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The associations of job strain and leisure-time physical activity with the risk of hypertension: the population-based Midlife in the United States cohort study
Xinyue Liu, Timothy A. Matthews, Liwei Chen, Jian Li
Epidemiol Health. 2022;44:e2022073.   Published online September 7, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2022073
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  • 220 Download
  • 3 Web of Science
  • 3 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
Job strain is positively associated with incident hypertension, while increasing leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) can reduce incident hypertension. However, the joint associations of job strain and LTPA with incident hypertension among United States workers have yet to be investigated. This study examined the independent and joint associations of job strain and LTPA with incident hypertension.
METHODS
This prospective cohort study (n=1,160) utilized data from the population-based Midlife in the United States study. The associations of job strain and LTPA at baseline with incident hypertension during follow-up were examined using Cox proportional hazards models. High job strain was derived from a combination of high job demands and low job control, and high LTPA was defined as engagement in moderate or vigorous LTPA at least once per week.
RESULTS
During 9,218 person-years of follow-up, the hypertension incidence rate was 30.6 (95% confidence interval [CI], 27.3 to 34.3) per 1,000 person-years. High job strain was associated with a higher risk for hypertension than low job strain (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 1.29; 95% CI, 1.00 to 1.67). High LTPA was associated with lower hypertension risk than low LTPA (aHR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.60 to 0.98). Hypertension risk was higher among workers with high job strain and low LTPA than among those with low job strain and high LTPA (aHR, 1.70; 95% CI, 1.18 to 2.43).
CONCLUSIONS
Job strain and LTPA showed positive and inverse associations, respectively, with incident hypertension. The combination of high job strain and low LTPA was associated with the highest risk for hypertension.
Summary
Key Message
High job strain and low leisure-time physical activity are independent risk factors for hypertension among workers, and those with high job strain and low leisure-time physical activity are at the highest risk, so it is critical that policy interventions target job strain and leisure-time physical activity to reduce hypertension.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • 2023 ESH Guidelines for the management of arterial hypertension The Task Force for the management of arterial hypertension of the European Society of Hypertension
    Giuseppe Mancia, Reinhold Kreutz, Mattias Brunström, Michel Burnier, Guido Grassi, Andrzej Januszewicz, Maria Lorenza Muiesan, Konstantinos Tsioufis, Enrico Agabiti-Rosei, Engi Abd Elhady Algharably, Michel Azizi, Athanase Benetos, Claudio Borghi, Jana Br
    Journal of Hypertension.2023; 41(12): 1874.     CrossRef
  • Adulthood Psychosocial Disadvantages and Risk of Hypertension in U.S. Workers: Effect Modification by Adverse Childhood Experiences
    Timothy A. Matthews, Yifang Zhu, Wendie Robbins, Mary Rezk-Hanna, Paul M. Macey, Yeonsu Song, Jian Li
    Life.2022; 12(10): 1507.     CrossRef
  • Associations of COVID-19 Related Work Stressors with Psychological Distress: Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Californian Workers
    Timothy A. Matthews, Megan Guardiano, Negar Omidakhsh, Lara Cushing, Wendie Robbins, OiSaeng Hong, Jian Li
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2022; 20(1): 144.     CrossRef
Association between levels of physical activity and low handgrip strength: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2014-2019
Hyungsoon Ahn, Hwa Young Choi, Moran Ki
Epidemiol Health. 2022;44:e2022027.   Published online February 21, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2022027
  • 9,636 View
  • 567 Download
  • 6 Web of Science
  • 8 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
This study aimed to investigate the association between levels of physical activity (PA) and low handgrip strength in Korean adults.
METHODS
Our cross-sectional study design included 24,109 Korean adults older than 19 years of age who participated in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2014–2019. Low handgrip strength is described as hand strength less than the cut-off value of the 20th percentile of handgrip strength from a healthy population in each gender and age group. PA was categorized into three levels (inactive, active, and highly active) according to the World Health Organization’s global recommendations on PA for health. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association between levels of PA and low handgrip strength.
RESULTS
Odds ratios (ORs) for low handgrip strength were significantly higher in middle-aged women who were active (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.40; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.15 to 1.69) and inactive (aOR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.23 to 1.76) than in those highly active in walking exercise. Most of older people had significantly higher ORs for low handgrip strength in active compared to highly active in the context of aerobic, muscle strengthening, and walking exercise.
CONCLUSIONS
Walking exercise was associated with a lower risk of sarcopenia in middle-aged women and older individuals. However, further studies are necessary to confirm the causal relationship between levels of PA and low handgrip strength.
Summary
Korean summary
본 연구는 국민건강영양조사 2014-2019년도 자료를 활용하여 한국인 만 19세 이상 건강한 성인을 대상으로 낮은 악력의 기준값을 성별 및 연령그룹별로 도출하고 유산소 운동, 근력 운동, 걷기 운동 수준과 낮은 악력의 연관성을 분석하였다. 분석 결과, 중년 여성과 노년층에서 걷기 운동이 근감소증 발생의 예방과 연관성이 있음을 알 수 있었다.
Key Message
The association between levels of physical activity and low handgrip strength was different by sex and age groups. For women, walking exercise was associated with low handgrip strength, but not for men. By age groups, muscle strengthening exercise could help prevent sarcopenia in the young population, aerobic exercise has the potential to prevent sarcopenia in middle-aged individuals, and walking exercise could reduce sarcopenia risk in older individuals.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Examining factors contributing to the socioeconomic inequalities in handgrip strength among older adults in India: a decomposition analysis
    Manacy Pai, T. Muhammad
    Scientific Reports.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Relationship between Handgrip Strength and Incident Diabetes in Korean Adults According to Gender: A Population-Based Prospective Cohort Study
    Sung-Bum Lee, Min-Kyeung Jo, Ji-Eun Moon, Hui-Jeong Lee, Jong-Koo Kim
    Journal of Clinical Medicine.2024; 13(2): 627.     CrossRef
  • Association Between Dietary Fiber Intake and Low Muscle Strength Among Korean Adults
    Sunhye Shin
    Clinical Nutrition Research.2024; 13(1): 33.     CrossRef
  • Association between composite dietary antioxidant index and handgrip strength in American adults: Data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES, 2011-2014)
    Dongzhe Wu, Hao Wang, Wendi Wang, Chang Qing, Weiqiang Zhang, Xiaolin Gao, Yongjin Shi, Yanbin Li, Zicheng Zheng
    Frontiers in Nutrition.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Assessment of dynapenia and undernutrition in primary care, a systematic screening study in community medicine
    Marie Treuil, Meliha Mahmutovic, Paolo Di Patrizio, Phi-Linh Nguyen-Thi, Didier Quilliot
    Clinical Nutrition ESPEN.2023; 57: 561.     CrossRef
  • Water Intake and Handgrip Strength in US Adults: A Cross-Sectional Study Based on NHANES 2011–2014 Data
    Dongzhe Wu, Chaoyi Qu, Peng Huang, Xue Geng, Jianhong Zhang, Yulin Shen, Zhijian Rao, Jiexiu Zhao
    Nutrients.2023; 15(20): 4477.     CrossRef
  • Hand Grip Strength, Osteoporosis, and Quality of Life in Middle-Aged and Older Adults
    Hyo Jin Park, Byoungduck Han, So-youn Chang, Seung Ho Kang, Dae Wook Lee, Seok Kang
    Medicina.2023; 59(12): 2148.     CrossRef
  • Lower grip strength and insufficient physical activity can increase depressive symptoms among middle-aged and older European adults: a longitudinal study
    Han Zheng, Qingwen He, Hongyan Xu, Xiaowei Zheng, Yanfang Gu
    BMC Geriatrics.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
Joint association of aerobic physical activity and muscle-strengthening activities with metabolic syndrome : the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2014-2015
Jungjun Lim, Soyoung Park, Joon-Sik Kim
Epidemiol Health. 2021;43:e2021096.   Published online November 6, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2021096
  • 7,919 View
  • 146 Download
  • 2 Web of Science
  • 4 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
The study aimed to examine whether simultaneously meeting the combined guidelines of accelerometer-assessed moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and self-reported muscle-strengthening activity (MSA) was associated with lower odds of metabolic syndrome (MetS) than meeting neither or 1 of the guidelines among the Koreans.
METHODS
This cross-sectional analysis included 1,355 participants from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2014-2015). Logistic regression was used to analyze the associations across groups of MVPA-MSA guideline adherence (meeting neither [reference]; meeting MVPA only; meeting MSA only; meeting both MVPS and MSA) with MetS components (abdominal obesity, hypertriglyceridemia, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [HDL-C], hypertension, and hyperglycemia). The odds ratios (ORs) were adjusted for covariates (e.g., sex, age, body mass index, and accelerometer wearing time).
RESULTS
MSA only significantly reduced the OR for abdominal obesity (OR, 0.34; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.13 to 0.91). Meeting both MVPA and MSA reduced the OR for hypertriglyceridemia (OR, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.39 to 0.88) and low HDL-C (OR, 0.46; 95% CI, 0.31 to 0.68). Compared to meeting neither, MVPA only (OR, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.44 to 0.89) and both MVPA and MSA (OR, 0.46; 95% CI, 0.28 to 0.76) significantly reduced the OR for MetS.
CONCLUSIONS
Combined MVPA-MSA was more beneficially associated with MetS prevalence than MVPA only and MSA only. Considering that more than 85% of Korean adults do not meet both the MVPA and MSA guidelines, public health actions to promote adherence should be supported.
Summary
Korean summary
본 연구는 2014-2015 국민건강영양조사 자료의 가속도계 자료와 신체활동 설문지를 활용하여 한국 성인의 유산소 신체활동과 근력강화운동 지침 충족 여부에 따른 대사증후군의 오즈비를 확인하였다. 그 결과, 유산소 신체활동과 근력강화운동 지침을 모두 충족한 한국 성인은 둘 중 하나의 지침만을 충족하거나, 모두 충족하지 않는 성인에 비해 더 낮은 오즈비를 나타내었다.
Key Message
In this study, the 2014-2015 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data, the odds ratio of metabolic syndrome was confirmed according to the guidelines for aerobic physical activities and muscle-strengthening activities were met in Korean adults. As a result, Korean adults who met both the guidelines for aerobic physical activity and muscle-strengthening activities showed a lower odds ratio than adults who met only one of the guidelines or did not meet both guidelines.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • The effect of Tabata-style functional high-intensity interval training on cardiometabolic health and physical activity in female university students
    Yining Lu, Huw D. Wiltshire, Julien Steven Baker, Qiaojun Wang, Shanshan Ying
    Frontiers in Physiology.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Association of Aerobic and Muscle-strengthening Activities with AIP in Korean Adults: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2014-2019
    Jungjun Lim, Yang Hei, Yeonsoo Kim
    Journal of Korean Association of Physical Education and Sport for Girls and Women.2022; 36(3): 245.     CrossRef
  • Current status of health promotion in Korea
    Soo Young Kim
    Journal of the Korean Medical Association.2022; 65(12): 776.     CrossRef
  • Aerobic or Muscle-Strengthening Physical Activity: Which Is Better for Health?
    Angelique G. Brellenthin, Jason A. Bennie, Duck-chul Lee
    Current Sports Medicine Reports.2022; 21(8): 272.     CrossRef
Trends in health behaviors over 20 years: findings from the 1998-2018 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
Soyeon Kim, Sunhye Choi, Jihee Kim, Suyeon Park, Young-Taek Kim, Ok Park, Kyungwon Oh
Epidemiol Health. 2021;43:e2021026.   Published online April 19, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2021026
  • 11,009 View
  • 352 Download
  • 20 Web of Science
  • 16 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
This study aimed to examine the trends in health behaviors in Korean population using data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES).
METHODS
The subjects were 96,408 adults aged 19 years or older who participated in the first (1998) through seventh (2016-2018) KNHANES health interview. The prevalence of health behaviors (cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking, and physical activity) and annual percent change (APC) were estimated using SAS and the Joinpoint program.
RESULTS
The prevalence of current cigarette smoking in men decreased by 2.8%p (APC= -2.8, p< 0.001) annually over the 20-year period, and the prevalence of exposure to secondhand smoke at home substantially decreased compared to 2005 (APC= -8.8, p< 0.001). Compared to 2005, the prevalence of current alcohol drinking in women, but not men, increased (APC= 2.0, p< 0.001), and the prevalence of binge drinking decreased in men (APC= -0.7, p< 0.001) and increased in women (APC= 2.4, p< 0.001). The prevalence of aerobic physical activity decreased from 2014 in both gendersd (p< 0.001). The prevalence of healthy behaviors practice (non-smoking, alcohol abstinence, and aerobic physical activity) was down-trending (APC= -5.3, p< 0.001), especially among women (APC= -6.4, p< 0.001).
CONCLUSIONS
Over the past 20 years, smoking behaviors improved. However, drinking behavior was unchanged and physical activity indicators markedly decreased. More active programs are necessary for improving health behaviors, which are major risk factors linked to chronic diseases.
Summary
Korean summary
국민건강영양조사(1998-2018) 자료를 활용하여 지난 20년간 성인의 건강행태를 분석한 결과 흡연율과 간접흡연 노출률은 지속적으로 감소하였고, 신체활동 실천율 또한 감소하였다. 월간음주율과 폭음률의 경우 남자는 큰 변화가 없었던 반면 여자는 모두 증가하였다.
Key Message
This study aimed to examine the trends in health behaviors in Korean population using data from the 1998-2018 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). Over the past 20 years, the prevalence of cigarette smoking and exposure to secondhand smoke in Korean adults consistently decreased, as well as the prevalence of physical activity. There was no considerable change in men, whereas in women, the prevalence of alcohol drinking and binge drinking both increased.

Citations

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  • Variability in the association of smoking status with the prevalence of diabetes mellitus in the Korean population according to different definitions of smoking status: analysis based on the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2014-202
    Yechan Kyung, Young Sook Park, Mi Hyeon Jin, Hae Jeong Lee
    International Journal of Environmental Health Research.2024; : 1.     CrossRef
  • Adherence to Cancer Prevention Guidelines and Cancer Incidence and Mortality: A Population-Based Cohort Study
    Jin-Kyoung Oh, Minji Han, Byungmi Kim, Eun Young Park
    Cancer Research and Treatment.2023; 55(1): 15.     CrossRef
  • Ocular motility disorders following coronavirus disease-19 vaccination
    Kyung-Ah Park, Hyeshin Jeon, Dong Gyu Choi, Jae Ho Jung, Hyun-Jin Shin, Byung Joo Lee, Yeji Moon, Se-Youp Lee, Dong Cheol Lee, Soon Young Cho, Seong-Joon Kim, Sei Yeul Oh, Sunghyuk Moon, Shin Yeop Oh, Daye Diana Choi, Mi Young Choi, Won Jae Kim, Ungsoo Sa
    Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology.2023; 261(4): 1127.     CrossRef
  • Alcoholic liver disease in relation to cancer incidence and mortality: Findings from a large, matched cohort study in South Korea
    Thi Phuong Thao Tran, Minji Han, Ngoc Minh Luu, Jin‐Kyoung Oh
    Cancer Medicine.2023; 12(7): 8754.     CrossRef
  • Associations of dual use of tobacco cigarettes and e‐cigarettes, sleep duration, physical activity and depressive symptoms among middle‐aged and older Korean adults
    Mi‐Ae You, JiYeon Choi, Youn‐Jung Son
    Nursing Open.2023; 10(6): 4071.     CrossRef
  • Prevalence, Trend, and Risk Factors for Early Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: An Analysis of the Nationwide Population-Based Survey from 2010 to 2019 in South Korea
    Taeyun Kim, Hyunji Choi, Ju-il Seo, Seung-Jin Kim, Ji-Eun Choi, Minsu Yun, Jihun Kang
    COPD: Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.2023; 20(1): 153.     CrossRef
  • Trends in the Quality of Primary Care and Acute Care in Korea From 2008 to 2020: A Cross-sectional Study
    Yeong Geun Gwon, Seung Jin Han, Kyoung Hoon Kim
    Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health.2023; 56(3): 248.     CrossRef
  • Association of handgrip strength with new-onset CKD in Korean adults according to gender
    Sung-Bum Lee, Miryung Kim, Hui-Jeong Lee, Jong-Koo Kim
    Frontiers in Medicine.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Elevated Uric Acid Levels with Early Chronic Kidney Disease as an Indicator of New-Onset Ischemic Heart Disease: A Cohort of Koreans without Diabetes
    Sung-Bum Lee, Hui-Jeong Lee, Ha Eun Ryu, Byoungjin Park, Dong-Hyuk Jung
    Biomedicines.2023; 11(8): 2212.     CrossRef
  • Clinical and life style factors related to the nighttime blood pressure, nighttime dipping and their phenotypes in Korean hypertensive patients
    Byung Sik Kim, Ju Han Kim, Wan Kim, Woo Shik Kim, Sungha Park, Sang Jae Lee, Jang Young Kim, Eun Mi Lee, Sang Hyun Ihm, Wook Bum Pyun, Jeong-Hun Shin, Jinho Shin
    Clinical Hypertension.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Combinations of lifestyle behaviors and cancer risk among Korean adults
    Ngoc Minh Luu, Thi Tra Bui, Thi Phuong Thao Tran, Thi Huyen Trang Nguyen, Jin-Kyoung Oh
    Scientific Reports.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Risk for Esophageal Cancer Based on Lifestyle Factors–Smoking, Alcohol Consumption, and Body Mass Index: Insight from a South Korean Population Study in a Low-Incidence Area
    Mi Jung Kwon, Ho Suk Kang, Hyo Geun Choi, Joo-Hee Kim, Ji Hee Kim, Woo Jin Bang, Sung Kwang Hong, Nan Young Kim, Sangkyoon Hong, Hong Kyu Lee
    Journal of Clinical Medicine.2023; 12(22): 7086.     CrossRef
  • Association of Muscle Strength with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Korean Adults
    Sung-Bum Lee, Yu-Jin Kwon, Dong-Hyuk Jung, Jong-Koo Kim
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2022; 19(3): 1675.     CrossRef
  • Association of Handgrip Strength with Diabetes Mellitus in Korean Adults According to Sex
    Sung-Bum Lee, Ji-Eun Moon, Jong-Koo Kim
    Diagnostics.2022; 12(8): 1874.     CrossRef
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    Minh Luu, Minji Han, Tra Bui, Phuong Thao Tran, Min-Kyung Lim, Jin Oh
    Tobacco Induced Diseases.2022; 20(August): 1.     CrossRef
  • Awareness of and practice toward cancer prevention recommendations: results of the Korean National Cancer Prevention Awareness and Practice Survey in 2021
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    Epidemiology and Health.2022; 44: e2022068.     CrossRef
Association of social network size and composition with physical activity in Korean middle-aged adults
Moon Su Kwak, So Mi Jemma Cho, Jee-Seon Shim, Dae Jung Kim, Yoosik Youm, Hyeon Chang Kim
Epidemiol Health. 2020;42:e2020070.   Published online November 25, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2020070
  • 7,893 View
  • 139 Download
  • 2 Web of Science
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
Physical activity (PA) is an established protective factor for many chronic diseases. Numerous studies have established positive relationships between social networks and PA. Accordingly, this study examined the relationship between social network structures (specifically the network size and the number and proportion of same-sex alters) and self-reported PA in Korean middle-age adults, where the term “alter” refers to a respondent’s social network members.
METHODS
We analyzed 8,092 participants of the Cardiovascular and Metabolic Diseases Etiology Research Center cohort. We assessed the association between each network structure variable and PA level using a linear regression model. Then, we employed logistic regression to evaluate associations between social network structure and adherence to guideline-recommended exercise levels. Socio-demographic factors and health status measures were used as covariates.
RESULTS
In both sexes, the social network size and proportion of same-sex network members showed positive relationships with total and moderate-to-vigorous PA. Notably, female participants with a greater number of kin were more likely to satisfy the recommended amount of total PA.
CONCLUSIONS
These findings suggest that large scale, same-sex intervention programs can help to achieve recommended PA regimens.
Summary
Korean summary
이 연구는 30-64세 중년의 한국인 8,092(남자 2,805, 여자 5,207)명에서 사회연결망 특성과 신체활동량의 관련성을 평가했다. 남녀 모두에서 사회연결망의 크기가 클수록, 연결망내 동성인 사람의 비중이 높을수록 신체활동량이 많았다. 사회연결망 크기와 연결망내 동성인 사람의 비중은 권장 신체활동량을 충족률과도 양의 관련성을 보였다. 반면, 연결망내 친족의 비중이 높은 경우는 오히려 권장신체활동량을 충족할 가능성이 낮았다.
Comparison of self-reported and accelerometer-assessed measurements of physical activity according to socio-demographic characteristics in Korean adults
Seung Won Lee, Jee-Seon Shim, Bo Mi Song, Ho Jae Lee, Hye Yoon Bae, Ji Hye Park, Hye Rin Choi, Jae Won Yang, Ji Eun Heo, So Mi Jemma Cho, Ga Bin Lee, Diana Huanan Hidalgo, Tae-Hoon Kim, Kyung Soo Chung, Hyeon Chang Kim
Epidemiol Health. 2018;40:e2018060.   Published online November 29, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2018060
  • 12,148 View
  • 160 Download
  • 6 Web of Science
  • 6 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
Previous studies have shown relatively low correlations between self-reported and accelerometer-assessed physical activity (PA). However, this association differs by socio-demographic factors, and this relationship has not been fully investigated in the general population. Thus, we investigated the correlation between self-reported and accelerometer-assessed PA and whether it differed by demographic and socioeconomic factors among the Korean general population.
METHODS
This cross-sectional study included 623 participants (203 men and 420 women) aged 30 to 64 years, who completed a PA questionnaire and wore a wrist-worn accelerometer on the non-dominant wrist for 7 days. We examined the agreement for metabolic equivalent task minutes per week (MET-min/wk) between the 2 measures and calculated Spearman correlation coefficients according to demographic and socioeconomic factors.
RESULTS
The kappa coefficient between tertiles of self-reported and accelerometer-assessed total MET-min/wk was 0.16 in the total population, suggesting overall poor agreement. The correlation coefficient between the 2 measurements was 0.26 (p<0.001) in the total population, and the correlation tended to decrease with increasing age (p for trend <0.001) and depression scores (p for trend <0.001).
CONCLUSIONS
We found a low correlation between self-reported and accelerometer-assessed PA among healthy Korean adults, and the correlation decreased with age and depression score. When studying PA using accelerometers and/or questionnaires, age and depression need to be considered, as should differences between self-reported and accelerometer-assessed PA.
Summary
Korean summary
역학연구에서 신체활동량 측정에 가장 많이 사용되는 설문조사와 가속도계 착용법인데, 두 가지 방법으로 측정한 신체활동량은 상관성이 그리 높지 않으며, 대상자 특성에 따라서도 일치도가 다른 것으로 보고되고 있다. 따라서, 비교적 건강한 중년의 한국 성인을 대상으로 자가설문과 가속도계 조사를 사용해 측정한 신체활동량의 관련성을 조사해보았다. 이 연구는 전향적 코호트 연구의 기반조사 결과를 이용한 단면연구로, 지역사회 거주하는 30-64세 성인 623명(남성203명, 여성 420명)을 대상으로 하였으며, 신체활동을 자가보고 설문조사와 3축 가속도계를 7일간 손목에 연속착용하여 측정하고 두 방법으로 측정한 신체활동량을 비교하였다. 전체 대상자에서 두 방법으로 측정한 신체활동량 삼분위(tertile) 값의 일치도를 조사했을 때 Kappa 통계량은 0.16 이었으며 Spearman 상관계수는 0.26 (p<0.001)이었다. 나이가 많을수록 우울증상이 많을수록 두 방법 간 일치도와 상관성이 낮아지는 경향을 보였다.

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Reliability and Validity of the Modified Korean Version of Baecke Questionnaire on Physical Activity.
Ji Young Lee, Young Ho Yun, Eun Cheol Park, Hong Wan Seo, Ju Huk Lee, Hai Rim Shin, Kui Son Choi
Korean J Epidemiol. 2004;26(2):20-31.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Abstract
PURPOSE
Our main goal is to test the reliability and validity of the Korean version of Baecke questionnaire on physical activity by using 507 men and women aged 20-70 years.
METHOD
This study was carried out using the cancer screening participants of the National Cancer Center. All subjects were sent the Korean version of Baecke questionnaire by mail to measure their physical activity.
RESULTS
The mean score on the sport index during leisure-time for men was significantly higher than that for women. In contrast, the mean score of the work index for men was significantly lower than that for women. Cronbach`s alphas for work, sport and leisure-time index were 0.75, 0.81 and 0.39 for men, respectively, and 0.67, 0.75 and 0.35 for women respectively. By a principal components analysis the three conceptually meaningful factors were distinguished, except for the leisure-time factor. Due to the low cronbach`s alphas and undistinguished factors, work and sports factors were used on the final analysis, excluding the leisure time factor, in the Korean version of Baecke`s questionnaire. Two-factor analysis was used to assess the validity of work items and sports items. Work factor and sports factor were definitely distinguished as two factors. Multiple regression analysis showed that lean body mass was significantly related the work index(p<0.0001) and sports index (p<0.05).
CONCLUSION
Our results suggest that the modified Korean version of Baecke`s questionnaire is appropriate to assess the physical activity in Koreans.
Summary
Obesity and Physical Activity Related to Colorectal Adenoma by Anatomic Sites in Korea.
Mi Kyung Kim, Won Chul Lee, Kyu Yong Choi, Se Young Lee, Sukil Kim, Yang Cha Lee-Kim, Kwang Ho Meng
Korean J Epidemiol. 1999;21(2):254-265.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Abstract
Although the etiology of colorectal adenoma is not yet clear, numerous epidemiologic studies of colorectal adenoma(precursors of cancer) have shown a positive association with obesity and an inverse association with physical activity. The difference of the possible association of colorectal adenoma with body mass index(BMI= wt(kg)/ht2(m2) and physical activity(kcal/day) according to anatomic sites and gender was investigated in this case-control study. Between July 1994 and october 1998, 345 cases of patients(male 181, female 164) with pathologically confirmed incident colorectal adenoma and 1655 control subjects(male 598, female 1,057) were collected from Our Lady of Mercy Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea. After colonoscopy, self-reported weight and height, together with measures of intensity and time of exercise and lifetime job activity was obtained by the interviewers. Site- and gender-specific odds ratios relative to the lowest tertile of BMI and physical activity were determined using unconditional logistic regression after adjusting for potential confounders. Compared with subjects in the lowest terile of body mass index, multivariate-adjusted odds ratio of right colon for male and female in highest tertile were 1.49(95% CI:0.74-3.01) and 1.96(95% CI:0.93-4.15), respectively. Compared with subjects in the lowest tertile of physical activity, multivariate-adjusted odds ratio of right colon for male and female in highest tertile were 0.66(95% CI:0.35-1.26) and 0.83(95% CI:0.50-1.39), respectively. These results support a positive association between body mass index and occurrence or progression of adenoma in left colon and physical activity is associated with an elevated risk of right colon.
Summary
Nationwide Telephone Survey on Leisure Time Physical Activity among Koreans.
Sung Hee Lee, Tae Woo Yoo, Joung Soon Kim
Korean J Epidemiol. 1998;20(1):113-125.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Abstract
Epidemiologic research has demonstrated that varying grade of physical activity has protective effects on several chronic diseases, including coronary heart disease, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, osteporosis, anxiety and depression. Despite the importance of physical activity as an health promotion factor, there have been only a few research data available in Korea. This telephone interview survey on randomly sampled 1,060 adultsaged 15-69 years was carried out to find out the prevalence of self-reported leisure-time physical activity among Korean adults in terms of health promotion practice. The nationwide telephone interview survey was conducted from April through May 1997. Multistage stratified random sampling method was used for sample selection, the respondent was randomly selected from an entire group of adults who lived at the residence connected with the telephone number. A total of 1,060 adults were interviewed and the interviewees' leisure-time physical activity was categorized into four patterns: 'physically inactive', 'irregularly active', 'regularly active, not intensive', and 'regularly active, intensive'. About 53% of the respondents were physically inactive, 15% irregularly active, 14% regularly active, and only 18% were regularly active, intensive. Women were less active than men anc persons of lower socioeconomic status(SES) were less active than higher SES. Physical activity was not significantly associated with smoking status, drinking pattern and overweight, but negatively associated with daily smoking amount and total duration of smoking in smokers. Individuals with higher lever of physical activity were more likely to check blood pressure regularly and have had screening examination for stomach cancer. Conclusively, the proportion of Korean people who perform appropriate level of physical activity in terms of health promotion is still very low, thus an enforced intervention program becomes indispensable to achieve the national health goal by the year 2000.
Summary

Epidemiol Health : Epidemiology and Health