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Erratum
Erratum: Trends in gastrointestinal infections before and during non-pharmaceutical interventions in Korea in comparison with the United States
Soyeoun Kim, Jinhyun Kim, Bo Youl Choi, Boyoung Park
Epidemiol Health. 2022;44:e2022011.E.   Published online December 31, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2022011.E
Corrects: Epidemiol Health 2022;44:e2022011
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Abstract
Summary
COVID-19: Brief Communication
Trends in gastrointestinal infections before and during non-pharmaceutical interventions in Korea in comparison with the United States
Soyeoun Kim, Jinhyun Kim, Bo Youl Choi, Boyoung Park
Epidemiol Health. 2022;44:e2022011.   Published online January 3, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2022011
Correction in: Epidemiol Health 2022;44(0):e2022011.E
  • 9,442 View
  • 478 Download
  • 4 Web of Science
  • 5 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
This study examined how trends in the weekly frequencies of gastrointestinal infectious diseases changed before and during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in Korea, and compared them with the trends in the United States.
METHODS
We compared the weekly frequencies of gastrointestinal infectious diseases (16 bacterial and 6 viral diseases) in Korea during weeks 5-52 before and after COVID-19. In addition, the weekly frequencies of 5 gastrointestinal infectious diseases in the United States (data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) that overlapped with those in Korea were compared.
RESULTS
The mean weekly number of total cases of gastrointestinal infectious diseases in Korea showed a significant decrease (from 522 before COVID-19 to 245 after COVID-19, p<0.01). Only bacterial gastrointestinal infectious diseases caused by <i>Campylobacter</i> increased significantly; other bacterial gastrointestinal infectious diseases showed either a decrease or no change. The incidence of all other viral diseases decreased. In the United States, the weekly numbers of <i>Salmonella</i>, <i>Campylobacter</i>, typhoid, shigellosis, and hepatitis A virus cases sharply decreased after the COVID-19 outbreak. The weekly case numbers of all viral diseases markedly decreased in both countries; however, bacterial gastrointestinal infectious diseases showed a different pattern.
CONCLUSIONS
The incidence of gastrointestinal infectious diseases decreased after the COVID-19 outbreak. In contrast, <i>Campylobacter</i> infections showed an increasing trend in Korea, but a decreasing trend in the United States. Further studies are needed to elucidate the different trends in bacterial and viral infectious diseases before and after non-pharmaceutical interventions and between different countries.
Summary
Korean summary
한국과 미국 모두 코로나-19 발생 이후 위장관 감염 질환의 발생은 감소하고 있습니다. 하지만, 미국과 달리 한국에서는 캄필로박터 감염은 증가 하고 있습니다. 이는 COVID-19이 발생한 이후 캄필로박터 감염의 열악한 통제의 가능성을 설명할 수 있습니다.
Key Message
The incidence of gastrointestinal infectious diseases decreased after the COVID-19 outbreak, however, campylobacter infections showed an increasing trend in Korea, unlike the United States, which could explain the poor control of Campylobacter.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Impact of the COVID‐19 pandemic on the circulation of other pathogens in England
    Lauren J. Hayes, Hannah Uri, Denisa Bojkova, Jindrich Cinatl, Mark N. Wass, Martin Michaelis
    Journal of Medical Virology.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Understanding the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic response on GI infection surveillance trends in England, January 2020–April 2022
    Nicola K. Love, Amy Douglas, Saheer Gharbia, Helen Hughes, Roger Morbey, Isabel Oliver, Gillian E. Smith, Alex J. Elliot
    Epidemiology and Infection.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Trends for Syndromic Surveillance of Norovirus in Emergency Department Data Based on Chief Complaints
    Soyeoun Kim, Sohee Kim, Bo Youl Choi, Boyoung Park
    The Journal of Infectious Diseases.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Trends in Gastrointestinal Infections during the COVID-19 Pandemic and Concerns of Post-Pandemic Resurgence in Japan
    Takuma Higurashi, Shigeki Tamura, Noboru Misawa, Nobuyuki Horita
    Diseases.2023; 12(1): 4.     CrossRef
  • Characteristics and related factors of waterborne and foodborne infectious disease outbreaks before and after the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic (2017–2021) in the Republic of Korea: a descriptive study
    Eunkyoung Kim, Bryan Inho Kim
    Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives.2023; 14(6): 483.     CrossRef
Original Article
Associations of depression and anxiety with cardiovascular risk among people living with HIV/AIDS in Korea
Kyong Sil Park, Seon Young Hwang, Bo Youl Choi, June Kim, Sang Il Kim, Woo-Joo Kim, Chun Kang
Epidemiol Health. 2021;43:e2021002.   Published online December 24, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2021002
  • 12,116 View
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  • 2 Web of Science
  • 3 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
As HIV/AIDS is becoming a chronic disease, the risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD) among people living with HIV/AIDS is rising. Anxiety and depression, which are common among people living with HIV/AIDS, have been linked with CVD. This study investigated the risk of CVD in people living with HIV/AIDS and explored the effects of depression and anxiety on CVD risk.
METHODS
Data were collected for 457 people enrolled in the Korea Cohort HIV/AIDS study after 2010. Framingham risk scores were calculated to quantify the 10-year risk of developing CVD. Depression and anxiety variables were re-coded as a single combined variable. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed, adjusting for age, body mass index, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, triglycerides (TG), duration of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positivity after entry into the cohort, and depression/anxiety.
RESULTS
Participants with both depression and anxiety were 2.28 times more likely than those with neither depression nor anxiety to have moderate/high-risk CVD risk. The 10-year risk of developing CVD was affected by LDL cholesterol, TG, age, and duration of HIV infection. LDL cholesterol and TG levels change according to the duration of HIV infection, and metabolic disorders affect the risk of CVD. Thus, a longer duration of HIV infection is associated with a higher risk of developing CVD.
CONCLUSIONS
Screenings for depression and anxiety need to be provided regularly to assess the severity of those symptoms. To help decrease their risk of developing CVD, people living with HIV/AIDS should be offered behavioral modification interventions aimed at developing healthy lifestyle habits.
Summary
Korean summary
본 연구를 통해 우울과 불안이 심혈관질환 발생위험을 증가시키는 영향요인임을 확인하였다. 따라서, HIV 감염자의 우울과 불안에 대한 정기적인 검사 및 상담이 필요하며, 우울 또는 불안한 환자의 심혈관질환의 발병 위험을 줄이기위해 좋은 생활 습관을 위한 행동 수정 및 동기 부여 교육프로그램의 개발이 필요하다.
Key Message
healthcare providers need to provide motivational education for behavioral modifications to decrease patients’ risk of developing CVD, especially among those with depression or anxiety symptoms.

Citations

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  • Comorbidities among persons living with HIV (PLWH) in Florida: a network analysis
    Shyfuddin Ahmed, Angel B. Algarin, Hsu Thadar, Zhi Zhou, Tanjila Taskin, Krishna Vaddiparti, Karina Villalba, Yan Wang, Nicole Ennis, Jamie P. Morano, Charurut Somboonwit, Robert L Cook, Gladys E. Ibañez
    AIDS Care.2023; 35(7): 1055.     CrossRef
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    Ilex Beltran-Najera, Andrea Mustafa, Desmond Warren, Zach Salling, Maria Misiura, Steven Paul Woods, Vonetta M. Dotson
    Journal of Psychiatric Research.2023; 160: 78.     CrossRef
  • MENTE X CORAÇÃO: AS DOENÇAS PSIQUICAS E AS CONSENQUÊNCIAS CARDIOVASCULARES: UMA REVISÃO DA LITERATURA
    Beatriz da Silva Araújo, Morgana Gonçalves da Silva
    Revista interdisciplinar em saúde.2021; 8(Único): 292.     CrossRef
Brief Communications
Prospective cohort data quality assurance and quality control strategy and method: Korea HIV/AIDS Cohort Study
Soo Min Kim, Yunsu Choi, Bo Youl Choi, Minjeong Kim, Sang Il Kim, Jun Young Choi, Shin-Woo Kim, Joon Young Song, Youn Jeong Kim, Mee-Kyung Kee, Myeongsu Yoo, Jeong Gyu Lee, Bo Young Park
Epidemiol Health. 2020;42:e2020063.   Published online September 4, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2020063
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  • 2 Web of Science
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
The aim of effective data quality control and management is to minimize the impact of errors on study results by identifying and correcting them. This study presents the results of a data quality control system for the Korea HIV/AIDS Cohort Study that took into account the characteristics of the data.
METHODS
The HIV/AIDS Cohort Study in Korea conducts repeated measurements every 6 months using an electronic survey administered to voluntarily consenting participants and collects data from 21 hospitals. In total, 5,795 sets of data from 1,442 participants were collected from the first investigation in 2006 to 2016. The data refining results of 2015 and 2019 were converted into the data refining rate and compared.
RESULTS
The quality control system involved 3 steps at different points in the process, and each step contributed to data quality management and results. By improving data quality control in the pre-phase and the data collection phase, the estimated error value in 2019 was 1,803, reflecting a 53.9% reduction from 2015. Due to improvements in the stage after data collection, the data refining rate was 92.7% in 2019, a 24.21%p increase from 2015.
CONCLUSIONS
Despite this quality management strategy, errors may still exist at each stage. Logically possible errors for the post-review refining of downloaded data should be actively identified with appropriate consideration of the purpose and epidemiological characteristics of the study data. To improve data quality and reliability, data management strategies should be systematically implemented.
Summary
Korean summary
이 연구는 한국 에이즈 코호트 자료의 연구 목적과 역학적 특성을 고려한 체계적인 질 관리 방법과 결과를 제시한다. 시간적 선후 관계를 고려한 로직을 활용한 자료정제 과정을 비롯한 3단계의 체계적인 질 관리 방법은 이제껏 없었던 국내 코호트 자료 질 관리에 도움이 될 것으로 사료된다.

Citations

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  • Effect of characteristics on the clinical course at the initiation of treatment for human immunodeficiency virus infection using dimensionality reduction
    Yunsu Choi, Bo Youl Choi, Sang Il Kim, Jungsoon Choi, Jieun Kim, Bo Young Park, Soo Min Kim, Shin-Woo Kim, Jun Yong Choi, Joon Young Song, Youn Jeong Kim, Hyo Youl Kim, Jin-Soo Lee, Jung Ho Kim, Yoon Hee Jun, Myungsun Lee, Jaehyun Seong
    Scientific Reports.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • A Nationwide Evaluation of the Prevalence of Human Papillomavirus in Brazil (POP-Brazil Study): Protocol for Data Quality Assurance and Control
    Jaqueline Driemeyer Correia Horvath, Marina Bessel, Natália Luiza Kops, Flávia Moreno Alves Souza, Gerson Mendes Pereira, Eliana Marcia Wendland
    JMIR Research Protocols.2022; 11(1): e31365.     CrossRef
Time-variant reproductive number of COVID-19 in Seoul, Korea
Seong-Geun Moon, Yeon-Kyung Kim, Woo-Sik Son, Jong-Hoon Kim, Jungsoon Choi, Baeg-Ju Na, Boyoung Park, Bo Youl Choi
Epidemiol Health. 2020;42:e2020047.   Published online June 28, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2020047
  • 12,080 View
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
To estimate time-variant reproductive number (R<sub>t</sub>) of coronavirus disease 19 based on either number of daily confirmed cases or their onset date to monitor effectiveness of quarantine policies.
METHODS
Using number of daily confirmed cases from January 23, 2020 to March 22, 2020 and their symptom onset date from the official website of the Seoul Metropolitan Government and the district office, we calculated R<sub>t</sub> using program R’s package “EpiEstim”. For asymptomatic cases, their symptom onset date was considered as -2, -1, 0, +1, and +2 days of confirmed date.
RESULTS
Based on the information of 313 confirmed cases, the epidemic curve was shaped like ‘propagated epidemic curve’. The daily R<sub>t</sub> based on R<sub>t_c</sub> peaked to 2.6 on February 20, 2020, then showed decreased trend and became <1.0 from March 3, 2020. Comparing both R<sub>t</sub> from R<sub>t_c</sub> and from the number of daily onset cases, we found that the pattern of changes was similar, although the variation of R<sub>t</sub> was greater when using R<sub>t_c</sub>. When we changed assumed onset date for asymptotic cases (-2 days to +2 days of the confirmed date), the results were comparable.
CONCLUSIONS
R<sub>t</sub> can be estimated based on R<sub>t_c</sub> which is available from daily report of the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Estimation of R<sub>t</sub> would be useful to continuously monitor the effectiveness of the quarantine policy at the city and province levels.
Summary
Korean summary
우리나라 전체와 각 시도별 일별 증상 발현자 수 또는 확진자 수를 이용하여 추정한 Rt로 방역정책의 효과를 국가 및 시도 수준에서 지속적으로 모니터링 할 필요가 있다.

Citations

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  • Reproduction Factor Based Latent Epidemic Model Inference: A Data-Driven Approach Using COVID-19 Datasets
    Sujin Ahn, Minhae Kwon
    IEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics.2023; 27(3): 1259.     CrossRef
  • 코로나19 핵심 지표 산출체계 국제 비교 및 활용도 제고 방안 연구
    나애 이, 연경 김, 승필 정, 우주 이, 주환 오, 승식 황
    Public Health Weekly Report.2023; 16(29): 973.     CrossRef
  • COVID-19 early-alert signals using human behavior alternative data
    Anasse Bari, Aashish Khubchandani, Junzhang Wang, Matthias Heymann, Megan Coffee
    Social Network Analysis and Mining.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
Special Article
Causes and countermeasures for repeated outbreaks of hepatitis A among adults in Korea
Moran Ki, Hyunjin Son, Bo Youl Choi
Epidemiol Health. 2019;41:e2019038.   Published online September 22, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2019038
  • 11,677 View
  • 240 Download
  • 9 Web of Science
  • 9 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
The 2019 hepatitis A outbreak has become increasingly prevalent among adults in Korea and is the largest outbreak since that in 2009-2010. The incidence in the current outbreak is highest among adults aged 35-44 years, corresponding to the peak incidence among those aged 25-34 years 10 years ago. This may indicate a cohort effect in the corresponding age group. Causes of these repeated outbreaks of hepatitis A in Korea are low level of immunity among adults, Korean food culture that consumes raw seafood such as salted clam and inadequate public health system. Among countermeasures, along with general infectious disease control measures including control of the infectious agent, infection spread, and host, urgent actions are needed to review the vaccination policy and establish an adequate public health system.
Summary
Korean summary
2019년 한국 성인의 A형 간염 유행은 10년전 대규모 유행 이후 가장 큰 규모로발생하고 있다. 주 발생 연령이 10년전 유행보다 10세가 증가한 35-44세로 나타나 연령 코호트 효과라 볼 수 있다. 우리나라의 A형 간염 반복 유행의 원인은 성인의 낮은 집단면역수준, 어패류 생식문화, 공중보건의료체계 미비 등으로 보인다. 이에 대한 대책은 일반적인 감염관리대책인 감염원관리, 전파관리, 숙주관리와 함께 효율적인 백신접종정책, 공고한 공중보건관리체계 마련 등의 근본적 대책이 시급하다.

Citations

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  • Investigating the spatio-temporal variation of hepatitis A in Korea using a Bayesian model
    Jaehong Jeong, Mijeong Kim, Jungsoon Choi
    Frontiers in Public Health.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Antiviral Efficacy of Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma against Hepatitis A Virus in Fresh Oyster Using PMA/RT-qPCR
    Min Gyu Song, Ji Yoon Kim, Eun Bi Jeon, So Hee Kim, Min Soo Heu, Jung-Suck Lee, Jin-Soo Kim, Shin Young Park
    Applied Sciences.2023; 13(6): 3513.     CrossRef
  • Influence of temperature and precipitation on the incidence of hepatitis A in Seoul, Republic of Korea: a time series analysis using distributed lag linear and non-linear model
    Kiook Baek, Jonghyuk Choi, Jong-Tae Park, Kyeongmin Kwak
    International Journal of Biometeorology.2022; 66(9): 1725.     CrossRef
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    Jung Hee Hyun, Ju Young Yoon, Sang Hyuk Lee
    Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives.2022; 13(5): 352.     CrossRef
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    Hyunjin Son, Miyoung Lee, Youngduck Eun, Wonseo Park, Kyounghee Park, Sora Kwon, Seungjin Kim, Changhoon Kim
    Epidemiology and Health.2021; 44: e2022003.     CrossRef
  • Hepatitis A vaccination
    Li Zhang
    Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics.2020; 16(7): 1565.     CrossRef
  • A Study on Seroprevalence of Hepatitis A Virus among Healthcare Workers at a University-Affiliated Hospital in Deajeon, Korea
    Seul Ki Ji, So Hee Jang, Min Hee Park, Ji Eun Lee, Hye Sook Jeong, Joonhong Park, Seung Beom Han, Yunmi Yi, Sun Hee Park
    The Korean Journal of Healthcare-Associated Infection Control and Prevention.2020; 25(1): 54.     CrossRef
  • Epidemiology of viral disease outbreaks in Odisha, India (2010–2019)
    J.S. Kshatri, J. Turuk, J. Sabat, S. Subhadra, L.M. Ho, S. Rath, S.K. Palo, D. Bhattacharya, B. Dwibedi, S. Pati
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    Jun Inoue, Atsushi Masamune
    Nihon Naika Gakkai Zasshi.2020; 109(7): 1439.     CrossRef
Original Articles
Epidemiological characteristics of HIV infected Korean: Korea HIV/AIDS Cohort Study
Yunsu Choi, Bo Youl Choi, Soo Min Kim, Sang Il Kim, June Kim, Jun Young Choi, Shin-Woo Kim, Joon Young Song, Youn Jeong Kim, Dae Won Park, Hyo Youl Kim, Hee-Jung Choi, Mee-Kyung Kee, Young Hyun Shin, Myeongsu Yoo
Epidemiol Health. 2019;41:e2019037.   Published online September 3, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2019037
  • 14,162 View
  • 337 Download
  • 19 Web of Science
  • 17 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
To manage evidence-based diseases, it is important to identify the characteristics of patients in each country.
METHODS
The Korea HIV/AIDS Cohort Study seeks to identify the epidemiological characteristics of 1,442 Korean individuals with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection (12% of Korean individuals with HIV infection in 2017) who visited 21 university hospitals nationwide. The descriptive statistics were presented using the Korea HIV/AIDS cohort data (2006-2016).
RESULTS
Men accounted for 93.3% of the total number of respondents, and approximately 55.8% of respondents reported having an acute infection symptom. According to the transmission route, infection caused by sexual contact accounted for 94.4%, of which 60.4% were caused by sexual contact with the same sex or both males and females. Participants repeatedly answered the survey to decrease depression and anxiety scores. Of the total participants, 89.1% received antiretroviral therapy (ART). In the initial ART, 95.3% of patients were treated based on the recommendation. The median CD4 T-cell count at the time of diagnosis was 229.5 and improved to 331 after the initial ART. Of the patients, 16.6% and 9.4% had tuberculosis and syphilis, respectively, and 26.7% had pneumocystis pneumonia. In the medical history, sexually transmitted infectious diseases showed the highest prevalence, followed by endocrine diseases. The main reasons for termination were loss to follow-up (29.9%) and withdrawal of consent (18.7%).
CONCLUSIONS
Early diagnosis and ART should be performed at an appropriate time to prevent the development of new infection.
Summary
Korean summary
국내 감염인은 대부분 성 접촉으로 인해 감염되었고, 감염인의 약 90%가 치료를 경험하였다. 하지만 여전히 결핵, 매독, 주폐포자충 폐렴 등과 같은 HIV 관련 질환의 유병률이 높았고, 치료를 통해 수명이 연장되어 노화 혹은 치료 약제 부작용과 관련된 HIV 비 관련 만성 질환의 유병률도 높았다. 향후 감염인의 HIV/AIDS 비 관련 질환에 대한 연구 및 사망 원인 등에 대한 후속 연구가 필요하겠다.

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    Hayriye Kirkoyun Uysal, Muammer Osman Koksal, Kutay Sarsar, Pinar Soguksu, Gonca Erkose Genc, Gizem Yapar, Evrim Ozdemir, Mustafa Onel, Sevim Mese, Mehmet Demirci, Zayre Erturan, Eray Yurtseven, Omer Haluk Eraksoy, Ali Agacfidan
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    Jang Ho Lee, Sehee Kim, Ye-Jee Kim, Sei Won Lee, Jae Seung Lee, Yeon-Mok Oh
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  • Cancer Incidence Among Adults With HIV in a Population-Based Cohort in Korea
    Boyoung Park, Kyoung Hwan Ahn, Yunsu Choi, Jung Ho Kim, Hye Seong, Youn Jeong Kim, Jun Young Choi, Joon Young Song, Eunjung Lee, Yoon Hee Jun, Young Kyung Yoon, Won Suk Choi, Myungsun Lee, Jaehyun Seong, Shin-Woo Kim
    JAMA Network Open.2022; 5(8): e2224897.     CrossRef
  • Comparison of Three Cardiovascular Risk Scores among HIV-Infected Patients in Korea: The Korea HIV/AIDS Cohort Study
    Ji Yun Bae, Soo Min Kim, Yunsu Choi, Jun Yong Choi, Sang Il Kim, Shin-Woo Kim, Bo Young Park, Bo Youl Choi, Hee Jung Choi
    Infection & Chemotherapy.2022; 54(3): 409.     CrossRef
  • Spatiotemporal Clusters and Trends of Pneumocystis Pneumonia in Korea
    Hwa Sun Kim, Ho-Woo Nam, Hye-Jin Ahn, Sang Haak Lee, Yeong Hoon Kim
    The Korean Journal of Parasitology.2022; 60(5): 327.     CrossRef
  • A Korean Post-Marketing Surveillance Study of Dolutegravir Single-Agent Tablets in Patients with HIV-1
    Sungshin Kwon, Jung-Eun Cho, Eun-Bin Lee, Yeon-Sook Kim, Jang-Wook Sohn
    Infection & Chemotherapy.2022; 54(4): 711.     CrossRef
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    Rowena Johnston
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The coverage rates for influenza vaccination and related factors in Korean adults aged 50 and older with chronic disease: based on 2016 Community Health Survey data
Kyeong Hyang Byeon, Jaiyong Kim, Boyoung Choi, Bo Youl Choi
Epidemiol Health. 2018;40:e2018034.   Published online July 24, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2018034
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
This study aims to identify the coverage rates for influenza vaccination and related factors depending on chronic disease in Korean adults aged 50 and older.
METHODS
The 2016 Korea Community Health Survey was used for analysis. Chi-square test was performed to investigate the coverage rates for influenza vaccination depending on chronic disease, and a multiple logistic regression analysis was used to identify the factors associated with influenza vaccination, by chronic disease.
RESULTS
In men with ≥1 chronic disease, 39.8% of 50-64 years of age, and 86.8% of elderly (over 65 years of age) received influenza vaccination. In women with ≥1 chronic disease, 58.7% of 50-64 years of age, and 89.9% of elderly (over 65 years of age) received influenza vaccination (p<0.001). The chronic diseases associated with influenza vaccination were hypertension (odds ratio [OR], 1.27; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.19 to 1.37), diabetes (OR, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.28 to 1.55) in men aged 50-64, hypertension (OR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.20 to 1.49), diabetes (OR, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.02 to 1.33), chronic cardiovascular disease (OR, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.07 to 1.60) in elderly (over 65 years of age). In women aged 50-64, hypertension (OR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.30 to 1.49), diabetes (OR, 1.51; 95% CI, 1.35 to 1.68), chronic cardiovascular disease (OR, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.05 to 1.64), and hypertension (OR, 1.55; 95% CI, 1.40 to 1.71), diabetes (OR, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.12 to 1.43) in elderly (over 65 years of age).
CONCLUSIONS
Populations in aged 50-64 are recommendation subject for vaccination or classified as high-risk group in case with chronic disease. Though subject over 60 years old is age close to the elderly, the coverage rates for vaccination was low. It is necessary to devise strategies to raise the coverage rates for vaccination.
Summary
Korean summary
매년 인플루엔자 환자수는 증가하는 추세이며 인플루엔자로 인한 의료이용의 질병부담은 커질 것으로 생각된다. 국내에서는 우선접종 권장대상자들에게 예방접종을 받도록 권고하고 있으며, 예방접종은 인플루엔자를 예방할 수 있는 비용 효과적인 방법이다. 65세 이상 대상자는 국가 무료 예방접종 사업 대상으로 인해 예방접종률이 높은 것으로 확인되었다. 50-64세 인구는 예방접종 권고 대상자임에도 불구하고 낮은 것으로 나타났고, 50-64세 연령에서 만성질환을 동반할 경우 고위험군이지만 여전히 낮은 예방접종률을 보였다. 또한 50-64세 연령에서 1개 이상 만성질환을 동반할 경우 대도시, 중소도시에 거주하는 것보다 군지역에 거주할 경우 높은 예방접종률을 확인함으로써 대도시 및 중소도시에 거주하는 50-64세 연령에 대해 예방접종률을 올릴 수 있는 적극적인 예방접종 홍보가 필요할 것으로 생각한다.

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Cohort Profile
Korea HIV/AIDS Cohort Study: study design and baseline characteristics
Bo Youl Choi, Jun Yong Choi, Sang Hoon Han, Sang Il Kim, Mee-Kyung Kee, Min Ja Kim, Shin-Woo Kim, Sung Soon Kim, Yu-Mi Kim, Nam Su Ku, Jin-Soo Lee, Joo-Shil Lee, Yunsu Choi, Kyong Sil Park, Joon Young Song, Jun Hee Woo, Moon Won Kang, June Kim
Epidemiol Health. 2018;40:e2018023.   Published online June 6, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2018023
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
The number of persons infected by HIV/AIDS has consistently increased in Korea since the first case of HIV/AIDS infection in 1985 and reached 15,208 by 2016. About 1,100 new patients with HIV/ AIDS infections have emerged every year since 2013. In Korea, the Korea HIV/AIDS Cohort Study was established for the evidenced-based prevention, treatment, and effective management of patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in December 2006. This study monitored 1,438 patients, who accounted for about 10% of all patients with HIV/AIDS in Korea, for 10 years with the following aims: (1) to develop an administrative system for the establishment of a HIV/AIDS cohort-based study; (2) to standardize methodologies and the case report forms; and (3) to standardize multi-cohort data and develop a data cleaning method. This study aims to monitor at least 1,000 patients (excluding those for whom investigation had been completed) per year (estimated number of patients who can be monitored by January 2018: 939). By December 2016, the sex distribution was 93.3% for men, and 6.7% for women (gender ratio, 13.9:1.0), and 98.9% of all participants were Korean. More than 50.0% of the participants were confirmed as HIV positive after 2006. This study reports competitive, long-term research that aimed to develop policies for the prevention of chronic infectious diseases for patients with HIV. The data collected over the last decade will be used to develop indices for HIV treatment and health promotion.
Summary
Korean summary
세계적으로 HIV 감염인은 감소하고 있으나, 한국의 HIV 감염은 증가하여 2013년 이후 매년 1,000명이 넘는 신규 감염인이 보고되고 있다. HIV/AIDS 코호트 연구진은 2006년부터 HIV 감염인과 AIDS 환자를 대상으로 6개월 간격의 반복 조사를 시행하여 역학과 임상 자료를 수집하여 데이터베이스를 구축하고, 생물검체를 채취하여 인체자원은행에 보관하여, HIV/AIDS의 발생 기전을 구명하고, 자연사를 파악하며, 예방과 진단, 치료, 관리 방법을 개발하기 위한 기초와 임상, 역학 연구에 활용하고 있다.

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Original Article
Asymptomatic Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus infection using a serologic survey in Korea
Yeong-jun Song, Jeong-Sun Yang, Hee Jung Yoon, Hae-Sung Nam, Soon Young Lee, Hae-Kwan Cheong, Woo-Jung Park, Sung Han Park, Bo Youl Choi, Sung Soon Kim, Moran Ki
Epidemiol Health. 2018;40:e2018014.   Published online April 15, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2018014
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
The rates of asymptomatic infection with Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) coronavirus vary. A serologic study was conducted to determine the asymptomatic MERS infection rate in healthcare workers and non-healthcare workers by exposure status.
METHODS
Study participants were selected from contacts of MERS patients based on a priority system in 4 regions strongly affected by the 2015 MERS outbreak. A sero-epidemiological survey was performed in 1,610 contacts (average duration from exposure to test, 4.8 months), and the collected sera were tested using an enzyme-linked immunespecific assay (ELISA), immunofluorescence assay (IFA), and plaque reduction neutralization antibody test (PRNT). Among the 1,610 contacts, there were 7 ELISA-positive cases, of which 1 exhibited positive IFA and PRNT results.
RESULTS
The asymptomatic infection rate was 0.060% (95% confidence interval, 0.002 to 0.346). The asymptomatic MERS case was a patient who had been hospitalized with patient zero on the same floor of the hospital at the same time. The case was quarantined at home for 2 weeks after discharge, and had underlying diseases, including hypertension, angina, and degenerative arthritis.
CONCLUSIONS
The asymptomatic infection was acquired via healthcare-associated transmission. Thus, it is necessary to extend serologic studies to include inpatient contacts who have no symptoms.
Summary
Korean summary
2015년 국내 MERS 유행시에 자가격리를 시행하였던 접촉자 약 15,000명 (의료인과 비의료인 포함) 중에서 주요 유행지역, 노출 강도 등을 고려하여 선별된 3,291명을 대상으로 무증상 감염여부를 확인하기 위한 혈청 역학조사를 수행하였다. 최종 검사에 참여한 1,610명 중에서 7명이 ELISA 양성 반응을 보였고, 그 중 1명이 IFA와 PRNT에서도 양성 반응을 보여 무증상 감염률은 0.060%(95% CI: 0.002-0.346)로 기존 연구에 비하여 낮았다. 최종 양성을 보인 1명은 노출 당시 1번환자와 가까운 병실에 입원하였던 환자였다.

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MERS-Original Article
Preventive behaviors by the level of perceived infection sensitivity during the Korea outbreak of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome in 2015
Soon Young Lee, Hee Jeong Yang, Gawon Kim, Hae-Kwan Cheong, Bo Youl Choi
Epidemiol Health. 2016;38:e2016051.   Published online November 16, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2016051
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
This study was performed to investigate the relationship between community residents’ infection sensitivity and their levels of preventive behaviors during the 2015 Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) outbreak in Korea.
METHODS
Seven thousands two hundreds eighty one participants from nine areas in Gyeonggi-do including Pyeongtaek, the origin of the outbreak in 2015 agreed to participate in the survey and the data from 6,739 participants were included in the final analysis. The data on the perceived infection sensitivity were subjected to cluster analysis. The levels of stress, reliability/practice of preventive behaviors, hand washing practice and policy credibility during the outbreak period were analyzed for each cluster.
RESULTS
Cluster analysis of infection sensitivity due to the MERS outbreak resulted in classification of participants into four groups: the non-sensitive group (14.5%), social concern group (17.4%), neutral group (29.1%), and overall sensitive group (39.0%). A logistic regression analysis found that the overall sensitive group with high sensitivity had higher stress levels (17.80; 95% confidence interval [CI], 13.77 to 23.00), higher reliability on preventive behaviors (5.81; 95% CI, 4.84 to 6.98), higher practice of preventive behaviors (4.53; 95% CI, 3.83 to 5.37) and higher practice of hand washing (2.71; 95% CI, 2.13 to 3.43) during the outbreak period, compared to the non-sensitive group.
CONCLUSIONS
Infection sensitivity of community residents during the MERS outbreak correlated with gender, age, occupation, and health behaviors. When there is an outbreak in the community, there is need to maintain a certain level of sensitivity while reducing excessive stress, as well as promote the practice of preventive behaviors among local residents. In particular, target groups need to be notified and policies need to be established with a consideration of the socio-demographic characteristics of the community.
Summary
Korean summary
2015년 한국에서 발생한 메르스 유행 시 지역 주민이 인식하는 민감도와 예방행위 수준을 파악하고 연관성을 밝히고자 2015년 경기도 9개 시의 지역사회건강조사 대상자 6,739명을 대상으로 감염 민감도와 예방행위 등을 조사 분석하였다. 감염 민감도는 성별, 연령, 직업, 건강행위와 연관성이 있었으며, 감염에 대한 민감도가 높을수록 스트레스를 많이 받는 한편, 예방행위 실천에 긍정적인 영향을 미침을 알 수 있었다. 따라서 감염병 유행 시 지나친 스트레스는 줄이되 공중보건 위기에 대한 적정 수준의 민감도를 유지하고, 인구사회학적 특성을 고려한 관리정책이 요구된다.

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Brief Communication
Evaluation report on the causal association between humidifier disinfectants and lung injury
Mina Ha, Soon Young Lee, Seung-sik Hwang, Hyesook Park, Seungsoo Sheen, Hae Kwan Cheong, Bo Youl Choi
Epidemiol Health. 2016;38:e2016037.   Published online August 18, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2016037
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
As of November 2011, the Korean government recalled and banned humidifier disinfectants (HDs) from the market, because four case-control studies and one retrospective epidemiological study proved the association between HDs and lung injury of unknown cause. The report reviewed the causal role of HDs in lung injury based on scientific evidences.
METHODS
A careful examination on the association between the HDs and lung injury was based on the criteria of causality inference by Hill and the US Surgeon General Expert Committee.
RESULTS
We found that all the evidences on the causality fulfilled the criteria (strength of association, consistency, specificity, temporality, biologic gradient, plausibility, coherence, experiment, analogy, consideration of alternative explanations, and cessation of exposure), which proved the unknown cause lung injury reported in 2011 was caused by the HDs. In particular, there was no single reported case of lung injury since the ban in selling HDs in November 2011 as well as before the HDs were sold in markets.
CONCLUSIONS
Although only a few epidemiological studies in Korea have evaluated the association between lung injury and the use of HDs, those studies contributed to proving the strong association between the use of the HDs and lung injury, based on scientific evidence.
Summary
Korean summary
본 논문에서는 Hill의 기준과 US Surgeon General 전문위원회에서 제시하는 기준에 근거하여 가습기살균제와 폐손상과의 인과성을 검토하였다. 검토결과, 11개 조건(관련성의 강도, 일관성, 특이성, 시간적 선후관계, 생물학적 용량-반응 관계, 개연성, 기존 지식과의 일치성, 실험, 유사성, 다른 가능한 해석에 대한 고려 및 노출의 중단) 을 모두 충족함을 확인하므로 써, 2011년 발생한 원인미상 폐손상의 원인이 가습기살균제 노출로 인한 것임을 알 수 있었다. 무엇보다도 가습기살균제 시판 전에는 원인미상 폐손상이 보고된 바가 없었고, 2011년 11월 가습기살균제 판매중지 이후 폐손상이 한 건도 발생하지 않은 것은 원인미상의 폐손상이 가습기살균제로 인한 것임을 강력하게 지지하는 것으로 판단된다.

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Original Articles
Correlation between depressive symptoms and subjective mastication ability and ability to pronunciation among Korean elderly
Min Sun Park, Kyung-Gyun Hwang, Bo Youl Choi
Epidemiol Health. 2016;38:e2016035.   Published online July 25, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2016035
  • 15,763 View
  • 233 Download
  • 5 Web of Science
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
The present study examines the relationship between depressive symptoms and subjective chewing and pronunciation ability in Korean seniors. Our goal is to provide the data required to develop appropriate oral health interventions programs for seniors.
METHODS
The Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D) is widely used depressive symptoms assessment. A Korean version was used for the 2009 Community Health Survey, which was consulted to extract the present study’s participants comprising 50,694 Korean seniors (males, 20,582; females, 30,112) aged ≥65 years. Those with a CES-D score ≥16 were rated ‘depressed.’ SAS version 9.3 was used for the data analysis.
RESULTS
Prevalence of depressive symptoms increased as the participants socioeconomic status decreased, number of health issues increased, health behavior worsened, and chewing and pronunciation discomfort increased. Males with chewing difficulties were found to have 1.45 times (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.29 to 1.63) greater risk of depressive symptoms than those without, while males with pronunciation discomfort were found to have 1.97 times greater risk of depressive symptoms than those without (95% CI, 1.76 to 2.20). Females with chewing difficulty were found to have 1.50 times (95% CI, 1.39 to 1.61) greater risk of depressive symptoms than those without, and females with pronunciation discomfort were found to have 1.55 times greater risk of depressive symptoms than those without (95% CI, 1.44 to 1.67).
CONCLUSIONS
Intervention programs designed to help with oral health management and alleviate depressive symptoms in seniors are urgently needed. As the prevalence of depressive symptoms may vary geographically, research examining potential variance at city, district, and town levels would be beneficial.
Summary
Korean summary
The Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale(CES-D)을 번역하여 조사된 2009년 지역사회건강조사 원시자료를 이용하여 전국 노인의 구강 보건 관리와 우울증상 관리를 중재하는 프로그램의 개발 및 접근에 있어 기초 자료를 제공하고자 하였다. 한국 노인의 주관적 구강저작능력과 발음능력상태와 우울증상은 인구 사회학적 특성, 건강수준 및 건강행태 관련 요인에 유의한 차이가 있었으며, 이에 따른 체계적이고 지속할 수 있는 중재프로그램의 기획 및 적용이 필요할 것으로 생각된다.

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Community mental health status six months after the Sewol ferry disaster in Ansan, Korea
Hee Jung Yang, Hae Kwan Cheong, Bo Youl Choi, Min-Ho Shin, Hyeon Woo Yim, Dong-Hyun Kim, Gawon Kim, Soon Young Lee
Epidemiol Health. 2015;37:e2015046.   Published online October 23, 2015
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih/e2015046
  • 17,562 View
  • 243 Download
  • 21 Web of Science
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
The disaster of the Sewol ferry that sank at sea off Korea’s southern coast of the Yellow Sea on April 16, 2014 was a tragedy that brought grief and despair to the whole country. The aim of this study was to evaluate the mental health effects of this disaster on the community of Ansan, where most victims and survivors resided.
METHODS
The self-administered questionnaire survey was conducted 4 to 6 months after the accident using the Korean Community Health Survey system, an annual nationwide cross-sectional survey. Subjects were 7,076 adults (≥19 years) living in two victimized communities in Ansan, four control communities from Gyeonggi-do, Jindo and Haenam near the accident site. Depression, stress, somatic symptoms, anxiety, and suicidal ideation were measured using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale, Brief Encounter Psychosocial Instrument, Patient Health Questionnaire-15, and Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-Item Scale, respectively.
RESULTS
The depression rate among the respondents from Ansan was 11.8%, and 18.4% reported suicidal ideation. Prevalence of other psychiatric disturbances was also higher compared with the other areas. A multiple logistic regression analysis revealed significantly higher odds ratios (ORs) in depression (1.66; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.36 to 2.04), stress (1.37; 95% CI, 1.10 to 1.71), somatic symptoms (1.31; 95% CI, 1.08 to 1.58), anxiety (1.82; 95% CI, 1.39 to 2.39), and suicidal ideation (1.33; 95% CI, 1.13 to 1.56) compared with Gyeonggi-do. In contrast, the accident areas of Jindo and Haenam showed the lowest prevalence and ORs.
CONCLUSIONS
Residents in the victimized area of Ansan had a significantly higher prevalence of psychiatric disturbances than in the control communities.
Summary
Korean summary
본 연구는 2014년 4월 16일 발생한 세월호 침몰 사고가 지역사회의 정신건강 수준에 미친 영향을 평가하기 위해 실시하였다. 2014년 지역사회건강조사를 활용, 사고 후 6개월 시점에 조사를 시행하였다. 대부분의 희생자가 발생한 안산시 대상자의 11.8%가 우울군으로 분류되었으며, 18.4%가 자살생각을 호소하였고, 그 밖의 유병률도 대조 지역에 비해 높았다.

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Test-retest reliability of health behavior items in the Community Health Survey in South Korea
Soo Jeong Kim, Jin A Han, Young Hwa Kim, Bo Youl Choi, Su Young Kim, Hun Je Lee, In Hwan Oh, Sung-il Cho, Jakyoung Lee, Soon Young Lee
Epidemiol Health. 2015;37:e2015045.   Published online October 20, 2015
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih/e2015045
  • 18,274 View
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
Responses to health-related items on the Community Health Survey (CHS) provide evidence that is used to develop community-based health policy. This study aimed to assess the test-retest reliability of selected health behavioral items on the CHS according to item category, response period, and response scale.
METHODS
A sample of 159 men and women 20 to 69 years of age participated in a test-retest with an interval of 14 to 21 days. A total of 28 items relating to smoking, alcohol consumption, diet and weight control, and mental health were selected. We evaluated the test-retest reliability of the items using kappa statistics.
RESULTS
Kappa values ranged from 0.44 to 0.93. Items concerning habits had higher kappa values (mean, 0.7; standard error, 0.05) than items concerning awareness or attitudes (p=0.012). The kappa value of items with two- to four-point scales was 0.63, which was higher than the value of 0.59 for items with scales involving five or more points, although this difference was not statistically significant. Different kappa values were observed for each reference period, but no statistically significant differences were noted.
CONCLUSIONS
The test-retest reliability of the CHS items that we studied was associated with item category. Further study of the relationship between item category and reliability in domains other than health behaviors is required.
Summary
Korean summary
이 연구는 지역사회건강조사의 건강행태 문항 중 28개 문항에 대하여 문항의 특성, 준거기간, 보기의 척도에 따라 조사-재조사 신뢰도의 차이를 분석하였다. 전체 문항의 카파값의 범위는 0.44-0.93이었다. 문항의 특성별로는 인지 또는 태도에 비해 습관에 관한 문항의 신뢰도가 높았으며, 보기의 척도가 5점 척도 이상에 비해 2-4점 척도의 신뢰도가 높음을 확인하였다.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
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