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Assessing the impact and implications of the revised Act on the Aggravated Punishment of Specific Crimes in preventing child traffic injuries in school zones: an interrupted time series analysis
Hong Jin Ku, Jin-Hwan Kim, Young June Choe, Seung Ah Choe, Mark R. Zonfrillo
Epidemiol Health. 2024;e2024032.   Published online February 21, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2024032    [Accepted]
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  • 19 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Abstract
In 2019, a child's death in Korea led to stricter penalties for school zone traffic violations. We assessed the impact using 2017-2022 Traffic Accident Analysis System data. Adjusted analyses revealed a decline in severe injuries in school zones (11 → 8 cases per month, P=0.017). Legislation correlated with reduced risk of all child traffic injuries (RR=0.987, 95% CI, 0.977-0.997, P=0.002), indicating efficacy in curbing accidents.
Summary
Brief Communications
Association between cardiac arrhythmia before pregnancy and gestational diabetes: a nationwide population-based study in Korea
You-Jung Choi, Won Young Wi, Geum Joon Cho, Jin Oh Na
Epidemiol Health. 2023;45:e2023103.   Published online December 4, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2023103
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  • 124 Download
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
Given the higher prevalence of cardiac arrhythmias in individuals with diabetes, we investigated the relationship between cardiac arrhythmias and the incidence of gestational diabetes (GDM). This retrospective cohort study utilized data from the Korean Health Insurance Service database, encompassing 1,113,729 women who gave birth between January 2007 and December 2015. After excluding those who did not undergo National Health Screening tests within 1 year prior to pregnancy, those with multifetal pregnancies, and those diagnosed with diabetes, we analyzed 365,880 singleton pregnancies without a history of diabetes. Of these, 3,253 (0.9%) had cardiac arrhythmias, including premature extra beats, supraventricular tachyarrhythmias, and/or atrial flutter/fibrillation. GDM occurred in 31,938 (8.7%) subjects during pregnancy, and was more prevalent in women with cardiac arrhythmia than in those without (14.9 vs. 8.7%, p<0.001). In the multivariate analysis, the association between cardiac arrhythmia and GDM remained statistically significant (adjusted odds ratio, 1.78; 95% confidence interval, 1.61 to 1.97; p<0.001). Subgroup analysis revealed that the risk of GDM was consistently statistically significant in subjects with cardiac arrhythmia, regardless of age, body mass index, and the presence or absence of chronic hypertension. Therefore, cardiac arrhythmias before and during pregnancy appear to be associated with an increased risk of developing GDM.
Summary
Korean summary
본 연구에서는 부정맥과 임신성 당뇨병의 발생과의 관계를 확인인하기 위하여 2007년부터 2015년까지 국민건강보험 공단 데이터를 이용하여 분만력을 가진 1,113,729명의 여성을 대상으로 진행되었습니다. 최종 분석은 과거 당뇨병 진단병력을 가지고 있는 환자를 제외하고 365,880건의 단태아 임산부를 포함하였고, 전체 대상자 중 31,938 (8.7%)에서 임신성 당뇨병을 확인하였습니다. 그 중 부정맥 병력이 확인되지 않은 임산부와 비교하였을 때, 부정맥 병력이 있는 경우 임신 기간 중 임신성 당뇨병 발생률이 높았으며 (8.7% vs. 14.9%, p<0.001), 다변량 분석에서도 부정맥과 임신 당뇨병 간의 연관성이 통계적으로 유의미하게 나타났습니다 (adjusted odds ratio, 1.78; 95% confidence interval, 1.61 to 1.97; p<0.001). 따라서, 본 연구는 임신 전후의 부정맥 병력은 임신성 당뇨병 발병 위험 증가와 관련 있음을 시사합니다.
Key Message
This nationwide population-based cross-sectional study using the Korean Health Insurance Service database showed that women with a history of cardiac arrhythmia had an elevated risk of incident GDM during pregnancy. The prevalence of GDM was significantly higher in women with cardiac arrhythmias (8.7% vs. 14.9%). There was a statistically significant association between cardiac arrhythmia and GDM (adjusted odds ratio: 1.78), suggesting that cardiac arrhythmias before and during pregnancy are linked to an increased risk of developing GDM, independent of age, BMI, and chronic hypertension.
Prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection among urban cleaning and solid waste management workers during transmission of the Omicron variant in Brazil
Paulo Ricardo Martins-Filho, Joyce Thayane da Conceição dos Santos, Márcia Santos Rezende, Fernanda Oliveira de Carvalho, Érica Santos dos Reis, Waneska de Souza Barboza, Taise Ferreira Cavalcante, Cliomar Alves dos Santos, Lucindo José Quintans-Júnior, Renata Grespan, Cristiane Bani Corrêa, Tatiana Rodrigues de Moura, Dulce Marta Schimieguel, Jullyana de Souza Siqueira Quintans, Adriano Antunes de Souza Araújo
Epidemiol Health. 2023;45:e2023025.   Published online February 16, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2023025
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Abstract
This study estimated the prevalence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in urban cleaning and solid waste management workers during the transmission of the Omicron variant in one of the poorest regions of Brazil (the state of Sergipe). Nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from 494 workers, and the presence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA was tested by quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Data on socio-demographic characteristics, comorbidities, vaccination status, mask use, and use of public transport to commute to the workplace were collected. The prevalence with a 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated from the proportion of SARS-CoV-2 positive cases among the total number of individuals tested. The prevalence ratio (PR) with a 95% CI was the measure of association used to evaluate the relationship between SARS-CoV-2 infection and the exposure variables. The prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection was 22.5% (95% CI, 19.0 to 26.4). Individuals under the age of 40 had a higher prevalence of infection (PR, 1.53; 95% CI, 1.03 to 2.30) as well as those who did not believe in the protective effect of vaccines (PR, 1.78; 95% CI, 1.05 to 2.89). Our results indicate the need for better guidance on preventive measures against coronavirus disease 2019 among urban cleaning and solid waste management workers.
Summary
Key Message
Urban cleaning and waste management workers in Brazil faced a significant risk of SARSCoV-2 infection during the Omicron variant transmission, with higher rates observed among younger individuals and those skeptical about vaccine protection.
Prevalence and methodological quality of systematic reviews in Korean medical journals
Seong Jung Kim, Mi Ah Han, Jae Hung Jung, Eu Chang Hwang, Hae Ran Kim, Sang Eun Yoon, Seo-Hee Kim, Pius Kim, So-Yeong Kim
Epidemiol Health. 2023;45:e2023017.   Published online February 6, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2023017
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  • 1 Web of Science
  • 2 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
This study aimed to assess and evaluate the prevalence and methodological quality of systematic reviews (SRs) published in major Korean medical journals (KMJs). The top 15 journals with the highest Korean Medical Citation Index, published between 2018 to 2021, were selected. We assessed the methodological quality of SRs using A Measurement Tool to Assess Systematic Reviews 2 (AMSTAR 2). In total, 126 SRs were included, with an average of 32 SRs being reported annually. The overall prevalence of SRs in KMJs was 2.8%, with an increase from 2.6% in 2018 to 3.4% in 2021. Overall, the methodological quality of SRs was low (9.5% low, 90.5% critically low). More than 80% of the studies adhered to critical domain items such as a comprehensive literature search and risk of bias assessment, but for items such as protocol registration and listing excluded studies and the justification for exclusion, the adherence rate was less than 15%. While the number of SRs in KMJs steadily increased, the overall confidence in the methodological quality was low to critically low. Therefore, in order to provide the best evidence for decision-making in clinical and public health areas, editors, reviewers, and authors need to pay more attention to improving the quality of SRs.
Summary
Korean summary
한국의학저널에서 체계적 문헌고찰의 수는 꾸준히 증가했지만 방법론적 품질은 전반적으로 낮았다. 임상 및 공중 보건 분야에서 의사 결정을 위한 최상의 근거를 제공하기 위해 편집자, 심사자 및 저자는 체계적 문헌고찰의 품질을 개선하는 데 더 많은 관심을 기울여야 할 것이다.
Key Message
While the number of systematic reviews in Korean medical journals steadily increased, the overall confidence of methodological quality was low to critically low. Therefore, in order to provide the best evidence for decision-making in clinical and public health areas, editors, reviewers, and authors need to pay more attention to improving the quality of systematic reviews.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • A methodological framework for rigorous systematic reviews: Tailoring comprehensive analyses to clinicians and healthcare professionals
    Stefano Mancin, Marco Sguanci, Giuliano Anastasi, Lea Godino, Alessio Lo Cascio, Emanuela Morenghi, Michela Piredda, Maria Grazia De Marinis
    Methods.2024; 225: 38.     CrossRef
  • The status quo of systematic reviews published in high-impact journals in Korea: a study focused on protocol registration and GRADE use
    Mi Ah Han, Seong Jung Kim, Eu Chang Hwang, Jae Hung Jung
    Epidemiology and Health.2022; 44: e2022108.     CrossRef
Self-reported adverse events after 2 doses of COVID-19 vaccine in Korea
Yunhyung Kwon, Insob Hwang, Mijeong Ko, Hyungjun Kim, Seontae Kim, Soon-Young Seo, Enhi Cho, Yeon-Kyeng Lee
Epidemiol Health. 2023;45:e2023006.   Published online December 26, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2023006
  • 4,780 View
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  • 2 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
In Korea, a national coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination program was implemented, including 4 vaccines against COVID-19. A text messaging-based survey, in addition to a passive adverse event reporting system, was launched to quickly report unusual symptoms post-vaccination. This study compared the frequency of adverse events after COVID-19 vaccination based on the vaccine type and the type of 2-dose regimen (homologous or heterologous).
METHODS
Self-reported adverse events were collected through a text-message survey for 7 days after each vaccination. This study included 50,950 vaccine recipients who responded to the survey at least once. Informed consent to receive surveys via text was obtained from the vaccine recipients on the date of first vaccination.
RESULTS
The recipients of mRNA vaccines reported local and systemic reactions 1.6 times to 2.8 times more frequently after dose 2 than after dose 1 (p<0.001), whereas ChAdOx1-S recipients reported significantly fewer local and systemic reactions after dose 2 than after dose 1 (p<0.001). Local and systemic reactions were approximately 2 times and 4 times more frequent for heterologous vaccination than for BNT162b2/BNT162b2 and ChAdOx1-S/ChAdOx1-S regimens, respectively. Young individuals, female, and those receiving heterologous vaccine regimens including ChAdOx1-S/BNT162b2 vaccines reported more adverse events than older participants, male, and those with homologous vaccine regimens.
CONCLUSIONS
Although a heterologous regimen, youth, and female sex were associated with a higher risk of adverse reactions after COVID-19 vaccination, no critical issues were noted. Active consideration of heterologous schedules based on the evidence of efficacy and safety appears desirable.
Summary
Korean summary
본 연구는 코로나19 백신 접종 후 7일 동안 문자 설문조사를 통해 50,950명이 자가 보고한 이상반응자료를 분석하였다. mRNA 백신 접종자는1회 접종 후보다 2회 접종 후 국소 이상반응 및 전신이상반응을 1.6~2.8배 더 자주 보고한 반면, ChAdOx1-S 백신 접종자는1회 접종 후 보다 2회 접종 후 이상반응을 더 적게 보고하였다. 동종 백신접종 보다 교차 접종의 경우 2-4배 더 많은 이상반응을 보고 하였다. COVID-19 백신 접종 후 교차접종, 젊은 연령, 여성의 경우 좀 더 많은 이상반응을 보고하였지만,중대한 문제는 보고되지 않았다.
Key Message
Self-reported adverse events were collected through a text-message survey from 50,950 recipients for 7 days after COVID-19 vaccination. The mRNA vaccine recipients reported local and systemic reactions 1.6 to 2.8 times more frequently after dose 2 than after dose 1, whereas ChAdOx1-S recipients reported significantly fewer local and systemic reactions after dose 2 than after dose 1. Local and systemic reactions were approximately 2 to 4 times more frequent for heterologous vaccination than for homologous regimens. Although a heterologous regimen, youth, and female were associated with a higher risk of adverse reac¬tions after COVID-19 vaccination, no critical issues were noted.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Safety of a second homologous Ad26.COV2.S vaccine among healthcare workers in the phase 3b implementation Sisonke study in South Africa
    Azwidihwi Takalani, Michelle Robinson, Phumeza Jonas, Annie Bodenstein, Vuyelo Sambo, Barry Jacobson, Vernon Louw, Jessica Opie, Jonny Peter, Pradeep Rowji, Ishen Seocharan, Tarylee Reddy, Nonhlanhla Yende-Zuma, Kentse Khutho, Ian Sanne, Linda-Gail Bekker
    Vaccine.2024; 42(6): 1195.     CrossRef
  • A Nationwide Survey of mRNA COVID-19 Vaccinee’s Experiences on Adverse Events and Its Associated Factors
    Dongwon Yoon, Ha-Lim Jeon, Yunha Noh, Young June Choe, Seung-Ah Choe, Jaehun Jung, Ju-Young Shin
    Journal of Korean Medical Science.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
Clinical severity according to the primary infection variant in patients with suspected SARS-CoV-2 reinfection in Korea
Myung-Jae Hwang, Insob Hwang, Chungmin Park, Hanul Park, Taejong Son, Jong-Hun Kim
Epidemiol Health. 2023;45:e2023007.   Published online December 21, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2023007
  • 4,956 View
  • 214 Download
  • 3 Web of Science
  • 3 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
We aimed to evaluate the severity of suspected severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) reinfection according to variants of concern in Gyeongsangbuk-do and Daegu, Korea.
METHODS
The database of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases reported from epidemiological investigations through the integrated system operated by the Korea Disease Control and Prevention Agency, from January 20, 2020 to May 7, 2022 was combined with data from the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service system. The severity odds ratio (SOR) in secondary infection episodes compared with primary infection was estimated using a generalized linear model with a binomial distribution.
RESULTS
In all patients, the SOR of SARS-CoV-2 reinfection was 0.89 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.82 to 0.95), and the severity was lower than in the first infection. Patients who had been vaccinated within 91 days showed a more attenuated SOR (0.85; 95% CI, 0.74 to 0.98). However, despite vaccination, in patients with both primary and secondary infections caused by the Omicron variant, the severity was reduced to a lesser extent than in patients primarily infected with other variants.
CONCLUSIONS
We could make efforts to relieve the severity of COVID-19 in vulnerable populations, in which death is more likely, by recommending booster vaccinations in case of a resurgence.
Summary
Korean summary
국내 COVID-19 확진자들의 중증도 증가 위험은 재감염(2차감염) 시 감소하였지만, 1차감염과 재감염 모두 오미크론론 변이가 우세하였던 시기인 경우에는 오히려 증가하였다. 특히 마지막 예방접종일로부터 91일 이상인 확진자들과 60세이상 인구에서는 중증도 증가 위험이 더 높았다. 우리는 COVID-19가 장기화됨에 따라 취약인구집단에 대해 추가 예방접종을 권고함으로써 재감염시 중증도가 증가하는 것을 예방해야 할 필요가 있다.
Key Message
As COVID-19 prolongs, there is a need to recommend booster vaccinations for vulnerable populations to prevent the potential for increased severity in the event of reinfection.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Changes in the intrinsic severity of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 according to the emerging variant: a nationwide study from February 2020 to June 2022, including comparison with vaccinated populations
    Boyeong Ryu, Eunjeong Shin, Dong Hwi Kim, HyunJu Lee, So Young Choi, Seong-Sun Kim, Il-Hwan Kim, Eun-Jin Kim, Sangwon Lee, Jaehyun Jeon, Donghyok Kwon, Sungil Cho
    BMC Infectious Diseases.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • The effect of shortening the quarantine period and lifting the indoor mask mandate on the spread of COVID-19: a mathematical modeling approach
    Jung Eun Kim, Heejin Choi, Minji Lee, Chang Hyeong Lee
    Frontiers in Public Health.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Previous infection with seasonal coronaviruses does not protect male Syrian hamsters from challenge with SARS-CoV-2
    Magen E. Francis, Ethan B. Jansen, Anthony Yourkowski, Alaa Selim, Cynthia L. Swan, Brian K. MacPhee, Brittany Thivierge, Rachelle Buchanan, Kerry J. Lavender, Joseph Darbellay, Matthew B. Rogers, Jocelyne Lew, Volker Gerdts, Darryl Falzarano, Danuta M. S
    Nature Communications.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
Occupational inequalities in mortality in Korea: an analysis using nationally representative mortality follow-up data from the late 2000s and after
Eunjeong Noh, Young-Ho Khang
Epidemiol Health. 2022;44:e2022038.   Published online April 6, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2022038
  • 6,894 View
  • 350 Download
  • 1 Web of Science
  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
Many Korean and international studies have found higher mortality rates and poorer health conditions among manual workers than among non-manual workers. However, a recent study using unlinked data argued that since the economic crisis in Korea in the late 2000s, the mortality estimates of male Korean non-manual workers have been higher than those of manual workers. Our work using individually linked data from the late 2000s and after aimed to examine mortality inequality by occupational class. We analyzed Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data that were individually linked to cause-of-death data. Cox regression analysis was used to identify the hazard ratios for mortality by occupational class. Of 11,766 males aged between 35 and 64, 397 died between 2007 and 2018: 142 died from cancer, 68 from cardiovascular disease, 88 from external causes, and 99 from other causes. After controlling for age, the mortality estimates for manual workers were 1.85 times higher than those for upper non-manual workers (p<0.05). We observed no evidence of reversed mortality inequality among occupational classes in Korea since the 2000s; this previously reported finding might have been due to numerator-denominator bias arising from the use of unlinked data.
Summary
Korean summary
개인 단위 연계자료가 아닌 분모(센서스)-분자(사망신고) 집합 자료를 사용하여 2000년대 후반 경제위기 이후 한국 남성 비육체직의 사망률이 육체직보다 높게 나타난다고 기존의 한 연구가 주장했다. 이 연구는 2000년대 이후 개인 단위로 연계된 코호트 자료를 활용하여 여전히 한국에서 육체직의 사망위험이 비육체직보다 높다는 점을 보임으로써, 기존 연구가 비연계자료의 사용으로 인한 분자-분모 바이어스(numerator-denominator bias) 때문에 그와 같은 결과를 보였다고 지적하였다.
Key Message
This paper using individually linked data from the late 2000s and after observed no evidence of reversed mortality inequality among occupational classes in Korea since the 2000s. The previously reported finding showing reversed occupational mortality inequality might have been due to numerator-denominator bias arising from the use of unlinked data.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Mortality of Suicide and Cerebro-Cardiovascular Diseases by Occupation in Korea, 1997–2020
    Jungwon Jang, Inah Kim
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2022; 19(16): 10001.     CrossRef
Dynamics of hospitalizations and in-hospital deaths from COVID-19 in northeast Brazil: a retrospective analysis based on the circulation of SARS-CoV-2 variants and vaccination coverage
Paulo Ricardo Martins-Filho, Adriano Antunes de Souza Araújo, Lucindo José Quintans-Júnior, Bárbara dos Santos Soares, Waneska de Souza Barboza, Taise Ferreira Cavalcante, Victor Santana Santos
Epidemiol Health. 2022;44:e2022036.   Published online April 5, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2022036
  • 8,033 View
  • 340 Download
  • 12 Web of Science
  • 12 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Abstract
This study investigated the dynamics of hospitalizations and in-hospital deaths from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) throughout the pandemic in northeast Brazil, the Brazilian region with the worst socioeconomic indicators. In total, 141,445 cases, 8,213 hospital admissions, and 1,644 in-hospital deaths from COVID-19 were registered from March 14, 2020 to February 5, 2022. The overall rates of hospitalization and in-hospital deaths were 5.8% and 20.0%, respectively. The hospitalization and death rates significantly decreased over time, which may have been related to progress in vaccination. During the spread of the Gamma variant (January to June 2021), most hospitalized individuals were young adults, and approximately 40% of deaths occurred in this age group. During the predominance of Delta (July to December 2021), over 75% of deaths occurred among the elderly and unvaccinated or partially vaccinated individuals. This rate decreased to 42.3% during the transmission of the Omicron variant (January to February 2022), during which 34.6% of deaths were recorded among fully vaccinated individuals (2 doses) and 23.1% among those who received full vaccination and a booster. The Omicron-driven third wave was associated with a rise in the proportion of deaths among vaccinated individuals, especially among those who had not received a booster dose.
Summary
Key Message
The Omicron-driven third wave in Brazil was associated with a rise in the proportion of deaths among vaccinated individuals, especially among those who had not received a booster dose

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Understanding SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein clusters and their impact on immunity of the population from Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil
    Diego Gomes Teixeira, João Firmino Rodrigues-Neto, Dayse Caroline Severiano da Cunha, Selma Maria Bezerra Jeronimo
    Infection, Genetics and Evolution.2024; 118: 105556.     CrossRef
  • Case-fatality rates and risk of death from COVID-19 and influenza A/H3N2 in Brazil: A nationwide ecological study
    Paulo Ricardo Martins-Filho, Jerocílio Maciel de Oliveira Júnior, Cliomar Alves dos Santos
    Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica.2023; 41(3): 199.     CrossRef
  • SARS-CoV-2 infection and mortality in pediatric patients with hematological malignancies and solid tumors
    João Eduardo Andrade Tavares de Aguiar, Marcos Antônio Lima Carvalho, Simone Santana Viana, Paulo Ricardo Martins-Filho, Rosana Cipolotti
    Pediatric Hematology and Oncology.2023; 40(4): 429.     CrossRef
  • Comparison of Epidemiologic and Clinical COVID-19 Profiles in Children in Argentina, During Circulation of Original and Variant (Alpha, Gamma and Lambda) Strains
    Angela Gentile, María Del Valle Juárez, Lucia Romero Bollon, Valeria Aprea, Erika Matteucci, Andrea Falaschi, Martin Brizuela, Cristina Euliarte, Gabriela Gregorio, Maria Paula Della Latta, Carlota Russ, Gabriela Nidia Ensinck, Liliana Saraceni, Miriam Br
    Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal.2023; 42(2): 136.     CrossRef
  • Case-fatality rates and risk of death from COVID-19 and influenza A/H3N2 in Brazil: A nationwide ecological study
    Paulo Ricardo Martins-Filho, Jerocílio Maciel de Oliveira Júnior, Cliomar Alves dos Santos
    Enfermedades infecciosas y microbiologia clinica (English ed.).2023; 41(3): 199.     CrossRef
  • Impact of inactivated vaccines on decrease of viral RNA levels in individuals with the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron (BA.2) variant: A retrospective cohort study in Shanghai, China
    Peng Yang, Bianli Dang, Wen Kang, Xiaofeng Li, Tianping Wang, Ruijuan Li, Meijuan Peng, Yushen Liu, Linxu Wang, Yan Cheng, Suhuai Yu, Min Wei, Han Gao, Wenzhen Kang, Lei Shang
    Frontiers in Public Health.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Comparison of the disease severity with infection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS‐CoV‐2) Delta and Omicron variants: A meta‐analysis
    Ying Qiu, Zhenghao Li, Fan Lin, Yilin Yang, Lanxuan Yang, Ting Li
    MedComm – Future Medicine.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Clinical Characteristics and Risk Factors for Mortality in Critical COVID-19 Patients Aged 50 Years or Younger During Omicron Wave in Korea: Comparison With Patients Older Than 50 Years of Age
    Hye Jin Shi, Jinyoung Yang, Joong Sik Eom, Jae-Hoon Ko, Kyong Ran Peck, Uh Jin Kim, Sook In Jung, Seulki Kim, Hyeri Seok, Miri Hyun, Hyun Ah Kim, Bomi Kim, Eun-Jeong Joo, Hae Suk Cheong, Cheon Hoo Jun, Yu Mi Wi, Jungok Kim, Sungmin Kym, Seungjin Lim, Yoon
    Journal of Korean Medical Science.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection among urban cleaning and solid waste management workers during transmission of the Omicron variant in Brazil
    Paulo Ricardo Martins-Filho, Joyce Thayane da Conceição dos Santos, Márcia Santos Rezende, Fernanda Oliveira de Carvalho, Érica Santos dos Reis, Waneska de Souza Barboza, Taise Ferreira Cavalcante, Cliomar Alves dos Santos, Lucindo José Quintans-Júnior,
    Epidemiology and Health.2023; 45: e2023025.     CrossRef
  • COVID-19 in Pakistan: A national analysis of five pandemic waves
    Taimoor Ahmad, Mujahid Abdullah, Abdul Mueed, Faisal Sultan, Ayesha Khan, Adnan Ahmad Khan, Huzaifa Ahmad Cheema
    PLOS ONE.2023; 18(12): e0281326.     CrossRef
  • The increase in SARS-CoV-2 lineages during 2020–2022 in a state in the Brazilian Northeast is associated with a number of cases
    Moises Thiago de Souza Freitas, Ludmila Oliveira Carvalho Sena, Kiyoshi Ferreira Fukutani, Cliomar Alves dos Santos, Francisco das Chagas Barros Neto, Julienne Sousa Ribeiro, Erica Santos dos Reis, Valdir de Queiroz Balbino, Sérgio de Sá Paiva Leitão, Mar
    Frontiers in Public Health.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Clinical symptom profile of hospitalized COVID-19 Brazilian patients according to SARS-CoV-2 variants
    Natália Satchiko Hojo-Souza, Vander Luis de Souza Freitas, Daniel Ludovico Guidoni, Fernanda Sumika Hojo de Souza
    Epidemiology and Health.2023; 45: e2023079.     CrossRef
Trends in gastrointestinal infections before and during non-pharmaceutical interventions in Korea in comparison with the United States
Soyeoun Kim, Jinhyun Kim, Bo Youl Choi, Boyoung Park
Epidemiol Health. 2022;44:e2022011.   Published online January 3, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2022011
Correction in: Epidemiol Health 2022;44(0):e2022011.E
  • 10,074 View
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
This study examined how trends in the weekly frequencies of gastrointestinal infectious diseases changed before and during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in Korea, and compared them with the trends in the United States.
METHODS
We compared the weekly frequencies of gastrointestinal infectious diseases (16 bacterial and 6 viral diseases) in Korea during weeks 5-52 before and after COVID-19. In addition, the weekly frequencies of 5 gastrointestinal infectious diseases in the United States (data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) that overlapped with those in Korea were compared.
RESULTS
The mean weekly number of total cases of gastrointestinal infectious diseases in Korea showed a significant decrease (from 522 before COVID-19 to 245 after COVID-19, p<0.01). Only bacterial gastrointestinal infectious diseases caused by <i>Campylobacter</i> increased significantly; other bacterial gastrointestinal infectious diseases showed either a decrease or no change. The incidence of all other viral diseases decreased. In the United States, the weekly numbers of <i>Salmonella</i>, <i>Campylobacter</i>, typhoid, shigellosis, and hepatitis A virus cases sharply decreased after the COVID-19 outbreak. The weekly case numbers of all viral diseases markedly decreased in both countries; however, bacterial gastrointestinal infectious diseases showed a different pattern.
CONCLUSIONS
The incidence of gastrointestinal infectious diseases decreased after the COVID-19 outbreak. In contrast, <i>Campylobacter</i> infections showed an increasing trend in Korea, but a decreasing trend in the United States. Further studies are needed to elucidate the different trends in bacterial and viral infectious diseases before and after non-pharmaceutical interventions and between different countries.
Summary
Korean summary
한국과 미국 모두 코로나-19 발생 이후 위장관 감염 질환의 발생은 감소하고 있습니다. 하지만, 미국과 달리 한국에서는 캄필로박터 감염은 증가 하고 있습니다. 이는 COVID-19이 발생한 이후 캄필로박터 감염의 열악한 통제의 가능성을 설명할 수 있습니다.
Key Message
The incidence of gastrointestinal infectious diseases decreased after the COVID-19 outbreak, however, campylobacter infections showed an increasing trend in Korea, unlike the United States, which could explain the poor control of Campylobacter.

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  • Impact of the COVID‐19 pandemic on the circulation of other pathogens in England
    Lauren J. Hayes, Hannah Uri, Denisa Bojkova, Jindrich Cinatl, Mark N. Wass, Martin Michaelis
    Journal of Medical Virology.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Understanding the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic response on GI infection surveillance trends in England, January 2020–April 2022
    Nicola K. Love, Amy Douglas, Saheer Gharbia, Helen Hughes, Roger Morbey, Isabel Oliver, Gillian E. Smith, Alex J. Elliot
    Epidemiology and Infection.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Trends for Syndromic Surveillance of Norovirus in Emergency Department Data Based on Chief Complaints
    Soyeoun Kim, Sohee Kim, Bo Youl Choi, Boyoung Park
    The Journal of Infectious Diseases.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Trends in Gastrointestinal Infections during the COVID-19 Pandemic and Concerns of Post-Pandemic Resurgence in Japan
    Takuma Higurashi, Shigeki Tamura, Noboru Misawa, Nobuyuki Horita
    Diseases.2023; 12(1): 4.     CrossRef
  • Characteristics and related factors of waterborne and foodborne infectious disease outbreaks before and after the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic (2017–2021) in the Republic of Korea: a descriptive study
    Eunkyoung Kim, Bryan Inho Kim
    Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives.2023; 14(6): 483.     CrossRef
A comparison of meta-analysis results with and without adjustment for the healthy worker effect: cancer mortality among workers in the semiconductor industry
Sung-Ho Hwang, Moon-Young Park, Won Jin Lee, Inho Park, Kimyong Hong, Donguk Park, Kyoung-Mu Lee
Epidemiol Health. 2021;43:e2021057.   Published online September 8, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2021057
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  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
This study compared the results of meta-analysis with and without adjustment for the healthy worker effect on the association between working in the semiconductor industry and cancer mortality.
METHODS
Six studies that reported standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) for cancers were selected for meta-analysis. Using a random-effects model, the SMR results from each study were combined for all cancers and leukemias to estimate the summary SMRs (95% confidence interval, CI). To adjust for the healthy worker effect, the relative standardized mortality ratio (rSMR=SMR<sub>x</sub>/SMR<sub>not x</sub>) were calculated using observed and expected counts for the specific cause of interest (i.e., all cancers and leukemias) and the observed and expected counts for all other causes of mortality. Then, the rSMR results were combined to estimate the summary rSMRs (95% CIs).
RESULTS
The SMRs for all causes of mortality among semiconductor industry workers ranged from 0.25 to 0.80, which reflects a significant healthy worker effect. A remarkable difference was found between the summary SMRs and the summary rSMRs. The summary SMR for all cancers was 0.70 (95% CI, 0.63 to 0.79) whereas the summary rSMR was 1.38 (95% CI, 1.20 to 1.59). The summary SMR for leukemia was 0.88 (95% CI, 0.72 to 1.07), and the summary rSMR was 1.88 (95% CI, 1.20 to 2.95).
CONCLUSIONS
Our results suggest that adjustment for the healthy worker effect (i.e., rSMR) may be useful in meta-analyses of cohort studies reporting SMRs.
Summary
Korean summary
본 연구에서는 반도체 근로자의 암사망률을 일반 인구와 비교하여 표준화사망비(SMR)를 제시한 연구를 대상으로 한 메타분석에서, summary SMR값(95% CI)과 건강근로자효과에 대해 보정한 rSMR을 산출한 후 종합한 summary rSMR값(95% CI)을 비교하였다. 모든 암의 경우 summary SMR=0.70 (0.63-0.79), summary rSMR=1.38(1.20-1.59)로 나타났으며, 백혈병의 경우 summary SMR=0.88 (0.72-1.07), summary rSMR=1.88(1.20-2.95)로 나타났다. 본 연구결과는 SMR 연구를 종합하는 메타분석 연구에서 rSMR과 같은 건강근로자효과에 대해 보정하는 방법론을 적용할 수 있음을 보여주는 사례이다.
Key Message
The relevance of epidemiological research reporting the standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) for workers in the semiconductor industry is often limited by the healthy worker effect. One of the simple correction methods in the relative standardized mortality ratio (rSMR). We observed significant rightward shift when the summary rSMRs were compared with the summary rSMRs, which suggest that adjustment for the healthy worker effect (i.e., rSMR) may be useful in meta-analyses of cohort studies reporting SMRs.

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  • Health risks, emergency preparedness and Norwegian-Russian cooperation on Svalbard. A systematic review
    Turid Austin Wæhler, Tor Ingebrigtsen
    International Journal of Circumpolar Health.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
Hydrogen peroxide as an auxiliary treatment for COVID-19 in Brazil: a randomized double-blind clinical trial
Marielle Bazzo Di Domênico, Kauê Collares, Renan Brandenburg dos Santos, Ulysses Lenz, Vinícius Picoli Antunes, Vinicius Webber Godinho, Henrique Cesca, Thales Henrique Jincziwski Ponciano, Pedro Henrique Corazza
Epidemiol Health. 2021;43:e2021051.   Published online August 3, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2021051
  • 13,050 View
  • 271 Download
  • 6 Web of Science
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
This study evaluated the effectiveness of hydrogen peroxide (H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub>) as mouthwash and nasal spray on symptom relief in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients.
METHODS
Patients positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), who were treated in a hospital or at home, and patients’ family members (not positive for SARS-CoV-2), were randomized into 2 groups: experimental (1% H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub> for gargling, 0.5% H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub> for nasal wash), and control. Patients gargled the solution 3 times a day, and applied the nasal spray twice a day, for a 7-day period. Family members received the same treatment as the treated COVID-19 patient. The researchers contacted patients every 2 days over an 8-day period. An average post-treatment interval of 8 days passed before testing family members.
RESULTS
The most frequent symptoms on day 0 were cough, loss of taste, and hyposmia; there were no significant differences between groups, independent of the period. The symptom of dyspnea presented a significant difference between days 2 and 4 (p<0.05). Among family members, 86.0% had no antibodies, 2.3% had antibodies, and 11.6% had active infections (4 in the experimental group and 6 in the control group). The most frequent adverse effects in the H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub> group were a burning throat and nose.
CONCLUSIONS
H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub> was not effective for the relief of COVID-19 symptoms and was associated with reports of transient adverse effects.
Summary
Key Message
The hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) at low concentrations disrupts the lipid membranes of some viruses through the action of oxygen free radicals. Nevertheless, the data obtained in the present study demonstrated that the use of the H2O2 as mouthwash and nasal spray was not effective on symptom relief in patients with COVID-19. Moreover, it was associated with transient adverse effects such as burning sensations in the nose and throat. Thus, the authors of this study advise against the use of H2O2 as a mouthwash and nasal spray to relieve COVID-19 symptoms and transmission.

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  • Seawater nasal wash to reduce symptom duration and viral load in COVID-19 and upper respiratory tract infections: a randomized controlled multicenter trial
    Ludovic de Gabory, Sophie Vallet, Gaëlle Naelten, Chantal Raherison-Semjen
    European Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Preprocedural Viral Load Effects of Oral Antiseptics on SARS-CoV-2 in Patients with COVID-19: A Systematic Review
    Miriam Ting, Alex Dahlkemper, Jeremy J. Schwartz, Manzel Woodfork, Jon B. Suzuki
    Biomedicines.2023; 11(6): 1694.     CrossRef
  • Efficacy of Mouth Rinses and Nasal Spray in the Inactivation of SARS-CoV-2: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of In Vitro and In Vivo Studies
    Majdy Idrees, Bridget McGowan, Amr Fawzy, Abdulwahab Ali Abuderman, Ramesh Balasubramaniam, Omar Kujan
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2022; 19(19): 12148.     CrossRef
  • Enhanced Nasal Deposition and Anti-Coronavirus Effect of Favipiravir-Loaded Mucoadhesive Chitosan–Alginate Nanoparticles
    Khent Primo Alcantara, Nonthaneth Nalinratana, Nopporn Chutiwitoonchai, Agnes L. Castillo, Wijit Banlunara, Opa Vajragupta, Pornchai Rojsitthisak, Pranee Rojsitthisak
    Pharmaceutics.2022; 14(12): 2680.     CrossRef
Cancer incidence in the Tobruk area, eastern Libya: first results from Tobruk Medical Centre
Faisal Ismail, Ahmed G. Elsayed, Islam El-Garawani, Eman Abdelsameea
Epidemiol Health. 2021;43:e2021050.   Published online August 3, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2021050
  • 9,039 View
  • 313 Download
  • 1 Web of Science
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
Cancer is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, and it is an increasing problem in developing countries. Estimation of the incidence of cancer is important, especially in regions with limited epidemiological data on cancer. Therefore, the aim of this study was to provide an updated report on the incidence of cancers in the Tobruk region in eastern Libya.
METHODS
Data on cancer patients from the records of the Department of Histopathology of Tobruk Medical Centre from January 2013 to June 2020 were included.
RESULTS
In total, 402 cases were recorded. Men patients accounted for 30.3% (n=122) of cases, and women patients represented 69.6% (n=280). The overall mean age at the time of the first diagnosis was 49.0±17.1 years. The most common malignancies were breast and uterine cancer in women (18.4%, n=74; 15.9%, n=64, respectively), colorectal cancer (11.6%, n=47; 26 in women and 21 in men), bladder cancer (8.2%, n=33; 8 in women and 25 in men), and thyroid cancer (8.0%, n=32; 23 in women and 9 in men).
CONCLUSIONS
Breast and uterine cancers were the most common cancers in women, and bladder and colorectal cancer were the most common cancers in men, followed by colorectal cancer in both genders. These data will help health authorities launch preventive plans for cancer in the region. Further studies to identify aetiological factors and cancer-related risk factors need to be conducted in the region.
Summary
Key Message
Cancer incidence in the Tobruk area, eastern Libya: first results from Tobruk Medical Centre; cancer is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide and so in Libya; this is an updated report on the incidence of cancers in the Tobruk region in eastern Libya.

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  • Libyan cancer patients at King Hussein Cancer Center for more than a decade, the current situation, and a future vision
    Madiha Erashdi, Abdallah Al-Ani, Asem Mansour, Maysa Al-Hussaini
    Frontiers in Oncology.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Cancer Patterns among Patients Admitted to the Oncology Department at Benghazi Medical Center, Libya (2013-2017)
    Naeima Hussein, Fathi Omar
    Journal of Medicine and Health Studies.2023; : 23.     CrossRef
Analysis of the difference in the perinatal mortality rate between white-collar and blue-collar workers in Japan, 1995-2015
Tasuku Okui
Epidemiol Health. 2020;42:e2020069.   Published online November 24, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2020069
  • 8,203 View
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
This study investigated differences in the perinatal mortality rate between white-collar and blue-collar workers.
METHODS
Data from the “Report of Vital Statistics: Occupational and Industrial Aspects” in Japan covering the period from 1995 to 2015 were used. Five-year maternal age groups from 15-19 years to 45-49 years were analyzed according to work type, and the perinatal mortality rate for each age group and the age-standardized perinatal mortality rate according to maternal age were calculated in each analyzed year. A Bayesian age-period-cohort analysis was used to estimate age, period, and cohort effects for the perinatal mortality rate according to work type. Moreover, the perinatal mortality rate ratios between types of workers were estimated for each age group, period, and cohort.
RESULTS
The estimated perinatal mortality rate ratios of blue-collar to white-collar workers were above 1 in most of the age groups and cohorts. The age effect for the perinatal mortality rate among white-collar workers was the largest in the 15-year to 19-year age group, whereas that among blue-collar workers was the largest in the 45-year to 49-year age group. Furthermore, the estimated perinatal rate ratio between white-collar and blue-collar workers tended to increase with maternal age. The magnitude of the decrease of the cohort effects on the perinatal mortality rate was rather larger in blue-collar workers in the cohorts born between 1946-1950 and 1996-2000.
CONCLUSIONS
The magnitude of the disparity markedly increased with maternal age. Thus, middle-aged blue-collar workers need more prenatal care and preventive measures for perinatal mortality than white-collar workers.
Summary
Analyzing the effects of social distancing on the COVID-19 pandemic in Korea using mathematical modeling
Sunhwa Choi, Moran Ki
Epidemiol Health. 2020;42:e2020064.   Published online September 7, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2020064
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
During the 6 months since the first coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patient was diagnosed in Korea on January 20, 2020, various prevention and control measures have been implemented according to the COVID-19 epidemic pattern. Therefore, this study aimed to estimate the reproductive numbers (R) for each epidemic stage to analyze the effects of the preventive measures and to predict the COVID-19 transmission trends.
METHODS
We estimated the transmission rates for each epidemic stage by fitting a COVID-19 transmission model, based on a deterministic mathematical model, to the data on confirmed cases. The effects of preventive measures such as social distancing by time period were analyzed, and the size and trends of future COVID-19 outbreaks were estimated.
RESULTS
The value of R was 3.53 from February18, 2020 to February 28, 2020, and the mean R reduced to 0.45 from March 14, 2020 to April 29, 2020, but it significantly increased to 2.69 from April 30, 2020 to May13, 2020 and it was maintained at 1.03 from May 14, 2020 to July 23, 2020.
CONCLUSIONS
According to the estimated R, it had fallen to below 1 and was maintained at that level owing to the isolation of infected persons by the public health authorities and social distancing measures followed by the general public. Then, the estimated R increased rapidly as the contact among individuals increased during the long holiday period from April 30, 2020 to May 5, 2020. Thereafter, the value of R dropped, with the continued use of preventive measures but remained higher than 1.00, indicating that the COVID-19 outbreak can be prolonged and develop into a severe outbreak at any time.
Summary
Korean summary
수학적 모델링을 통하여 코로나-19 유행양상에 따른 시기별 감염재생산수(reproductive number)를 추정하고, 시기별 방역정책의 효과를 분석하여 향후 유행의 규모와 유행 종료 시점 등을 예측하였다. 그 결과, 4월30일부터 5월5일까지의 긴 연휴 기간을 통해 사람들 간의 접촉이 증가하면서 감염재생산수가 급격히 증가하였고(4월 30일 - 5월 13일까지 평균 R=2.69), 그 후, 지속적인 방역조치로 인해 5월 14일-7월 23일까지 평균 R=1.03로 감소하였으나, 여전히 1보다 큰 값으로 나타나, 코로나-19유행이 지속되고 있으며 언제라도 다시 큰 유행으로 커질 수 있다고 예측되었다.

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  • 코로나19 핵심 지표 산출체계 국제 비교 및 활용도 제고 방안 연구
    나애 이, 연경 김, 승필 정, 우주 이, 주환 오, 승식 황
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    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2022; 19(11): 6763.     CrossRef
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    Chungmin Park, Donghan Lee, Inho Kim, Sujin Park, Gyehee Lee, Sangwoo Tak
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    BMC Public Health.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Clinical Infectious Diseases.2021; 72(7): e184.     CrossRef
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Prospective cohort data quality assurance and quality control strategy and method: Korea HIV/AIDS Cohort Study
Soo Min Kim, Yunsu Choi, Bo Youl Choi, Minjeong Kim, Sang Il Kim, Jun Young Choi, Shin-Woo Kim, Joon Young Song, Youn Jeong Kim, Mee-Kyung Kee, Myeongsu Yoo, Jeong Gyu Lee, Bo Young Park
Epidemiol Health. 2020;42:e2020063.   Published online September 4, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2020063
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
The aim of effective data quality control and management is to minimize the impact of errors on study results by identifying and correcting them. This study presents the results of a data quality control system for the Korea HIV/AIDS Cohort Study that took into account the characteristics of the data.
METHODS
The HIV/AIDS Cohort Study in Korea conducts repeated measurements every 6 months using an electronic survey administered to voluntarily consenting participants and collects data from 21 hospitals. In total, 5,795 sets of data from 1,442 participants were collected from the first investigation in 2006 to 2016. The data refining results of 2015 and 2019 were converted into the data refining rate and compared.
RESULTS
The quality control system involved 3 steps at different points in the process, and each step contributed to data quality management and results. By improving data quality control in the pre-phase and the data collection phase, the estimated error value in 2019 was 1,803, reflecting a 53.9% reduction from 2015. Due to improvements in the stage after data collection, the data refining rate was 92.7% in 2019, a 24.21%p increase from 2015.
CONCLUSIONS
Despite this quality management strategy, errors may still exist at each stage. Logically possible errors for the post-review refining of downloaded data should be actively identified with appropriate consideration of the purpose and epidemiological characteristics of the study data. To improve data quality and reliability, data management strategies should be systematically implemented.
Summary
Korean summary
이 연구는 한국 에이즈 코호트 자료의 연구 목적과 역학적 특성을 고려한 체계적인 질 관리 방법과 결과를 제시한다. 시간적 선후 관계를 고려한 로직을 활용한 자료정제 과정을 비롯한 3단계의 체계적인 질 관리 방법은 이제껏 없었던 국내 코호트 자료 질 관리에 도움이 될 것으로 사료된다.

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    Belmiro Sousa, Sergio Chiale, Hayley Bryant, Lisa Dulli, Tanya Medrano
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