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Original article Associations of the magnesium depletion score and magnesium intake with diabetes among US adults: an analysis of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011-2018
Zhong Tian3orcid , Shifang Qu4orcid , Chen Yana5orcid , Jiaxin Fang6orcid , Xingxu Song7orcid , Kai He8orcid , Kexin Jiang9orcid , Xiaoyue Sun10orcid , Jianyang Shi11orcid , Yuchun Tao1orcid , Lina Jin2orcid
Epidemiol Health 2024;e2024020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2024020 [Accepted]
Published online: January 10, 2024
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1Jilin University, Changchun, China
2Jilin University, Chang Chun, China
3Jilin University, Chang Chun, China
4Jilin University, Chang Chun, China
5Jilin University, Chang Chun, China
6Jilin University, Chang Chun, China
7Jilin University, Chang Chun, China
8Jilin University, Chang Chun, China
9Jilin University, Chang Chun, China
10Jilin University, Chang Chun, China
11Jilin University, Chang Chun, China
Corresponding author:  Yuchun Tao,
Email: tyc@jlu.edu.cn
Lina Jin,
Email: tyc@jlu.edu.cn
Received: 27 July 2023   • Revised: 5 December 2023   • Accepted: 5 December 2023

OBJECTIVES
The magnesium depletion score (MDS) is considered more reliable than traditional approaches for predicting magnesium deficiency in humans. We explored the associations of MDS and dietary magnesium intake with diabetes.
METHODS
We obtained data from 18,853 participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011-2018. Using multivariate regression and stratified analysis, we investigated the relationships of both MDS and magnesium intake with diabetes. To compute prevalence ratios (PRs), we employed modified Poisson or log-binomial regression. We characterized the nonlinear association between magnesium intake and diabetes using restricted cubic spline analysis.
RESULTS
Participants with MDS ≥2 exhibited a PR of 1.26 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.19 to 1.34) for diabetes. Per-SD increase in dietary magnesium intake was associated with a lower prevalence of diabetes (PR=0.91; 95% CI, 0.87 to 0.96). Subgroup analyses revealed a positive association between MDS ≥2 and diabetes across all levels of dietary magnesium intake, including the lowest (PR=1.35; 95% CI, 1.18 to 1.55), middle (PR=1.23; 95% CI, 1.12 to 1.35), and highest tertiles (PR=1.25; 95% CI, 1.13 to 1.37; pinteraction<0.001). Per-SD increase in magnesium intake was associated with lower diabetes prevalence in participants with MDS <2 (PR=0.92; 95% CI, 0.87 to 0.98) and those with MDS ≥2 (PR=0.91; 95% CI, 0.84 to 0.98; pinteraction=0.030).
CONCLUSIONS
MDS is associated with diabetes, particularly among individuals with low magnesium intake. Adequate dietary magnesium intake may reduce diabetes risk, especially in those with high MDS.


Epidemiol Health : Epidemiology and Health