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Original article Risk of chronic periodontitis in patients with obstructive sleep apnea: a nationwide retrospective cohort study
Seon-Rye Kim2orcid , Minkook Son3orcid , Yu-Rin Kim1orcid
Epidemiol Health 2022;e2023032
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2023032 [Accepted]
Published online: March 6, 2023
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1Silla University, Busan, Korea
2Youngsan University, Kyungsangnam-do, Korea
3Dong-A University, Busan, Korea
Corresponding author:  Minkook Son,
Email: dbfls1712@silla.ac.kr
Yu-Rin Kim,
Email: dbfls1712@silla.ac.kr
Received: 9 December 2022   • Revised: 2 February 2023   • Accepted: 17 February 2023

The aim of this study was to determine whether the development of chronic periodontitis is more likely among patients who have been newly diagnosed with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) through an analysis of representative data from the general population.
A nationwide, population-based, retrospective cohort study was conducted using patient records from the Korean National Health Insurance Service database. For the period 2004–2019, patient data were categorized into 2 groups: a diagnosis of OSA (747 subjects) and no diagnosis of OSA (1,494 subjects). Subsequently, 1:2 propensity score matching was performed to ensure the homogeneity of the 2 groups. To analyze the risk of incident chronic periodontitis, a Cox proportional-hazards model was used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs).
In the Kaplan-Meier curve, the disease-free probability was significantly lower in the OSA group than in the non-OSA group (P for log-rank test=0.001). The crude HR for the association between OSA and chronic periodontitis was 1.29 (95% CI, 1.16-1.43). The multivariable-adjusted HR was calculated at 1.28 (95% CI, 1.15-1.42).
This study confirmed a relationship between OSA and chronic periodontitis. Therefore, OSA patients require oral care to prevent the progression of chronic periodontitis from mild to severe.

Epidemiol Health : Epidemiology and Health