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Epidemiol Health > Volume 44; 2022 > Article
Epidemiology and Health 2022;44: e2022025-0.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2022025    Published online Feb 21, 2022.
Associations of fasting glucose and glycated hemoglobin with vitamin D levels according to diabetes mellitus status in Korean adults
Yerin Hwang  , Jiyoung Jang  , Myung-Hee Shin 
Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Suwon, Korea
Correspondence  Myung-Hee Shin ,Email: mhshin@skku.edu
Received: Oct 12, 2021  Accepted after revision: Feb 21, 2022
According to previous studies, vitamin D deficiency might increase the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). However, few studies have examined whether vitamin D continues to affect glucose control after DM diagnosis. Therefore, we examined the association between vitamin D and glucose levels in individuals with and without DM.
We analyzed data for 32,943 adults aged 19 years and older from the 2008 to 2014 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Patients were classified into 3 groups according to the 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration. DM was defined as a fasting glucose level ≥126 mg/dL, current use of DM medications or insulin injections, or a self-reported diagnosis of DM by a doctor.
In male DM patients, the hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) level increased significantly as vitamin D levels became severely deficient. In male and postmenopausal female with abnormal HbA1c, those with severe vitamin D deficiency had significantly higher HbA1c levels (p for trend=0.004 and 0.022 for male and postmenopausal female, respectively). Significant differences were found between participants with normal and abnormal HbA1c levels in both male and female. However, regardless of sex or menopausal status, there was no significant association between vitamin D and fasting glucose in any of the fasting glucose subgroups.
Male and female with abnormal HbA1c levels showed markedly elevated blood glucose when they also had vitamin D deficiency. A more distinct difference was observed in the HbA1c subgroups than in the fasting glucose subgroups.
Keywords: Diabetes mellitus, Blood glucose, Glycated hemoglobin A1c, Vitamin D, Korea


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