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Original Article
Socioeconomic inequalities in metabolic syndrome and its components in a sample of Iranian Kurdish adults
Pardis Mohammadzadeh, Farhad Moradpour, Bijan Nouri, Farideh Mostafavi, Farid Najafi, Ghobad Moradi
Epidemiol Health. 2023;45:e2023083.   Published online September 3, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2023083
  • 4,125 View
  • 98 Download
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
The worldwide incidence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) has increased in recent decades. In this study, we investigated the socioeconomic inequalities associated with MetS and its components in a sample of the Iranian Kurdish population.
METHODS
We used data from 3,996 participants, aged 35 years to 70 years, from the baseline phase of the Dehgolan Prospective Cohort Study (February 2018 to March 2019). The concentration index and concentration curve were used to measure inequality and the Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition method was used to examine the contribution of various determinants to the observed socioeconomic inequality in MetS and its components.
RESULTS
The prevalence of MetS was 34.44% (95% confidence interval [CI], 32.97 to 35.93). The prevalence of MetS was 26.18% for those in the highest socioeconomic status (SES), compared with 40.51% for participants in the lowest SES. There was a significant negative concentration index for MetS (C=-0.13; 95% CI, -0.16 to -0.09), indicating a concentration of MetS among participants with a lower SES. The most prevalent component was abdominal obesity (59.14%) with a significant negative concentration index (C=-0.21; 95% CI, -0.25 to -0.18). According to decomposition analysis, age, gender, and education were the highest contributing factors to inequality in MetS and its components.
CONCLUSIONS
This study showed socioeconomic inequality in MetS. People with a low SES were more likely to have MetS. Therefore, policymakers and health managers need to develop appropriate strategies to reduce these inequalities in MetS across age groups, genders, and education levels, especially among women and the elderly.
Summary
Key Message
This study sheds light on the presence of socioeconomic inequalities in metabolic syndrome (MetS) among Iranian Kurds. Lower socioeconomic status (SES) is associated with a higher prevalence of MetS and its components. Addressing these socioeconomic factors is crucial to reduce health inequalities. Recognizing this association helps us understand the social determinants of health and design targeted interventions. Policymakers and health managers should prioritize developing strategies to reduce these inequalities in MetS across different age groups, genders, and educational levels, with a particular focus on vulnerable populations like women and the elderly.
Cohort Profile
The Dehgolan Prospective Cohort Study (DehPCS) on non-communicable diseases in a Kurdish community in the west of Iran
Farhad Moradpour, Ebrahim Ghaderi, Ghobad Moradi, Mojdeh Zarei, Amjad Mohamadi Bolbanabad, Bakhtiar Piroozi, Azad Shokri
Epidemiol Health. 2021;43:e2021075.   Published online October 1, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2021075
  • 9,322 View
  • 109 Download
  • 8 Web of Science
  • 7 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Abstract
The Dehgolan Prospective Cohort Study (DehPCS) was conducted to examine and identify risk factors for the most prevalent non-communicable diseases (NCDs). In addition, in order to examine participants’ health status, socioeconomic status, behavioral factors, nutritional status, and environmental exposures, the DehPCS collected, analyzed, and stored blood, urine, nail, and hair samples to conduct genetic studies and identify biomarkers and other biological determinants of NCDs. In total, 3,996 adults aged 35 to 70 from the general population participated in the study from February 2018 to March 2019. Of them, 43.7% were women. The first follow-up wave was conducted with 3,995 participants. Information on a wide range of variables was collected, including on socioeconomic status, lifestyle, nutritional status, habits, physical examination findings, medication use, and medical history. Proxy variables such as body mass index, metabolic equivalent task score, wealth index, and macronutrients and micronutrients were calculated. The most common self-reported diseases in descending order were kidney stones, hypertension, and fatty liver. The prevalence of diabetes and hypertension was 9.3% and 33.4%, respectively. All data, samples, and measurements will be collected again at 5-year intervals. Thus, it will be possible to examine time-dependent changes in the risk factors of NCDs. The DehPCS can be used to study the relationships among genetics, lifestyle, socioeconomic status, and environmental risk factors and the most prevalent NCDs in case-cohort studies using a nested case-control design that will be applied to the cohort infrastructure. Researchers can also submit pre-proposals via the following web address: http://c.ddrc.ac.ir/persianaccess/Account/Login.
Summary
Key Message
• The DehPCS was designed to examine NCDs among the Kurdish population, who are located in a wide area between the northwest of the Zagros Mountains and the eastern Taurus Mountains covering Turkey, Iraq, Iran, and Syria. • In total, 3,996 adults aged 35 to 70 from the general population participated in the study. • All data, samples, and measurements from the registration phase will be collected again at 5-, 10-, and 15-year intervals. • After labeling, aliquots were placed in a freezer at -70°C to enable ongoing studies of the samples in the future.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Dental caries prevalence in relation to the cardiovascular diseases: cross-sectional findings from the Iranian kurdish population
    Zahra Ghanbari, Yousef Moradi, Negin samiee, Farhad Moradpour
    BMC Oral Health.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Validity of self‐reported hypertension and related factors in the adult population: Preliminary results from the cohort in the west of Iran
    Negar Piri, Yousef Moradi, Reza Ghanei Gheshlagh, Mahsa Abdullahi, Eghbal Fattahi, Farhad Moradpour
    The Journal of Clinical Hypertension.2023; 25(2): 146.     CrossRef
  • The association between nutrients and occurrence of COVID‐19 outcomes in the population of Western Iran: A cohort study
    Dana Vaisi, Farhad Moradpour, Shadieh Mohammadi, Daem Roshani, Yousef Moradi
    The Clinical Respiratory Journal.2023; 17(6): 589.     CrossRef
  • Prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its association with oral health: First results from the Kurdish cohort study
    Farhad Moradpour, Zahra Karimi, Zeinab Fatemi, Yousef Moradi, Mohammad Rastegar Khosravi, Azad Shokri, Mohammad Karimzadeh
    Health Science Reports.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Socioeconomic inequalities in metabolic syndrome and its components in a sample of Iranian Kurdish adults
    Pardis Mohammadzadeh, Farhad Moradpour, Bijan Nouri, Farideh Mostafavi, Farid Najafi, Ghobad Moradi
    Epidemiology and Health.2023; 45: e2023083.     CrossRef
  • Socio-demographic correlates of diabetes self-reporting validity: a study on the adult Kurdish population
    Farhad Moradpour, Negar Piri, Hojat Dehghanbanadaki, Ghobad Moradi, Mahdiyeh Fotouk-Kiai, Yousef Moradi
    BMC Endocrine Disorders.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Prevalence of prediabetes, diabetes, diabetes awareness, treatment, and its socioeconomic inequality in west of Iran
    Farhad Moradpour, Satar Rezaei, Bakhtiar Piroozi, Ghobad Moradi, Yousef Moradi, Negar Piri, Azad Shokri
    Scientific Reports.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
Original Article
A cholera outbreak in Alborz Province, Iran: a matched case-control study
Ghobad Moradi, Mohammad Aziz Rasouli, Parvin Mohammadi, Elham Elahi, Hojatollah Barati
Epidemiol Health. 2016;38:e2016018.   Published online May 14, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2016018
  • 19,628 View
  • 254 Download
  • 7 Web of Science
  • 10 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
A total of 229 confirmed cholera cases were reported in Alborz Province during an outbreak that lasted from June 2011 to August 2011. This study aimed to identify potential sources of transmission in order to determine suitable interventions in similar outbreaks. In other words, the lessons learned from this retrospective study can be utilized to manage future similar outbreaks.
METHODS
An age-matched and sex-matched case-control study was conducted during the outbreak. For each case, two control subjects were selected from the neighborhood. A case of cholera was defined as a bacteriologically confirmed case with signs and symptoms of cholera. This study was conducted from June 14, 2011 through August 23, 2011. The data were analyzed by calculating odds ratios (ORs) using the logistic regression method.
RESULTS
In this outbreak, 229 confirmed cholera cases were diagnosed. The following risk factors were found to be associated with cholera: consumption of unrefrigerated leftover food (OR, 3.05; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.72 to 5.41), consumption of vegetables and fruits in the previous three days (OR, 2.75; 95% CI, 1.95 to 3.89), and a history of traveling in the previous five days (OR, 5.31; 95% CI, 2.21 to 9.72).
CONCLUSIONS
Consumption of vegetables and fruits has remained an unresolved risk factor in cholera outbreaks in Iran in recent years. In order to reduce the risk of cholera, sanitary standards for fruits and vegetables should be observed at all points from production to consumption, the population should be educated regarding hygienic food storage during outbreaks, and sanitary standards should be maintained when traveling during cholera outbreaks.
Summary

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Cholera outbreak at a city hotel in Kenya, 2017: a retrospective cohort study
    Philip Ngere, Elvis Oyugi, Alexis Niyomwungere, Scolastica Wabwire, Adi Dahabo, Daniel Langat, Raphael Muli, Maurice Owiny
    Journal of Interventional Epidemiology and Public Health.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Cholera outbreak investigation report in Mille woreda, Afar region, Ethiopia, 2019
    Hana Mekonen, Kefyalew Amene, Dr Samrawit Bisrat, Tesfahun Abye
    MOJ Women s Health.2022; 11(2): 63.     CrossRef
  • Risk Factors of Cholera Transmission in Al Hudaydah, Yemen: Case-Control Study
    Abdulqawi Mohammed Qaserah, Mohammed Abdullah Al Amad, Abdulwahed Abduljabbar Al Serouri, Yousef Saleh Khader
    JMIR Public Health and Surveillance.2021; 7(7): e27627.     CrossRef
  • Prevention and control of cholera with household and community water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) interventions: A scoping review of current international guidelines
    Lauren D’Mello-Guyett, Karin Gallandat, Rafael Van den Bergh, Dawn Taylor, Gregory Bulit, Dominique Legros, Peter Maes, Francesco Checchi, Oliver Cumming, Andrew S. Azman
    PLOS ONE.2020; 15(1): e0226549.     CrossRef
  • Risk factors associated with the recent cholera outbreak in Yemen: a case-control study
    Fekri Dureab, Albrecht Jahn, Johannes Krisam, Asma Dureab, Omer Zain, Sameh Al-Awlaqi, Olaf Müller
    Epidemiology and Health.2019; 41: e2019015.     CrossRef
  • Individual and household exposures associated with cholera transmission in case–control studies: a systematic review
    Matthew D. Phelps, Lone Simonsen, Peter K. M. Jensen
    Tropical Medicine & International Health.2019; 24(10): 1151.     CrossRef
  • Cholera case management in Harare City, 2018: are we doing the right things right?
    Govha Emmanuel, Paul Musarurwa, Christine Gabaza, Taurai Masango, Shambira Gerald, Gombe Tafara Notion, Juru Tsitsi Patience, Tshimanga Mufuta
    Journal of Interventional Epidemiology and Public Health .2019;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • H2S is a key antisecretory molecule against cholera toxin-induced diarrhoea in mice: Evidence for non-involvement of the AC/cAMP/PKA pathway and AMPK
    Francisca B.M. Sousa, Luan K.M. Souza, Nayara A. Sousa, Thiago S.L. Araújo, Simone de Araújo, Dvison M. Pacífico, Irismara S. Silva, Renan O. Silva, Lucas A.D. Nicolau, Fabiana M. Souza, Marcelo C. Filgueiras, Jefferson S. Oliveira, Marcellus H.L.P. Souza
    Nitric Oxide.2018; 76: 152.     CrossRef
  • Individual and Household Risk Factors for Symptomatic Cholera Infection: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
    Aaron Richterman, Duarxy Rodcnel Sainvilien, Lauren Eberly, Louise C Ivers
    The Journal of Infectious Diseases.2018; 218(suppl_3): S154.     CrossRef
  • Comparison of two control groups for estimation of oral cholera vaccine effectiveness using a case-control study design
    Molly F. Franke, J. Gregory Jerome, Wilfredo R. Matias, Ralph Ternier, Isabelle J. Hilaire, Jason B. Harris, Louise C. Ivers
    Vaccine.2017; 35(43): 5819.     CrossRef

Epidemiol Health : Epidemiology and Health