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Original Article
A prospective association between dietary mushroom intake and the risk of type 2 diabetes: the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study–Cardiovascular Disease Association Study
Yu-Mi Kim, Hye Won Woo, Min-Ho Shin, Sang Baek Koh, Hyeon Chang Kim, Mi Kyung Kim
Epidemiol Health. 2024;46:e2024017.   Published online January 8, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2024017
  • 2,645 View
  • 92 Download
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
Mushrooms, known for their nutritious and functional components, are considered healthy and medicinal. This study investigated the prospective association between dietary mushroom consumption and the incidence of type 2 diabetes among Korean adults aged ≥40 years.
METHODS
In total, 16,666 participants who were not taking anti-diabetic medication or insulin and had normal fasting blood glucose (FBG; <126 mg/dL) were included. We used the cumulative average dietary consumption of mushrooms as an exposure metric, calculated from food frequency questionnaires at every follow-up, along with covariates collected during a baseline survey. To estimate incidence rate ratios (IRRs) for type 2 diabetes, a modified Poisson regression model with a robust error estimator was applied.
RESULTS
In multivariable models, dietary mushroom consumption was inversely associated with type 2 diabetes incidence in both genders (men: IRR, 0.65; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.47 to 0.90; p<sub>linearity</sub>=0.043 in the highest quartile (Q4) vs. the lowest quartile (Q1); women: IRR, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.54 to 0.93; p<sub>linearity</sub>=0.114 in Q4 vs. Q1). The inverse association remained after adjustment for dietary factors instead of dietary quality index, the baseline FBG, and the exclusion of incidence within the first year. Additionally, no significant interaction was found regarding the risk of type 2 diabetes between dietary mushroom consumption and participants’ gender or other factors.
CONCLUSIONS
Dietary mushroom consumption was inversely linked with the risk of type 2 diabetes incidence in both genders, indicating the beneficial role of mushrooms in preventing the disease.
Summary
Korean summary
- 흔히 사용하는 버섯의 식이 섭취량이 증가함에 따라 한국 40세 이상 성인에서 제2형 당뇨병 발생 위험이 낮았다. - 이러한 역관계는 성별과 다양한 식이 배경에서도 일관성을 유지하였고, 이는 버섯이 제2형 당뇨병 예방에 있어 잠재적인 식이요소로서의 가능성을 보여주는성을 보여주는 보여주는 결과이다.
Key Message
• Increased dietary consumption of commonly used mushrooms is associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes incidence among adults aged 40 years or older in Korea. • This inverse relationship remains consistent across genders and various dietary backgrounds, underscoring the potential of mushrooms as a preventive dietary component against.
Special Articles
Incidence and case fatality of stroke in Korea, 2011-2020
Jenny Moon, Yeeun Seo, Hyeok-Hee Lee, Hokyou Lee, Fumie Kaneko, Sojung Shin, Eunji Kim, Kyu Sun Yum, Young Dae Kim, Jang-Hyun Baek, Hyeon Chang Kim
Epidemiol Health. 2024;46:e2024003.   Published online December 26, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2024003
  • 5,526 View
  • 119 Download
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
Stroke remains the second leading cause of death in Korea. This study was designed to estimate the crude, age-adjusted and age-specific incidence rates, as well as the case fatality rate of stroke, in Korea from 2011 to 2020.
METHODS
We utilized data from the National Health Insurance Services from January 1, 2002 to December 31, 2020, to calculate incidence rates and 30-day and 1-year case fatality rates of stroke. Additionally, we determined sex and age-specific incidence rates and computed age-standardized incidence rates by direct standardization to the 2005 population.
RESULTS
The crude incidence rate of stroke hovered around 200 (per 100,000 person-years) from 2011 to 2015, then surged to 218.4 in 2019, before marginally declining to 208.0 in 2020. Conversely, the age-standardized incidence rate consistently decreased by 25% between 2011 and 2020. When stratified by sex, the crude incidence rate increased between 2011 and 2019 for both sexes, followed by a decrease in 2020. Age-standardized incidence rates displayed a downward trend throughout the study period for both sexes. Across all age groups, the 30-day and 1-year case fatality rates of stroke consistently decreased from 2011 to 2019, only to increase in 2020.
CONCLUSIONS
Despite a decrease in the age-standardized incidence rate, the total number of stroke events in Korea continues to rise due to the rapidly aging population. Moreover, 2020 witnessed a decrease in incidence but an increase in case fatality rates.
Summary
Key Message
This nationwide study using Korean National Health Insurance System data reveals a decade-long downward trend in overall stroke incidence rates. While the crude incidence rate showed a temporary increase from 2016 to 2019 before a slight decline in 2020, the age-standardized incidence rate consistently decreased over the study period. The study emphasizes the significance of continuous monitoring and preventive strategies to address stroke as a public health concern in Korea
Incidence and case fatality of acute myocardial infarction in Korea, 2011-2020
Yeeun Seo, Jenny Moon, Hyeok-Hee Lee, Hyeon Chang Kim, Fumie Kaneko, Sojung Shin, Eunji Kim, Jang-Whan Bae, Byeong-Keuk Kim, Seung Jun Lee, Min Kim, Hokyou Lee
Epidemiol Health. 2024;46:e2024002.   Published online December 26, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2024002
  • 4,957 View
  • 110 Download
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
Cardiovascular diseases are a leading cause of mortality worldwide, and acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is particularly fatal condition. We evaluated the incidence and case fatality rates of AMI in Korea from 2011 to 2020.
METHODS
We utilized data from the National Health Insurance Services to calculate crude, age-standardized, and age-specific incidence rates, along with 30-day and 1-year case fatality rates, of AMI from 2011 to 2020. Age-standardized incidence rates were determined using direct standardization to the 2005 population.
RESULTS
The crude incidence rate of AMI per 100,000 person-years consistently increased from 44.7 in 2011 to 68.3 in 2019, before decreasing slightly to 66.2 in 2020. The age-standardized incidence rate of AMI displayed a 19% rise from 2011 to 2019, followed by a slight decline in 2020. The increasing trend for AMI incidence was more pronounced in males than in females. Both 30-day and 1-year case fatality rates remained stable among younger individuals but showed a decrease among older individuals. There was a minor surge in case fatality in 2020, particularly among recurrent AMI cases.
CONCLUSIONS
Over the past decade, the AMI incidence rate in Korea has consistently increased, with a slight downturn in 2020. The case fatality rate has remained relatively stable except for a minor increase in 2020. This study provides data for continuous surveillance, the implementation of targeted interventions, and the advancement of research aimed at AMI in Korea.
Summary
Key Message
This study observed the incidence rate of acute myocardial infarction using data from Korean National Health Insurance Service. From 2011 to 2019, the incidence rate increased, but there was a slight decrease in 2020. Additionally, the fatality rate remained relatively stable throughout the study period, except for an increase in 2020. The study emphasizes the importance of continuous monitoring and preventive strategies for effective management of acute myocardial infarction.
Identification of acute myocardial infarction and stroke events using the National Health Insurance Service database in Korea
Minsung Cho, Hyeok-Hee Lee, Jang-Hyun Baek, Kyu Sun Yum, Min Kim, Jang-Whan Bae, Seung-Jun Lee, Byeong-Keuk Kim, Young Ah Kim, JiHyun Yang, Dong Wook Kim, Young Dae Kim, Haeyong Pak, Kyung Won Kim, Sohee Park, Seng Chan You, Hokyou Lee, Hyeon Chang Kim
Epidemiol Health. 2024;46:e2024001.   Published online December 26, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2024001
  • 5,098 View
  • 112 Download
  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
The escalating burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a critical public health issue worldwide. CVD, especially acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and stroke, is the leading contributor to morbidity and mortality in Korea. We aimed to develop algorithms for identifying AMI and stroke events from the National Health Insurance Service (NHIS) database and validate these algorithms through medical record review.
METHODS
We first established a concept and definition of “hospitalization episode,” taking into account the unique features of health claims-based NHIS database. We then developed first and recurrent event identification algorithms, separately for AMI and stroke, to determine whether each hospitalization episode represents a true incident case of AMI or stroke. Finally, we assessed our algorithms’ accuracy by calculating their positive predictive values (PPVs) based on medical records of algorithm-identified events.
RESULTS
We developed identification algorithms for both AMI and stroke. To validate them, we conducted retrospective review of medical records for 3,140 algorithm-identified events (1,399 AMI and 1,741 stroke events) across 24 hospitals throughout Korea. The overall PPVs for the first and recurrent AMI events were around 92% and 78%, respectively, while those for the first and recurrent stroke events were around 88% and 81%, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS
We successfully developed algorithms for identifying AMI and stroke events. The algorithms demonstrated high accuracy, with PPVs of approximately 90% for first events and 80% for recurrent events. These findings indicate that our algorithms hold promise as an instrumental tool for the consistent and reliable production of national CVD statistics in Korea.
Summary
Key Message
In this study, we developed algorithms to identify acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and stroke events from the Korean National Health insurance Service database. To validate them, we conducted retrospective review of medical records across 24 hospitals throughout Korea. The overall positive predictive values for the first and recurrent AMI events were around 92% and 78%, respectively, while those for the first and recurrent stroke events were around 88% and 81%, respectively.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Incidence and case fatality rates of stroke in Korea, 2011-2020
    Jenny Moon, Yeeun Seo, Hyeok-Hee Lee, Hokyou Lee, Fumie Kaneko, Sojung Shin, Eunji Kim, Kyu Sun Yum, Young Dae Kim, Jang-Hyun Baek, Hyeon Chang Kim
    Epidemiology and Health.2023; : e2024003.     CrossRef
Original Articles
Trends in the effects of socioeconomic position on physical activity levels and sedentary behavior among Korean adolescents
Hunju Lee, Hyowon Choi, Sang Baek Koh, Hyeon Chang Kim
Epidemiol Health. 2023;45:e2023085.   Published online September 8, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2023085
  • 3,857 View
  • 135 Download
  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
We examined trends in physical activity and sedentary behavior in Korean adolescents, and their association with socioeconomic position (SEP).
METHODS
We used data from the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Survey, a nationwide study involving students aged 12-19 conducted between 2009 and 2021. SEP was assessed based on economic status, parental education attainment, and urbanization. Physical activity was categorized into vigorous physical activity, moderate physical activity, and muscle training, and sedentary time was also measured. We conducted the log-binomial regression to calculate prevalence ratios (PRs) and prevalence differences.
RESULTS
Our analysis included a total of 593,896 students. We observed an increasing trend in physical activity, but a worsening trend in sedentary behavior. A positive association was found between an adolescent’s physical activity and SEP indicators, except for urbanization. Adolescents with higher economic status engaged in more vigorous physical activity (high: PR, 1.26; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.25 to 1.28; middle: PR, 1.03; 95% CI, 1.02 to 1.04). Similar associations were observed for father’s education (tertiary or above: PR, 1.11; 95% CI, 1.09 to 1.13; upper secondary: PR, 1.05; 95% CI, 1.03 to 1.07) and mother’s education (tertiary or above: PR, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.15 to 1.20; upper secondary: PR, 1.06; 95% CI, 1.04 to 1.08). Adolescents with higher economic status also showed a higher compliance rate with the guideline restricting sedentary time to 2 hours per day (high: PR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.25 to 1.30; middle: PR, 1.03; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.05).
CONCLUSIONS
Adolescents with higher SEP exhibited more physical activity and less sedentary time than those with lower SEP.
Summary
Korean summary
본 연구는 2009년부터 2021년까지 청소년의 사회경제적 지위가 신체활동과 좌식생활습관에 미치는 영향을 분석하였다. 청소년의 경제적 상태, 아버지와 어머니의 교육수준이 높을수록 청소년의 신체활동이 증가하고 좌식생활이 감소하였다. 그러나 청소년이 사는 지역의 도시화 정도는 영향을 미치지 않았다.
Key Message
This article analyzes the effects of an adolescent's socio-economic position on their physical activity and sedentary behavior from 2009 to 2021. The higher the adolescent's economic status, father's education, or mother's education, the more they engaged in physical activity and the less time they spent in sedentary behaviors. However, the level of urbanization in the area where the adolescent resided had no effect.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Using structural equation modeling to explore the influences of physical activity, mental health, well-being, and loneliness on Douyin usage at bedtime
    Hongcheng Luo, Xing Zhang, Songpeng Su, Mingyang Zhang, Mingyue Yin, Siyuan Feng, Rui Peng, Hansen Li
    Frontiers in Public Health.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
Associations of cumulative average dietary total antioxidant capacity and intake of antioxidants with metabolic syndrome risk in Korean adults aged 40 years and older: a prospective cohort study (KoGES_CAVAS)
Ji-Sook Kong, Jiseon Lee, Youngjun Kim, Hye Won Woo, Min-Ho Shin, Sang Baek Koh, Hyeon Chang Kim, Yu-Mi Kim, Mi Kyung Kim
Epidemiol Health. 2023;45:e2023067.   Published online July 28, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2023067
  • 4,533 View
  • 122 Download
  • 1 Web of Science
  • 2 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
Limited and inconsistent prospective evidence exists regarding the relationship of dietary total antioxidant capacity (dTAC) and antioxidant intake with metabolic syndrome (MetS) risk. We evaluated the associations of the cumulative averages of dTAC and antioxidant intake (in 5 classes: retinol, vitamin C, vitamin E, carotenoids, and flavonoids, as well as 7 flavonoid subclasses) with the risk of MetS.
METHODS
This study included 11,379 participants without MetS, drawn from the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study_CArdioVascular disease Association Study (KoGES_CAVAS). The cumulative average consumption was calculated using repeated food frequency questionnaires. Incidence rate ratios were estimated using a modified Poisson regression model with a robust error estimator.
RESULTS
The median follow-up period was 5.16 years, and 2,416 cases of MetS were recorded over 58,750 person-years. In men, significant inverse associations were observed in all 5 antioxidant classes, except for the highest quartile of dTAC. In women, dTAC and total flavonoids were not significantly associated with MetS; however, significant L-shaped associations were found for the remaining 4 antioxidant classes. Of the 7 flavonoid subclasses, only flavones in the highest quartile for men and flavan-3-ols in women lacked significant associations with MetS. The inverse associations were not sex-specific, but they were particularly pronounced among participants with a body mass index (BMI) of 23 kg/m<sup>2</sup> or higher.
CONCLUSIONS
The findings suggest that most antioxidant classes and flavonoid subclasses, unlike dTAC, exhibit a clear beneficial association with MetS in an L-shaped pattern in both men and women, particularly those with a high BMI.
Summary
Korean summary
농촌코호트 조사 참여자를 대상으로 식이 총항산화능, 총항산화능 하위분류, 플라보노이드 하위분류와 대사증후군 발생 위험의 전향적 연관성을 평가한 결과, 대부분의 항산화물(5개항산화물 분류:4개 항산화 비타민과 플라보노이드; 플라보노이드 7개 하부분류)에서 대사증후군과 음의 상관성을 확인할 수 있었으며 총항산화능(남자와 여자)과 플라보노이드(여자)에서 약한 연관성을 보였다. 남녀간 유의한 상호작용은 없었고 특히 BMI가 높은 집단에서 두드러졌다. 이 연구의 결과는 특히 식이 총항산화능을 구성하는 하위 유형을 적절히 섭취하는 것이 특히 비만한 성인에서 대사증후군 위험을 낮추는 예방전략으로 효과가 있을 수 있음을 시사한다.
Key Message
We observed that the cumulative average of dietary antioxidant vitamins and most flavonoids may be have pivotal roles in prevention of MetS, although there may be weak associations of dTAC and flavonoids in women. Moreover, these inverse associations were more pronounced in high BMI individuals. Our results suggest that the consumption of antioxidants and flavonoid may mitigate the MetS risk, particularly in overweight/obese individuals at high risk of developing chronic diseases.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • The association of dietary total flavonoids and their subclasses with the risk of type 2 diabetes: a prospective cohort study
    Hye Won Woo, Mi Kyung Kim, Kong Ji-Sook, Jiseon Lee, Min-Ho Shin, Sang Baek Koh, Hyeon Chang Kim, Yu-Mi Kim
    European Journal of Nutrition.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • A Systematized Review of the Relationship Between Obesity and Vitamin C Requirements
    Julia K Bird, Edith JM Feskens, Alida Melse-Boonstra
    Current Developments in Nutrition.2024; 8(5): 102152.     CrossRef
Association of group-level segregation with cardiovascular health in older adults: an analysis of data from the Korean Social Life, Health, and Aging Project
Sung-Ha Lee, Hyeok-Hee Lee, Kiho Sung, Yoosik Youm, Hyeon Chang Kim
Epidemiol Health. 2023;45:e2023041.   Published online April 4, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2023041
  • 5,791 View
  • 187 Download
  • 1 Web of Science
  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
The adverse health effects of individual-level social isolation (e.g., perceived loneliness) have been well documented in older adults. However, little is known about the impact of collective-level social isolation on health outcomes. We sought to examine the association of group-level segregation with cardiovascular health (CVH) in older adults.
METHODS
From the prospective Korean Social Life, Health, and Aging Project database, we identified 528 community-dwelling older adults who were aged ≥60 years or were married to those aged ≥60 years. Participants who belonged to smaller social groups separate from the major social group were defined as group-level-segregated. The CVH score was calculated as the number of ideal non-dietary CVH metrics (0-6), as modified from the American Heart Association’s Life’s Simple 7. Using ordinal logistic regression models, we assessed cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between group-level segregation and CVH.
RESULTS
Of the 528 participants (mean age, 71.7 years; 60.0% female), 108 (20.5%) were segregated at baseline. In the crosssectional analysis, group-level segregation was significantly associated with lower odds of having a higher CVH score at baseline after adjusting for socio-demographic factors and cognitive function (odds ratio [OR], 0.64; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.43 to 0.95). Among 274 participants who completed an 8-year follow-up, group-level segregation at baseline was marginally associated with lower odds of having a higher CVH score at 8 years (OR, 0.49; 95% CI, 0.24 to 1.02).
CONCLUSIONS
Group-level segregation was associated with worse CVH. These findings imply that the social network structure of a community may influence its members’ health status.
Summary
Korean summary
본 연구는 “한국인의 사회적 삶, 건강과 노화에 대한 조사”(Korean Social Life, Health and Aging Project, KSHAP)에서 측정한 한 지역 내의 사회적 연결망 자료를 이용하여 사회적 분리와 심혈관 건강 사이의 관계를 살펴보았다. 그 결과, 사회적 분리는 비만, 고혈압, 콜레스테롤, 흡연, 음주 신체적 활동 등을 종합한 ‘라이프 심플 7’ 지표와 부정적인 관련성을 보였으며, 8년 후 추적 조사에서도 이 패턴이 유지되었다. 본 연구 결과는 사회적, 집단적 분리 현상이 신체적 건강에도 악영향을 초래할 수 있음을 시사한다.
Key Message
Using the prospective Korean Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (KSHAP) database, we discovered that group-level segregation was significantly associated with worse cardiovascular health (CVH). Also, we observed a tendency for baseline group-level segregation to be linked to worse CVH after an 8-year follow-up period. These findings emphasize the significance of group-level segregation as a potential contributing factor in the health outcomes of older adults.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Association of social isolation and loneliness with the risk of hypertension in middle aged and older adults: Findings from a national representative longitudinal survey
    Shiqi Wang, Hao Zhang, Yiling Lou, Qiqi You, Qingqing Jiang, Shiyi Cao
    Journal of Affective Disorders.2024; 349: 577.     CrossRef
Trends in socioeconomic inequalities in obesity among Korean adolescents: the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (KYRBS) 2006 to 2020
Eunji Kim, Ga Bin Lee, Dong Keon Yon, Hyeon Chang Kim
Epidemiol Health. 2023;45:e2023033.   Published online March 7, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2023033
  • 5,828 View
  • 247 Download
  • 2 Web of Science
  • 2 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
This study investigated recent trends in the prevalence of obesity among Korean adolescents and explored socioeconomic disparities in obesity.
METHODS
This study used annual self-reported data on height, weight, and socioeconomic information from the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey from 2006 to 2020. With a 95.8% response rate, the sample consisted of 818,210 adolescents. Obesity prevalence was calculated according to 4 socioeconomic indicators (household income, father’s educational attainment, mother’s educational attainment, and urbanicity). Socioeconomic inequality was quantified using the relative index of inequality (RII).
RESULTS
The overall prevalence of obesity increased, doubling from 5.9% in 2006 to 11.7% in 2020. Boys and high school students showed a higher prevalence. The RIIs in household income and parental educational attainments significantly increased with time, indicating a growing inequality in obesity. Socioeconomic disadvantages had a greater influence on obesity among girls. The most recent RII values for boys were 1.25 for income, 1.79 for the father’s education, and 1.45 for the mother’s education, whereas the corresponding values for girls were 2.49, 3.17, and 2.62, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS
These findings highlight growing inequalities in adolescent obesity according to household income and parental educational attainments, especially for girls and middle schoolers.
Summary
Korean summary
2006년부터 2020년까지 청소년 비만의 유병은 증가 추세에 있을 뿐 아니라, 가정의 경제상태, 부모의 학력수준에 따른 비만의 위험 격차도 점점 심해지는 추세를 보였다. 특히, 남학생과 고등학생의 비만 유병률이 높게 나타났으나, 사회경제적 지표에 따른 비만의 불평등 격차는 여학생과 중학생에서 높게 나타났다.
Key Message
Not only the prevalence but also socioeconomic inequality in adolescent obesity increased between 2006 and 2020. The potential impact of socioeconomic disparity on obesity was greater in girls and middle school students than their counterparts.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • The Association Between Obesity Measures and Metabolic Syndrome Risk in Korean Adolescents Aged 10–18 Years
    Munku Song, Seamon Kang, Hyunsik Kang
    Journal of Multidisciplinary Healthcare.2024; Volume 17: 1769.     CrossRef
  • A Comparison of Changes in Health Behavior, Obesity, and Mental Health of Korean Adolescents Before and During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Online Cross-Sectional Study
    Mi-Sun Lee, Hooyeon Lee
    Psychiatry Investigation.2023; 20(11): 1086.     CrossRef
Age at first childbirth and the risk of hypertriglyceridemia among Korean women
Hye Rin Choi, Hyeon Chang Kim
Epidemiol Health. 2023;45:e2023010.   Published online December 29, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2023010
  • 5,012 View
  • 200 Download
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
We aimed to investigate the association of age at first childbirth with the risk of hypertriglyceridemia among Korean women.
METHODS
This study used data from the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study–Cardiovascular Disease Association Study. In total, 16,747 women were included in the cross-sectional analysis, and 6,250 women were included in the longitudinal analysis. The participants were divided based on their age at first childbirth (<20, 20-24, 25-29, and ≥30 years). Hypertriglyceridemia was defined as triglyceride levels of ≥150 mg/dL.
RESULTS
The multivariable-adjusted odds ratio for prevalent hypertriglyceridemia was 1.19 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01 to 1.40) in women whose first childbirth was before 20 years of age, compared to those whose first childbirth was at 25-29 years of age, after adjustment for age, study site, body mass index, blood pressure, diabetes, alcohol consumption, carbohydrate intake, income, marital status, education, parity, usage of oral contraceptives, and hormone replacement status. During a median follow-up of 5.2 years, 1,770 women developed hypertriglyceridemia. Compared with women who gave birth to their first child between 25 years and 29 years of age, those giving birth to their first child before 20 years of age had a higher risk for incident hypertriglyceridemia in later life (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.25; 95% CI, 0.99 to 1.57).
CONCLUSIONS
Giving birth to one’s first child before the age of 20 years was associated with an increased risk of hypertriglyceridemia among Korean women.
Summary
Korean summary
한국인유전체역학조사사업의 농촌기반 코호트 자료를 분석한 결과, 20세 이전에 초산을 경험한 한국 여성에서 25-29세에 경험한 군에 비해 고중성지방혈증에 걸릴 위험이 증가하였음 폐경 후 여성을 한정하여 보았을 때도 20세 이전 초산과 고중성지방혈증 간의 유의한 관련성을 보였음 여성의 출산 등 여성력이 심혈관계 질환 발생의 위험요인으로 작용할 수 있으며, 출산력에 따른 혈중 중성지방수치 관리 전략 마련이 필요함
Key Message
Among Korean women, having their first child before the age of 20 was associated with an increased risk of hypertriglyceridemia. Targeted preventive actions should be developed for those women who give birth at an early age in order to manage their blood triglyceride levels.

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  • Adolescent childbirth and mobility disability among women ages 15–49: an analysis of population health surveys from 14 low-income and middle-income countries
    Katherine E Peck, Diego G Bassani, Saionara MA Camara, Marlos R Domingues, Tetine Sentell, Maria P Velez, Catherine M Pirkle
    BMJ Open.2023; 13(7): e072535.     CrossRef
Application of a joint latent space item response model to clustering stressful life events and the Beck Depression Inventory-II: results from Korean epidemiological survey data
Hyun Joo Kim, Ye Jin Jeon, Hyeon Chang Kim, Ick Hoon Jin, Sun Jae Jung
Epidemiol Health. 2022;44:e2022093.   Published online October 24, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2022093
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
According to previous findings, stressful life events (SLEs) and their subtypes are associated with depressive symptoms. However, few studies have explored potential models for these events and incidental symptoms of depression.
METHODS
Participants (3,966 men; 5,709 women) were recruited from the Cardiovascular and Metabolic Diseases Etiology Research Center cohort. SLEs were measured using a 47-item Life Experiences Survey (LES) with a standardized protocol. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II). Joint latent space item response models were applied by gender and age group (<50 vs. ≥50 years old).
RESULTS
Among the LES items, death or illness of close relatives, legal problems, sexual difficulties, family relationships, and social relationships shared latent positions with major depressive symptoms regardless of gender or age. We also observed a gender-specific domain: occupational and family-related items.
CONCLUSIONS
By projecting LES and BDI-II data onto the same interaction map for each subgroup, we could specify the associations between specific LES items and depressive symptoms.
Summary
Korean summary
- 본 연구는 성별, 연령에 따른 생활스트레스 항목과 Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) 로 측정한 우울증상 사이의 연관성을 Joint Latent space item response model (LSIRM) 방법을 사용하여 탐색하고자 하였다. - 한국 성인 인구집단 (3,966 남성; 5,709 여성)을 대상으로 연구를 수행한 결과, 생활스트레스 항목 중 가족 혹은 가까운 주변인의 죽음 혹은 질환, 법적인 문제, 성적 어려움, 가족 혹은 사회적 관계는 성별, 연령에 무관하게 우울 증상과 연관성이 있었으며, 직업, 일부 가족 관련 항목에서 성별 특이적인 연관성을 관찰하였다.
Key Message
- In this study, we used a joint latent space item response model (LSIRM) to project stressful life events and depressive symptoms as measured by the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) onto an interaction map, which represents the interaction of BDI-II items and underlying traits with each SLE, while accounting for heterogeneity by sex and age group. - Among the LES items, death/illness of close relatives, legal problems, sexual difficulties, family relationships, and social relationships shared latent positions with major depressive symptoms regardless of sex or age group. But, in occupational and family-related items, sex-specific associations were observed.

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  • Efficacy and safety of traditional Chinese medicine nursing intervention in postoperative patients after gastrectomy
    Lizhi Fan, Ying He, Yufeng Li, Xinxin Li, Dan Liu, Rui Wang
    Oncology Letters.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
COVID-19: Special Article
Obesity, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and hypercholesterolemia in Korean adults before and during the COVID-19 pandemic: a special report of the 2020 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
Ga Bin Lee, Yoonjung Kim, Suyeon Park, Hyeon Chang Kim, Kyungwon Oh
Epidemiol Health. 2022;44:e2022041.   Published online April 25, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2022041
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
We investigated trends in obesity, hypertension, diabetes, and hypercholesterolemia before and during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in the Korean adult population.
METHODS
Data from 60,098 participants in the Korea National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey between 2011 and 2020 aged ≥19 were used. The age-standardized prevalence and annual percent changes (APCs) were calculated for obesity (body mass index ≥25 kg/m2), hypertension (systolic/diastolic blood pressure ≥140/90 mmHg or under treatment), diabetes (hemoglobin A1c ≥6.5%, fasting glucose ≥126 mg/dL, physician diagnosis, or under treatment), and hypercholesterolemia (total cholesterol ≥240 mg/dL or under treatment).
RESULTS
Over the past decade (2011-2020), the age-standardized APCs (95% confidence intervals) for obesity, hypertension, diabetes and hypercholesterolemia were 3.0% (2.1 to 3.8), 0.1% (-1.3 to 1.5), 1.5% (-1.0 to 4.0) and 8.0% (5.7 to 10.3), respectively, in men; and -0.2% (-1.5 to 1.2), -0.5% (-1.9 to 0.9), -0.1% (-2.3 to 2.2) and 5.9% (3.9 to 8.0), respectively, in women. In 2020 compared to the previous 3 years (2017-2019), obesity, hypertension, diabetes, and hypercholesterolemia increased in men (6.0, 1.8, 1.9, and 2.8%p, respectively), but an increase was not apparent in women (2.5, -1.1, 0.8, and 0.7%p, respectively).
CONCLUSIONS
An increase in major chronic diseases was observed in Korean adults, especially men, during the COVID-19 pandemic. In order to reduce the burden of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases in the future, effective intervention strategies need to be developed according to the characteristics of the target groups.
Summary
Korean summary
한국인의 비만, 고혈압, 당뇨 및 고지혈증 유병률은 지난 10년간 전반적으로 증가하는 경향을 보였다. 특히, 코로나 19가 유행한 2020년에 남성의 주요 만성질환 유병률은 지난 3년 평균치와 비교하였을 때 모두 유의하게 증가하였다. 반면, 여성에서 만성질환 유병률의 뚜렷한 증가는 관찰되지 않았다.
Key Message
During COVID-19 pandemic, the overall increase in major chronic diseases was observed in Korean adults, and this trend was prominent in men. Accordingly, target-specific intervention strategies need to be developed to reduce the burden of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases in the future.

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    Hyeon Chang Kim, Hokyou Lee, Hyeok-Hee Lee, Dasom Son, Minsung Cho, Sojung Shin, Yeeun Seo, Eun-Jin kim, Song Vogue Ahn, Sun Ha Jee, Sungha Park, Hae-Young Lee, Min Ho Shin, Sang-Hyun Ihm, Seung Won Lee, Jong Ku Park, Il Suh, Tae-Yong Lee
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    Joon-Young Yoon, Won Ju Park, Hee Kyung Kim, Ho-Cheol Kang, Cheol-Kyu Park, Wonsuk Choi
    Journal of Obesity & Metabolic Syndrome.2024; 33(1): 36.     CrossRef
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    Nutrients.2023; 15(6): 1385.     CrossRef
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    Kyungchul Song, Juyeon Yang, Hye Sun Lee, Su Jin Kim, Myeongseob Lee, Junghwan Suh, Ahreum Kwon, Ho-Seong Kim, Hyun Wook Chae
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    The Journal of Korean Diabetes.2023; 24(1): 1.     CrossRef
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    Surim Park, Eun-hee Jang, Seungmin Lee
    Korean Journal of Community Nutrition.2023; 28(2): 124.     CrossRef
  • Trends in socioeconomic inequalities in obesity among Korean adolescents: the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (KYRBS) 2006 to 2020
    Eunji Kim, Ga Bin Lee, Dong Keon Yon, Hyeon Chang Kim
    Epidemiology and Health.2023; 45: e2023033.     CrossRef
  • Changes in food and nutrient intakes in Korean adults before and during the COVID-19 pandemic: data from the 2011-2020 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
    Kyungwon Oh, Suyeon Park, Sihyun Park, Sungha Yun, Hongseok Choi, Eun Kyeong Jeong
    Epidemiology and Health.2023; 45: e2023015.     CrossRef
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    Yoonjung Kim, Suyeon Park, Kyungwon Oh, Hongseok Choi, Eun Kyeong Jeong
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    Hyeon Chang Kim
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COVID-19: Original Article
Socioeconomic inequality in compliance with precautions and health behavior changes during the COVID-19 outbreak: an analysis of the Korean Community Health Survey 2020
Ga Bin Lee, Sun Jae Jung, Yang Yiyi, Jea Won Yang, Hoang Manh Thang, Hyeon Chang Kim
Epidemiol Health. 2022;44:e2022013.   Published online January 9, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2022013
  • 13,652 View
  • 636 Download
  • 10 Web of Science
  • 11 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
This study examined socioeconomic inequalities in compliance with precautions and health behavior changes during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak using a representative Korean sample.
METHODS
This exploratory study utilized around 210,000 participants aged ≥25 years in the Korean Community Health Survey 2020. Socioeconomic status was measured with educational attainment and household income. Outcomes included non-compliance with 8 precaution measures and deterioration in 6 health behaviors. The relative inequality index (RII) was calculated to quantify the degree of inequality by education and income level. RII values >1.0 indicate that deprived people have a higher frequency of health problems, and RII values <1.0 conversely indicate a higher frequency of health problems in more advantaged groups.
RESULTS
People with lower education or income levels tended to have higher rates of non-compliance with COVID-19 safety precautions (RII range, 1.20 to 3.05). Lower education and income levels were associated with an increased smoking amount (RII=2.10 and 1.67, respectively) and sleep duration changes (RII=1.21 and 1.36, respectively). On the contrary, higher education and income levels were associated with decreased physical activity (RII=0.59 and 0.77, respectively) and increased delivery food consumption (RII=0.27 and 0.37, respectively). However, increased alcohol drinking was associated with lower education and income levels in younger men (RII=1.73 and 1.31, respectively), but with higher levels in younger women (RII=0.73 and 0.68, respectively).
CONCLUSIONS
Our findings suggest the need to develop customized strategies, considering the characteristics of the target population, to decrease the burden and impact of the COVID-19 outbreak.
Summary
Korean summary
코로나19 유행기간 동안 예방지침 준수율과 건강관련 생활습관이 나빠지는 정도는 사회경제적 수준에 따라 차이가 있다. 전반적으로 코로나19 예방지침 준수율은 높았지만, 사회경제수준이 낮을수록 예방지침 준수율도 낮아지는 경향을 보였다. 하지만, 사회경제수준과 생활습관 악화의 관계는 성, 연령, 생활습관의 종류에 따라 달랐다.
Key Message
This study of a representative Korean sample found that socioeconomic inequalities existed in compliance with COVID-19 precautions and in health behavior deterioration. There is a need to develop target group-specific strategies to reduce health inequalities and the long-term health burden of the COVID-19 outbreak.

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  • Gap in protective behaviors between Han and minority ethnicities during COVID-19 pandemic in rural western China: A decomposition analysis
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    Xuan Yao, Zeshui Xu, Marinko Škare, Xindi Wang
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    Hyerine Shin, Ji-Su Kim, HyunHae Lee
    JMIR Public Health and Surveillance.2023; 9: e42677.     CrossRef
  • Trends in socioeconomic inequalities in obesity among Korean adolescents: the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (KYRBS) 2006 to 2020
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    Woohyun Yoo, Yangsun Hong, Sang-Hwa Oh
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Editorial
Happy New Year 2022 from Epidemiology and Health (epiH)
Hyeon Chang Kim
Epidemiol Health. 2022;44:e2022001.   Published online December 28, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2022001
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Abstract
Summary
Original Articles
Late eating, blood pressure control, and cardiometabolic risk factors among adults with hypertension: results from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010-2018
Jee-Seon Shim, Hyeon Chang Kim
Epidemiol Health. 2021;43:e2021101.   Published online November 24, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2021101
  • 9,694 View
  • 158 Download
  • 1 Web of Science
  • 3 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
Despite growing concerns regarding the timing of eating, little is known about the association between late eating and health. This study aimed to investigate whether late eating is associated with blood pressure (BP) control and cardiometabolic risk factors among Korean adults with hypertension.
METHODS
Data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010-2018 were used. Adults with hypertension aged 30-79 years (n=13,361) were included in this study. Dietary intake and information on meal timing were assessed using 1-day 24-hour recall. Late eating was defined as after the median midpoint between the times of the first and the last eating episode during the recall day. Logistic and linear regression models were used to estimate the associations of late eating with BP control and cardiometabolic risk factors.
RESULTS
Among late eaters, there were more men than women. Compared to early eaters, late eaters were younger, had a higher body mass index (BMI) and unhealthier habits, and their overall dietary quality score was lower. A negative association between late eating and BP control was found in a univariate model (odds ratio [OR], 0.82; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.94 to 1.12), but this association disappeared after adjustment for confounders (OR, 1.03; 95% CI, 0.94 to 1.12). Late eating was independently associated with higher BMI (p=0.03) and blood triglyceride concentration (p<0.01).
CONCLUSIONS
Our results do not support a link between late eating and BP control among adults with hypertension, but suggest that late eating is associated with cardiometabolic risk factors.
Summary
Korean summary
식사시간이 건강에 미치는 영향에 대한 관심이 증가하고 있지만, 이에 대한 근거는 많지 않다. 이 연구는 국민건강영양조사 자료를 활용하여 고혈압이 있는 성인의 늦은 식사와 혈압 조절, 심장대사 위험인자의 연관성을 분석하였다. 늦은 식사와 혈압 조절의 독립적 연관성은 찾지 못했지만, 늦은 식사는 높은 체질량지수, 혈중 지질 농도와 연관성을 보여 식사 시간 조정이 고혈압 환자의 예후 개선을 위한 유용한 대책이 될 수 있으리라는 근거를 지지한다.
Key Message
This study investigated whether late eating is associated with blood pressure (BP) control and cardiometabolic risk factors among Korean adults with hypertension using data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010–2018. We did not find an independent association between late eating and BP control among Korean adults with hypertension, but found that late eating was significantly associated with higher BMI and a higher blood concentration of triglycerides, independent of potential confounders. Our findings support the suggestion that a time-based dietary approach can be used as a useful strategy to improve the prognosis of adults with hypertension.

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  • Eating patterns in Korean adults, 1998–2018: increased energy contribution of ultra-processed foods in main meals and snacks
    Sukyoung Jung, Jee Young Kim, Sohyun Park
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The effects of information-seeking behaviours on prevention behaviours during the COVID-19 pandemic: the mediating effects of anxiety and fear in Korea
Kwanghyun Kim, Jisu Yang, Ye Jin Jeon, Yu Jin Lee, Youngrong Lee, Hyeon Chang Kim, Karestan Koenen, Yong-Chan Kim, Sun Jae Jung
Epidemiol Health. 2021;43:e2021085.   Published online October 19, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2021085
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
Identifying determinants of prevention behaviours during the emergence of a new infectious disease is important. We investigated the associations between information-seeking and prevention behaviours during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and mediating effects of psychiatric factors.
METHODS
In total, 1,970 participants from the Cardiovascular and Metabolic Etiology Research Center cohort participated in an online survey 55 days after the first COVID-19 case in Korea was diagnosed. Time spent seeking information related to COVID-19; information sources; psychiatric factors, including anxiety, depression, post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), and the fear of COVID-19; and prevention behaviours were examined. The mediating effect of psychiatric factors was estimated using mediation analysis.
RESULTS
Time spent seeking information and information sources affected several behavioural responses. In men, anxiety mediated associations between information-seeking and prevention behaviours, including purchasing sanitary supplies (effect size [ES], 0.038; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.002 to 0.095) and hoarding (ES, 0.029; 95% CI, 0.002 to 0.068). The fear of COVID-19 also mediated associations between information-seeking and prevention behaviours including refraining from going out (men: ES, 0.034; 95% CI, 0.009 to 0.068; women: ES, 0.052; 95% CI, 0.030 to 0.080), wearing face masks (men: ES, 0.085; 95% CI, 0.031 to 0.184), avoiding public transportation (men: ES, 0.020; 95% CI, 0.000 to 0.044; women: ES, 0.031; 95% CI, 0.015 to 0.051), hoarding (women: ES, 0.051; 95% CI, 0.029 to 0.792), and trying alternative remedies (men: ES, 0.024; 95% CI, 0.004 to 0.053). Depressive symptoms and PTSS did not have any mediating effects.
CONCLUSIONS
While the availability of information related to COVID-19 can help prevent infections, it can also promote anxiety and fear, leading to negative behaviours such as hoarding and trying unverified alternative treatments.
Summary
Korean summary
-본 연구는 한국인에서 코로나-19 관련 정보탐색이 예방 행동과 상관관계가 있는지를 확인하고 불안, 공포, 우울을 비롯한 심리 상태가 이 상관관계를 매개하는 메커니즘으로 작용하는지를 확인하고자 하였다. - 본 코호트 연구에서 정보 탐색 시간이 길어질수록 예방 행동을 취하는 빈도가 증가하였으며 불안 및 코로나-19에 대한 공포가 이 둘 사이의 상관관계를 일부 매개하였다. - 정보탐색이 증가할수록 외출 자제, 마스크 착용, 대중교통 이용 자제와 같은 권장되는 예방 행동을 취할 가능성도 증가하였지만 사재기를 하거나 검증되지 않은 대체요법에 의지하는 등 권장되지 않는 예방 행동을 취할 가능성 또한 같이 증가하였다.
Key Message
In this study, we tried to test the association between information-seeking behavior and preventive measures during COVID-19 pandemic. We also tried to understand whether psychologic factors such as anxiety, fear against COVID-19 and depression mediate the association. We found that time used for searching COVID-19-related information is positively associated with preventive behaviors, and that anxiety and fear mediate the association. Information seeking increased the probability of utilizing recommended prevention strategy such as wearing facial masks and refraining from going out, but also promoted prevention behavior not recommended by government officials such as hoarding and trying alternative remedies.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
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