption increased significantly in the low-SES group, but the rate of increase did not differ by SES level.
CONCLUSIONS
We found that the social disparity in skipping breakfast was further aggravated during the COVID-19 pandemic. To reach a better understanding of the dietary behaviors of adolescents, continuous monitoring is necessary.
Summary
Korean summary
국민건강영양조사 자료를 활용하여, COVID-19 팬데믹 전후 청소년의 식생활 변화 및 가구소득 수준에 따른 차이를 평가하였다. 대체로, 평균 채소 섭취량은 감소하고 탄산음료 소비는 증가한 것으로 나타났으며, 아침식사 결식율도 약간 증가한 것으로 나타났다. 게다가, 가구소득 수준에 따라 평가하였을 때, 아침식사 결식율 증가는 가구소득이 높은 군에 비해 가구소득 수준이 낮은 군에서 두드러진 것으로 나타났다. COVID-19 팬데믹이 장기화됨에 따라, 청소년의 식생활 변화에 대해서는 지속적인 모니터링이 필요하다.
Key Message
Using data from the 2019 and 2020 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, changes in dietary behaviors of adolescents (12-18 years old) during the COVID-19 pandemic were evaluated. During the COVID-19 pandemic, average consumption of vegetables decreased and consumption of soft drinks increased in 2020 from 2019 (7.6% and 14.8%). In addition, the social disparity in skipping breakfast among adolescents was further aggravated. To reach a better understanding of the dietary behaviors of adolescents, continuous monitoring is necessary.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Dietary Changes of Youth during the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Systematic Review
    Nicolas Woods, Jamie A Seabrook, Holly Schaafsma, Shauna Burke, Trish Tucker, Jason Gilliland
    The Journal of Nutrition.2024; 154(4): 1376.     CrossRef
  • Analysis of health behavior, mental health, and nutritional status among Korean adolescents before and after COVID-19 outbreak: based on the 2019–2020 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
    Misun Lee, Sarang Jeong, Chong-Su Kim, Yoon Jung Yang
    Journal of Nutrition and Health.2023; 56(6): 667.     CrossRef
COVID-19: Original Article
The association between tobacco or nicotine product use behaviors and non-compliance with mask-wearing during the COVID-19 pandemic: a cross-sectional study in Korea
Da-eun Lee, Heewon Kang, Sung-il Cho
Epidemiol Health. 2022;44:e2022087.   Published online October 7, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2022087
  • 4,344 View
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
It is necessary to investigate tobacco or nicotine product (TNP) use which acts as a risk factor for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection. Especially, wearing a mask is difficult to practice while using TNP. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the association between TNP use behaviors and non-compliance with mask-wearing during the COVID-19 pandemic.
METHODS
The samples of 208,618 Korean adults from 2020 Community Health Survey in Korea were used. As an independent variable, TNP use behaviors such as TNP use status, changes in TNP use after the COVID-19 outbreak, TNP types, and attempt to quit were analyzed. Logistic regression was performed on gender-stratified participants.
RESULTS
Among men, the odds ratio (OR) of current and former TNP users were 2.00 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.66 to 2.40) and 1.32 (95% CI, 1.09 to 1.60), respectively, compared to never users. In women, OR was 1.50 (95% CI, 1.00 to 2.26) for former users. Cigarette use was more associated with not wearing a mask than non-cigarette tobacco or nicotine product (NCTNP) use (OR, 1.53; 95% CI, 1.12 to 2.08). Men whose TNP use decreased had lower non-compliance (OR, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.36 to 0.74); while women whose TNP use increased had lower non-compliance (OR, 0.13; 95% CI, 0.07 to 0.26).
CONCLUSIONS
Current and former users were less likely to wear masks. Cigarette use was more associated with not wearing a mask than NCTNP use. Changes in TNP use showed association for men and women; however, in the opposite direction. Therefore, more attention should be paid to TNP use prevention and cessation support during the epidemic of respiratory infectious diseases. Moreover, it is necessary to identify risk factors of cigarette users in compliance with mask-wearing.
Summary
Korean summary
담배 또는 니코틴 제품 (Tobacco or Nicotine Products, TNPs) 현재사용자와 과거사용자는 비사용자 대비 마스크 미착용 연관성이 높고, 비궐련 담배 또는 니코틴 제품 (Non-Cigarette Tobacco or Nicotine Products, NCTNPs) 사용자보다는 일반담배 사용자의 마스크 미착용 연관성이 높다. 남성에서는 코로나19 유행 이전 대비 TNPs 사용이 감소했을 때, 여성에서는 증가했을 때 마스크 미착용 연관성이 낮았다. 따라서 호흡기 감염병 유행 시기에는 더욱 TNPs 사용 예방과 금연 지원에 관심을 가질 것을 제안한다.
Key Message
During the epidemic of respiratory infectious diseases, more attention should be paid to tobacco or nicotine products (TNPs) use prevention and cessation support.
Original Articles
The association between fruit and vegetable consumption and metabolic syndrome in Korean adults: does multivitamin use matter?
Jihae Kim, Li-Juan Tan, Hyein Jung, Yumi Roh, Kyungjoon Lim, Sangah Shin
Epidemiol Health. 2022;44:e2022039.   Published online April 19, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2022039
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is closely associated with dietary intake; however, few studies have investigated whether the consumption of fruits and vegetables and multivitamin use affect MetS in the Korean population. This study aimed to examine these effects in Korean adults.
METHODS
This was a cross-sectional study of 89,548 participants aged between 40 years and 69 years selected from the baseline data of the Health Examinees study conducted in Korea. Fresh vegetable and fruit consumption was assessed using a validated 106-item food frequency questionnaire. MetS and its components were defined using the National Cholesterol Education Program, Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify associations of fresh vegetable, fruit, and fresh vegetable+fruit consumption and multivitamin use with the prevalence of MetS.
RESULTS
Female in the highest quartile of fresh vegetable, fruit, and fresh vegetable + fruit consumption exhibited a lower prevalence of MetS than those in the lowest quartile. An inverse association with the prevalence of MetS was observed among male with only fresh vegetable consumption. The interaction between the 3 categories and multivitamin intake on the prevalence of MetS was not significant (all p<sub>interaction</sub>>0.05), regardless of sex.
CONCLUSIONS
Multivitamin use and consumption of fresh vegetables and fruits had no significant synergistic effects. Although fresh vegetable and fruit consumption showed an inverse association with the prevalence of MetS, this relationship was not altered by multivitamin use.
Summary
Korean summary
본 연구는 한국인 유전체역학조사사업의 도시코호트 조사에 참여한 40-69세 한국 성인 89 548명의 과일과 채소의 섭취와 종합비타민 섭취가 대사증후군에 미치는 영향을 분석하였다. 본 연구에서는 매일 다양한 과일과 채소를 섭취하면, 종합비타민의 섭취와 상관없이 대사증후군 유병 위험도를 낮추는 것을 확인하였다. 따라서, 대사증후군 예방을 위해서는 일상적인 식사에서 충분한 과일과 채소를 섭취하는 것이 권장된다.
Key Message
This study aimed to examine whether the consumption of fruits and vegetables and multivitamin use affect MetS among Korean middle-aged adults. Data was from the Health Examinees Study among 89 548 subjects. Results suggested that fruits and vegetables consumption was related with a decreased prevalence of MetS. However, there was no significant synergistic effect between the consumption of fruits and vegetables and multivitamin use in further reducing MetS prevalence.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Association of serum water-soluble vitamin exposures with the risk of metabolic syndrome: results from NHANES 2003-2006
    Xun Pei, Junjie Yao, Simiao Ran, Haifei Lu, Shuo Yang, Yini Zhang, Miyuan Wang, Heyuan Shi, Aihua Tan
    Frontiers in Endocrinology.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
Secular trends and related factors in leisure-time sedentary behavior among Koreans: an analysis of data from the 2011-2017 Korea Community Health Survey
Hyun-Ju Seo, Min-Jung Choi, Soon-Ki Ahn
Epidemiol Health. 2022;44:e2022023.   Published online February 14, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2022023
  • 9,921 View
  • 416 Download
  • 2 Web of Science
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
Sedentary behavior has gradually increased and has become a public health problem. Therefore, this study investigated trends in weekday leisure-time sedentary behaviors, as well as characteristic socio-demographic and lifestyle correlates in Korean adults.
METHODS
We analyzed data from 914,946 adults aged ≥19 years who participated in the Korea Community Health Survey (2011, 2013, 2015, and 2017). Leisure-time sedentary behavior was categorized as a binary variable (<4 and ≥4 hr/day). Multivariable regression analysis was used to model the prevalence of sedentary behavior and estimate odds ratios.
RESULTS
The prevalence of leisure-time sedentary behavior decreased from 15.2% to 14.4% in men and from 16.6% to 16.0% in women between 2011 and 2017, respectively. However, a significant increase was observed in subjects with an education lower than high school in both genders (β coefficient=0.12 for men and 0.08 for women, p for trend <0.001). Women in the lowest household income level (β coefficient=0.08, p for trend=0.001) and with poor subjective health status (β coefficient=0.05, p for trend=0.013) showed an increasing trend. Other factors associated with sedentary behavior were age, education level, body mass index, household income, walking activity, perceived stress level, and subjective health status in both genders.
CONCLUSIONS
Identifying the secular trends and correlates of sedentary behavior by gender and associated factors will provide empirical evidence for developing public health campaigns and promotion programs to reduce sedentary behavior in Koreans.
Summary
Korean summary
본 연구는 지역사회건강조사에서 2011년부터 2017년까지 격년으로 수집된 성인의 좌식행동에 대한 시간적 추세와 관련 요인에 대해 분석한 시계열 단면연구이다. 분석결과, 주중 여가시간에 4시간 이상 앉아 있는 경우는 남성의 경우 15.2%에서 14.4%로, 여성의 경우 16.6%에서 16.0%로 감소되었다. 그러나, 남녀 모두에서 노인인 경우, 중졸 이하의 학력을 가진 경우, 소득수준이 월 100만원 미만인 경우, 주관적 건강상태가 부정적인 경우 좌식행동이 증가하였다. 따라서, 본 연구에서 나타난 좌식행동 관련 요인을 가진 대상자를 목표집단으로 한 건강증진 및 공중보건 캠페인이 개발 및 실행될 필요가 있다.
Key Message
This study is a serial cross-sectional study analyzing the temporal trend and related factors of sedentary behavior of adults using KCHS collected biennially from 2011 to 2017. The prevalence of leisure-time sedentary behavior decreased from 15.2% to 14.4% in men and from 16.6% to 16.0% in women, respectively. However, elderly, subjects with an education lower than high school, with the lowest household income level, and with poor subjective health status showed an increasing sedentary behavior trend. These findings suggest that health promotion and public health campaigns are need to reduce the prevalence of sedentary behavior in population with related factors.

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  • Temporal trends and the association between self-rated oral health and falls in community-dwelling older adults in South Korea: a secondary analysis of survey data
    Hyun-Ju Seo, Soon-Ki Ahn, Min-Jung Choi
    BMJ Open.2024; 14(4): e081549.     CrossRef
  • Association between long working hours and physical inactivity in middle-aged and older adults: a Korean longitudinal study (2006–2020)
    Seong-Uk Baek, Won-Tae Lee, Min-Seok Kim, Myeong-Hun Lim, Jin-Ha Yoon, Jong-Uk Won
    Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health.2023; 77(6): 355.     CrossRef
The relationship between poor sleep quality measured by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and smoking status according to sex and age: an analysis of the 2018 Korean Community Health Survey
Jun Hyun Hwang, Soon-Woo Park
Epidemiol Health. 2022;44:e2022022.   Published online February 14, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2022022
  • 10,847 View
  • 454 Download
  • 5 Web of Science
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
Multiple studies have found that cigarette smokers are more likely to experience sleep disturbances than non-smokers. This study aimed to examine various associations between smoking and sleep quality according to sex and age, which have yet to be sufficiently examined in prior studies.
METHODS
Data analysis was conducted using a nationally representative sample of 224,986 Korean adults who participated in the 2018 Korea Community Health Survey. Sleep quality, as the dependent variable, was measured using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), with PSQI scores indicating either good (≤4 points) or poor (>5 points) sleep quality. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed considering socio-demographic factors, health behaviors, comorbidities, and psychological factors as covariates.
RESULTS
The overall weighted prevalence of poor sleep quality was 39.4% (95% confidence interval, 39.1 to 39.7). In the multivariate model that excluded psychological factors, poor sleep quality positively correlated to smoking for both sexes and all age groups except for male aged ≥65 years. However, in the full model that included psychological factors, statistically significant odds ratios (approximately 1.5) for poor sleep quality according to smoking status were only observed for female under 65 years of age.
CONCLUSIONS
The relationship between poor sleep quality and smoking status differed according to sex and age. In order to improve the quality of sleep, it is necessary to intervene smoking cessation along with solving psychological problems, especially female in middle age and younger.
Summary
Korean summary
한국 성인의 39.4%는 수면의 질(피츠버그 수면의 질 지수(PSQI) 기준)이 낮았다. 성별 및 연령에 따라 흡연과 수면의 질 사이의 관련성은 다르게 나타났다. 구체적으로는 65세 이하의 여성에서 흡연은 수면의 질 악화와 관련성이 있었으나, 남성 또는 65세 이상 여성에서는 흡연과 수면의 질 간 유의한 관련성을 보이지 않았다.
Key Message
In order to improve the quality of sleep, it is necessary to intervene smoking cessation along with solving psychological problems, especially female in middle age and younger.

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  • Association between consumption of tryptophan with sleep quality in King Saud University students
    Nora Alafif
    Journal of King Saud University - Science.2024; 36(2): 103046.     CrossRef
  • The Microbiota–Gut–Brain Axis in Metabolic Syndrome and Sleep Disorders: A Systematic Review
    Adriano dos Santos, Serena Galiè
    Nutrients.2024; 16(3): 390.     CrossRef
  • The association between passive smoking and sleep quality in a Chinese hypertensive population: A cross-sectional study
    Niuniu Sun+, Yang Ni+, Yuqian Deng, Jiale Qi, Zhenjie Yu, Chang Wu, Juan He, Yibo Wu
    Tobacco Induced Diseases.2024; 22(February): 1.     CrossRef
  • Network analysis of smoking-related sleep characteristics in Chinese adults
    Yuting Xie, Peiyuan Sun, Huang Huang, Jianjun Wu, Yue Ba, Guoyu Zhou, Fangfang Yu, Daming Zhang, Yaqun Zhang, Ranran Qie, Zhuolun Hu, Kaiyong Zou, Yawei Zhang
    Annals of Medicine.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • The associations between working conditions and subjective sleep quality among female migrant care workers
    I-Ming Chen, Tzu-Yun Lin, Yi-Ling Chien, Jennifer Yi-Ying Chen, Jen-Hui Chan, Shih-Cheng Liao, Po-Hsiu Kuo, Hsi-Chung Chen
    Frontiers in Public Health.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
Socioeconomic inequality in compliance with precautions and health behavior changes during the COVID-19 outbreak: an analysis of the Korean Community Health Survey 2020
Ga Bin Lee, Sun Jae Jung, Yang Yiyi, Jea Won Yang, Hoang Manh Thang, Hyeon Chang Kim
Epidemiol Health. 2022;44:e2022013.   Published online January 9, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2022013
  • 13,302 View
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  • 10 Web of Science
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
This study examined socioeconomic inequalities in compliance with precautions and health behavior changes during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak using a representative Korean sample.
METHODS
This exploratory study utilized around 210,000 participants aged ≥25 years in the Korean Community Health Survey 2020. Socioeconomic status was measured with educational attainment and household income. Outcomes included non-compliance with 8 precaution measures and deterioration in 6 health behaviors. The relative inequality index (RII) was calculated to quantify the degree of inequality by education and income level. RII values >1.0 indicate that deprived people have a higher frequency of health problems, and RII values <1.0 conversely indicate a higher frequency of health problems in more advantaged groups.
RESULTS
People with lower education or income levels tended to have higher rates of non-compliance with COVID-19 safety precautions (RII range, 1.20 to 3.05). Lower education and income levels were associated with an increased smoking amount (RII=2.10 and 1.67, respectively) and sleep duration changes (RII=1.21 and 1.36, respectively). On the contrary, higher education and income levels were associated with decreased physical activity (RII=0.59 and 0.77, respectively) and increased delivery food consumption (RII=0.27 and 0.37, respectively). However, increased alcohol drinking was associated with lower education and income levels in younger men (RII=1.73 and 1.31, respectively), but with higher levels in younger women (RII=0.73 and 0.68, respectively).
CONCLUSIONS
Our findings suggest the need to develop customized strategies, considering the characteristics of the target population, to decrease the burden and impact of the COVID-19 outbreak.
Summary
Korean summary
코로나19 유행기간 동안 예방지침 준수율과 건강관련 생활습관이 나빠지는 정도는 사회경제적 수준에 따라 차이가 있다. 전반적으로 코로나19 예방지침 준수율은 높았지만, 사회경제수준이 낮을수록 예방지침 준수율도 낮아지는 경향을 보였다. 하지만, 사회경제수준과 생활습관 악화의 관계는 성, 연령, 생활습관의 종류에 따라 달랐다.
Key Message
This study of a representative Korean sample found that socioeconomic inequalities existed in compliance with COVID-19 precautions and in health behavior deterioration. There is a need to develop target group-specific strategies to reduce health inequalities and the long-term health burden of the COVID-19 outbreak.

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  • Gap in protective behaviors between Han and minority ethnicities during COVID-19 pandemic in rural western China: A decomposition analysis
    Ruixue Ye, Yuju Wu, Chang Sun, Qingzhi Wang, Yue Ma, Yunwei Chen, Lucy Pappas, Cindy Feng, Scott Rozelle, Huan Zhou
    Preventive Medicine Reports.2024; 39: 102617.     CrossRef
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    Xuan Yao, Zeshui Xu, Marinko Škare, Xindi Wang
    Technological Forecasting and Social Change.2024; 202: 123322.     CrossRef
  • Association of Depression With Precautionary Behavior Compliance, COVID-19 Fear, and Health Behaviors in South Korea: National Cross-sectional Study
    Hyerine Shin, Ji-Su Kim, HyunHae Lee
    JMIR Public Health and Surveillance.2023; 9: e42677.     CrossRef
  • Trends in socioeconomic inequalities in obesity among Korean adolescents: the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (KYRBS) 2006 to 2020
    Eunji Kim, Ga Bin Lee, Dong Keon Yon, Hyeon Chang Kim
    Epidemiology and Health.2023; 45: e2023033.     CrossRef
  • Communication inequalities in the COVID-19 pandemic: socioeconomic differences and preventive behaviors in the United States and South Korea
    Woohyun Yoo, Yangsun Hong, Sang-Hwa Oh
    BMC Public Health.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Compliance Trajectory and Patterns of COVID-19 Preventive Measures, Japan, 2020–2022
    Taro Kusama, Kenji Takeuchi, Yudai Tamada, Sakura Kiuchi, Ken Osaka, Takahiro Tabuchi
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    Riyadh Lafta, Sahar Al-Shatari, Meighan Mary, Gilbert Burnham
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  • Predicting Support for COVID-19 Policies with Partisan Media Use and Negative Emotion: Evidence from the U.S. and South Korea
    Dam Hee Kim, Tae Hyun Lim, Yu Jeong Hwang, Seongcheol Kim
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  • Factors associating to the increased smoking time among South Korean male workers during COVID-19 pandemic
    Mi Young Kwon, Myong Sun Cho
    Korean Journal of Health Education and Promotion.2022; 39(2): 53.     CrossRef
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    Tim Schröder, Anne Speer, Patrick Sachweh, Olaf Groh-Samberg
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  • Effect of socioeconomic disparities on the risk of COVID-19 in 8 metropolitan cities in the Korea: a community-based study
    Myung-Jae Hwang, Shin Young Park, Tae-Ho Yoon, Jinhwa Jang, Seon-Young Lee, Myeongsu Yoo, Yoo-Yeon Kim, Hae-Kwan Cheong, Donghyok Kwon, Jong-Hun Kim
    Epidemiology and Health.2022; 44: e2022107.     CrossRef
Social competence, leisure time activities, and smoking trajectories among adolescent boys: data from the Korean Children & Youth Panel Survey
Eunjung Park, Min Kyung Lim, Jinju Park, Tran Thi Phuong Thao, Sukyung Jeong, Eun Young Park, Jin-Kyoung Oh
Epidemiol Health. 2021;43:e2021066.   Published online September 9, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2021066
  • 6,720 View
  • 131 Download
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
The purpose of this study was to identify the trajectories and potential predictors of tobacco use during adolescence in Korea and to develop appropriate strategies for the implementation of tobacco use prevention programs.
METHODS
The trajectory of tobacco use and associated predictors were analyzed for 1,169 male students from grade 6 (age 11-12) to grade 10 (age 15-16) in the Korean Children & Youth Panel Survey from 2012 to 2016.
RESULTS
Three trajectories of smoking experience were identified: non-smokers (class 1: n=775, 82.3%), temporary users (class 2: n=32, 3.4%), and regular users (class 3: n=135, 14.3%). When compared to non-smokers, temporary users had a higher likelihood of living with a single parent, dissatisfaction with grades, having a girlfriend, having been victimized at least once, and having at least 1 delinquent friend in grade 7 (when smoking experimentation was at its peak). Significant factors associated with regular use included having a girlfriend, committing at least 1 type of delinquent behavior, and being a non-reader. Committing at least 1 type of delinquent behavior and having at least 1 delinquent friend were associated with regular users, distinguishing them from temporary users.
CONCLUSIONS
Understanding why adolescents exhibit different trajectories of tobacco use by identifying the factors associated with each trajectory can contribute to the development of tailored prevention strategies and early cessation programs for adolescents.
Summary
Korean summary
2010-2016년 한국아동청소년패널에 포함된 남학생 흡연경험 분석을 통해 3개의 주요 흡연유형이 확인되었다 (비흡연자 82.3%, 일시 흡연자 3.4%, 지속 흡연자 14.3%). 한부모 가정, 학업성적에 대한 불만족, 이성친구를 사귀는 경우, 또래로부터 괴롭힘을 당한 경험, 1명 이상의 비행 친구가 있는 경우 일시 흡연자가 될 가능성이 높고, 비행 경험이 있는 경우, 이성 친구를 사귀는 경우, 독서를 하지 않는 경우 지속 흡연자가 될 가능성이 높았다. 청소년기 성장단계에 따른 흡연유형의 변화와 관련 요인에 대한 분석 결과는 청소년 대상 맞춤형 흡연예방 및 금연 프로그램 마련에 기여할 수 있을 것이다.
Key Message
In adolescence, significant life changes such as increasing academic workloads and various societal influences combined with growing recognition can affect their interest in trying smoking. The current study suggested that societal influence such as living with a single parent, dissatisfaction with grades, having been victimized at least once, and having at least 1 delinquent friend initiates smoking experimentation. Adolescents having a girlfriend, committing at least 1 type of delinquent behavior, and never reading have a greater possibility of smoking continuation for regular use. These findings might contribute to development of tailored prevention and early cessation programs for adolescents.
Accelerometer-measured stepping cadence patterns in Korean adults: an analysis of data from the 2014-2015 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
Geon Hui Kim, Hoyong Sung, Yeun Ryu, Jungjun Lim, Joon-Sik Kim, Hak Kyun Kim, Yeon Soo Kim
Epidemiol Health. 2021;43:e2021056.   Published online August 17, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2021056
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
The aim of this study was to identify the stepping cadence patterns in Korean adults by using objectively measured accelerometer data to analyze the time spent in each cadence category by sex and age.
METHODS
During the 2014-2015 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1,703 males and females aged 19-64 years provided at least 1 valid day of data (wearing an accelerometer ≥ 10 hr/d). The mean cumulative time and percentage per day in 8 cadence categories (0, 1-19, 20-29, 30-59, 60-79, 80-99, 100-119, and ≥ 120 steps/min) by sex and age group were calculated.
RESULTS
Cumulative time and percentage per day decreased across the incremental cadence categories. Participants spent 360.08± 2.56 min/d in the non-movement cadence category and 361.50± 2.28 min/d in the incidental movement cadence category. However, they spent only about 18.1 min/d (2.1%) at ≥ 100 steps/min. Males spent significantly more time in the cadence categories of sporadic movement, purposeful steps, slow walking, and medium walking, but the other categories, except for brisk walking, had higher values in females (p< 0.001). The older age group spent less time in non-movement cadence categories, and the youngest and oldest groups spent more time at a higher cadence (≥ 100 steps/min) than the other age groups. Similar patterns were found in a subgroup analysis by sex.
CONCLUSIONS
Korean adults spent most of their time at a low cadence and only a few minutes at a high cadence (≥100 steps/min); this trend was consistent across sex and age groups.
Summary
Korean summary
본 연구에서는 2014-2015년도 국민건강영양조사자료의 가속도계 자료를 활용하여 한국 성인의 성별, 연령별 케이던스 패턴을 확인하였다. 한국 성인은 하루 평균 약 12시간(약 87%)을 분당 20보 이하의 낮은 케이던스에서 보냈고, 분당 100보 이상의 높은 케이던스에서는 하루 중 단지 약 18분 (약 2%)의 시간을 보냈다. 성별 및 연령대에 따라 약간의 차이는 있으나, 대부분 유사한 양상을 보였다.
Key Message
Korean adults spent approximately 12 hours per day (about 87%) at a low cadence (<20 steps per minute) while spending only about 18 minutes per day (about 2%) at a high cadence (≥ 100 steps per minute). Even though certain amount of differences between sex and age groups do exist, most have shown similar patterns.
Trends in health behaviors over 20 years: findings from the 1998-2018 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
Soyeon Kim, Sunhye Choi, Jihee Kim, Suyeon Park, Young-Taek Kim, Ok Park, Kyungwon Oh
Epidemiol Health. 2021;43:e2021026.   Published online April 19, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2021026
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
This study aimed to examine the trends in health behaviors in Korean population using data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES).
METHODS
The subjects were 96,408 adults aged 19 years or older who participated in the first (1998) through seventh (2016-2018) KNHANES health interview. The prevalence of health behaviors (cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking, and physical activity) and annual percent change (APC) were estimated using SAS and the Joinpoint program.
RESULTS
The prevalence of current cigarette smoking in men decreased by 2.8%p (APC= -2.8, p< 0.001) annually over the 20-year period, and the prevalence of exposure to secondhand smoke at home substantially decreased compared to 2005 (APC= -8.8, p< 0.001). Compared to 2005, the prevalence of current alcohol drinking in women, but not men, increased (APC= 2.0, p< 0.001), and the prevalence of binge drinking decreased in men (APC= -0.7, p< 0.001) and increased in women (APC= 2.4, p< 0.001). The prevalence of aerobic physical activity decreased from 2014 in both gendersd (p< 0.001). The prevalence of healthy behaviors practice (non-smoking, alcohol abstinence, and aerobic physical activity) was down-trending (APC= -5.3, p< 0.001), especially among women (APC= -6.4, p< 0.001).
CONCLUSIONS
Over the past 20 years, smoking behaviors improved. However, drinking behavior was unchanged and physical activity indicators markedly decreased. More active programs are necessary for improving health behaviors, which are major risk factors linked to chronic diseases.
Summary
Korean summary
국민건강영양조사(1998-2018) 자료를 활용하여 지난 20년간 성인의 건강행태를 분석한 결과 흡연율과 간접흡연 노출률은 지속적으로 감소하였고, 신체활동 실천율 또한 감소하였다. 월간음주율과 폭음률의 경우 남자는 큰 변화가 없었던 반면 여자는 모두 증가하였다.
Key Message
This study aimed to examine the trends in health behaviors in Korean population using data from the 1998-2018 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). Over the past 20 years, the prevalence of cigarette smoking and exposure to secondhand smoke in Korean adults consistently decreased, as well as the prevalence of physical activity. There was no considerable change in men, whereas in women, the prevalence of alcohol drinking and binge drinking both increased.

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Epidemiol Health : Epidemiology and Health