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COVID-19: Original Article
Depression, anxiety, and stress in Korean general population during the COVID-19 pandemic
Hooyeon Lee, Dongwoo Choi, Jung Jae Lee
Epidemiol Health. 2022;44:e2022018.   Published online January 18, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2022018
  • 16,568 View
  • 642 Download
  • 17 Web of Science
  • 17 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and risk factors of poor mental health in the general Korean population during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic.
METHODS
This cross-sectional, population-based, online survey-based study was conducted from November 5 to 20, 2020 and included adults aged 20-49 years in Chungnam Province, Korea. A total of 549 adults were included.
RESULTS
In total, 18.8% of the participants had symptoms of depression, 10.6% had symptoms of anxiety, and 5.1% had a high level of perceived stress during the COVID-19 pandemic. Higher levels of stress (odds ratio [OR], 3.13; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.13 to 8.67), anxiety (OR, 2.33; 95% CI, 1.09 to 4.49), and depression (OR, 3.00; 95% CI, 1.64 to 5.50) were found among never married, widowed, divorced, and separated people than among married/cohabiting/partnered participants. Participants who felt increased stress at home during the COVID-19 outbreak reported more depression (OR, 2.45; 95% CI, 1.49 to 4.05) and anxiety (OR, 2.42; 95% CI, 1.31 to 4.50). Women had higher risks of anxiety (OR, 1.97; 95% CI, 1.09 to 3.58) and stress (OR, 6.40; 95% CI, 2.30 to 17.85) than men. Participants with the highest household income were less likely to report symptoms of stress than those with the lowest household income (OR, 0.24; 95% CI, 0.06 to 0.96).
CONCLUSIONS
The participants in this study exhibited poor mental health index scores, suggesting that some people are at risk for mental health problems during the COVID-19 pandemic. Being married was independently and significantly associated with a lower likelihood of depression, anxiety, and stress.
Summary
Korean summary
이 연구는 코로나-19 유행 기간 동안 정신건강 현황과 위험 요인을 알아보기 위한 단면연구이다. 코로나 19 유행 이후 가정내 스트레스가 증가했다고 응답한 경우 우울증과 불안감의 유병률이 높았다. 반면, 남성인 경우, 결혼했거나 동거인과 같이 살고 있는 경우에는 우울증, 불안 또는 스트레스의 유병률이 통계적으로 유의하게 낮았다. 마스크 착용하기, 비대면 활동 증가, 또는 사회적 거리두기 등 코로나 19의 유행을 통제하기 위한 많은 정책은 개인의 일상생활과 정신건강에 많은 영향을 미쳤다. 이 연구는 취약 집단을 발굴하고, 정신건강 회복을 위한 전략을 개발하는데 기초자료를 제공할 수 있다.
Key Message
This study revealed high prevalence rates of depression, anxiety, and stress in the general population of Korea aged 20-49 years during the COVID-19 pandemic. Participants who felt increased stress at home reported more depression and anxiety. Men and being married were significantly associated with a lower likelihood of depression, anxiety, or stress. The COVID-19 pandemic has been a traumatic event. In addi­tion, the policies created to prevent its spread have disrupted daily living for the general population. Implement­ing strategies to promote resilience and support psychologically vulnerable individuals during the COVID-19 cri­sis is of fundamental importance.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Pandemic stressors and mental health indicators in eight countries
    Salma M Abdalla, Shaffi Fazaludeen Koya, Samuel B. Rosenberg, Isaac B. Stovall, Olivia Biermann, Zahra Zeinali, Gregory H. Cohen, Catherine K. Ettman, Sandro Galea
    Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology.2024; 59(4): 585.     CrossRef
  • Protective Behaviors Against COVID-19 and Related Factors in Korean Adults With Depressive Symptoms: Results From an Analysis of the 2020 Korean Community Health Survey
    Ho-Jun Cho, Kyeong-Sook Choi, Jin-Young Lee, Ji-Ae Yun, Je-Chun Yu
    Psychiatry Investigation.2024; 21(1): 74.     CrossRef
  • The Impact of the Successive Outbreaks of COVID-19, Vaccination, and Physical Activity on Mental Health in the Argentine Population: A Repeated Cross-Sectional Study
    Alejo Ramiro Barbuzza, Fabricio Ballarini, Celina Goyeneche, Victoria Reppucci, Pedro Benedetti, Franco Moscato, Jorge H Medina, Cynthia Katche, Diego Moncada, Haydeé Viola
    Cureus.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Impact of Omicron-Variant SARS-CoV-2 Infection on Depression and Anxiety: A Community-Based Study in Korea
    Youngsook Kwon, Jina Park, Eunkyoung An, Sukyoung Jung, Kukju Kweon
    Psychiatry Investigation.2024; 21(4): 415.     CrossRef
  • Factors Associated With Negative Life Changes due to COVID-19 Among Older Adults Residing in an Urban Low-Income Neighborhood in Korea: Focused on Gendered Differences
    Jae Yoon Yi, Hongsoo Kim
    Journal of Applied Gerontology.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Differences in Functional Level and Central Symptom of Network Structures in the Patients Seeking Treatment for Panic Disorder Before and During the COVID-19 Pandemic
    Hyun-Ju Kim, Minji Bang, Chun Il Park, Chongwon Pae, Sang-Hyuk Lee
    Psychiatry Investigation.2023; 20(3): 245.     CrossRef
  • Prevalence of Mental Disorders and Associated Factors in Korean Adults: National Mental Health Survey of Korea 2021
    Soo Jung Rim, Bong-Jin Hahm, Su Jeong Seong, Jee Eun Park, Sung Man Chang, Byung-Soo Kim, Hyonggin An, Hong Jin Jeon, Jin Pyo Hong, Subin Park
    Psychiatry Investigation.2023; 20(3): 262.     CrossRef
  • Physical activity and mental health in Brazilian university students: An analysis in different sexes during the COVID-19 pandemic
    Gabriela Carvalho Jurema Santos, Mateus Jurema Rino, Victor Luiz da Silva Lima, José Adilson Santos, Débora Eduarda da Silva Fidelis, Tiago Lacerda Ramos, Adelmo José de Andrade, Camila Tenório Calazans de Lira, Matheus Santos de Souza Fernandes
    Biomedical Human Kinetics.2023; 15(1): 113.     CrossRef
  • Risk and protective factors of mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic: A cross-sectional study in Singapore
    Mythily Subramaniam, Edimansyah Abdin, Saleha Shafie, Peizhi Wang, Shazana Shahwan, Pratika Satghare, Boon Yiang Chua, Michael Y Ni, Phyllis Lun, Wen Lin Teh, Janhavi Ajit Vaingankar, Siow Ann Chong
    Annals of the Academy of Medicine, Singapore.2023; 52(5): 249.     CrossRef
  • Is social support associated with postpartum depression, anxiety and perceived stress among Korean women within the first year postpartum?
    Mi-Sun Lee, Jung Jae Lee, Soyeon Park, Seongju Kim, Hooyeon Lee
    Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics & Gynecology.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Long COVID in Pakistan: a cross-sectional analysis of health and psychosocial outcomes
    Madeeha Khan, Sadaf Majeed, Quratul Ain, Amjad Nawaz, Khadija Awais Sumra, Vilma Lammi, Faizan Nihal, Aleena Afrah, Ejaz Ahmed Khan, Mohammad Iqbal Khan, Fouzia Sadiq
    Psychology, Health & Medicine.2023; : 1.     CrossRef
  • Assessing Knowledge, Preventive Practices, and Depression Among Chinese International Students and Local Korean Students in South Korea During the COVID-19 Pandemic: An Online Cross-Sectional Study
    Xiaoxu Jiang, Bo Zhao, Eun Woo Nam, Fanlei Kong
    Frontiers in Psychiatry.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Association of compliance with COVID-19 public health measures with depression
    Ju An Byun, Tae Jun Sim, Tae Yoon Lim, Sung-In Jang, Seung Hoon Kim
    Scientific Reports.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Factors associated with depressive symptomatology during the COVID-19 pandemic in Mexico: A 2021 national survey
    Pablo D. Valencia, Maria A. Torres-Quispe, Sofía Sánchez-Cayo, Ricardo F. Reyes-Aguilar, Alexander G. Acevedo-Cahuana
    Journal of Affective Disorders.2022; 317: 212.     CrossRef
  • Depression and anxiety in later COVID-19 waves across Europe: New evidence from the European COvid Survey (ECOS)
    André Hajek, Sebastian Neumann-Böhme, Iryna Sabat, Aleksandra Torbica, Jonas Schreyögg, Pedro Pita Barros, Tom Stargardt, Hans-Helmut König
    Psychiatry Research.2022; 317: 114902.     CrossRef
  • Socio-economic factors associated with mental health outcomes during the COVID-19 pandemic in South Korea
    Seo Yoon Lee, Jung Jae Lee, Hooyeon Lee
    Frontiers in Public Health.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Mental health of Korean adults before and during the COVID-19 pandemic: a special report of the 2020 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
    Hyunsuk Jeong, Suyeon Park, Jihee Kim, Kyungwon Oh, Hyeon Woo Yim
    Epidemiology and Health.2022; 44: e2022042.     CrossRef
Original Article
Health behaviors and health status of Korean middleaged men by marital status: Korea Community Health Study, 2015
Yongho Jee, Youngtae Cho
Epidemiol Health. 2019;41:e2019019.   Published online May 15, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2019019
  • 10,833 View
  • 190 Download
  • 2 Web of Science
  • 5 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
Previous studies have shown that marital status is associated with household composition and living arrangements, which partially explain observed differences in health status according to marital status. However, due to the rapid socioeconomic and demographic transformations of the last few decades, the distribution of marital status among middle-aged adults has become more diverse. Therefore, this study aimed to obtain up-to-date information on the associations between marital status and health and to investigate the implications of these findings for conventional explanations of the health effects of marriage.
METHODS
The data for this study were obtained from the 2015 Korean Community Health Study. We compared 4 modifiable lifestyle behaviors—smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, and self-rated health status—as outcome variables in association with marital status in Korean middle-aged men (age 40-44) living in Seoul and other regions.
RESULTS
Married men showed the lowest cigarette smoking prevalence and the highest subjective health status both before and after adjusting for education and income. The odds of engaging in vigorous physical activity did not show a major difference before and after adjustment for income and education.
CONCLUSIONS
In married men, the prevalence of cigarette smoking was lowest and subjective health status was highest, similar to previous studies. However, the prevalence of engaging in physical activity was highest in divorced/widowed/separated men. The health behaviors and health status of Korean middle-aged adults should be more closely followed, since they are representative of demographic changes in the Korean population.
Summary
Korean summary
결혼 상태에 따른 건강을 다룬 이전연구에서 가구구성행태 위주의 연구, 기혼자일수록 일관되게 양호한 건강상태를 보인다는 결과들이 많이 보고되었으나 저출산 고령화의 흐름속에 1인 가구가 증가하고 가구 형태가 다양화되면서 기존의 연구결과들이 오늘날에도 유의한지에 따른 연구가 필요하며, 따라서 본 연구에서는 한국 중년 남성들의 결혼여부에 따른 건강상태를 분석하고자 하였다.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Marital status, marital transition and health behaviour and mental health outcomes among middle-aged and older adults in Thailand: A national longitudinal study
    Supa Pengpid, Karl Peltzer, Dararatt Anantanasuwong
    Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics.2024; 117: 105196.     CrossRef
  • Changing associations of coronary heart disease incidence with current partnership status and marital history over three decades
    Karri Silventoinen, Kaarina Korhonen, Pekka Martikainen
    SSM - Population Health.2022; 18: 101080.     CrossRef
  • Socioeconomic disparities between oral cavity cancer patients in Germany
    David Muallah, Jan Matschke, Sophie Muallah, Anna Klimova, Lysann Michaela Kroschwald, Tom Alexander Schröder, Günter Lauer, Dominik Haim
    Frontiers in Public Health.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Hemodiyaliz Hastalarında Sigara Kullanımı, Nikotin Bağımlılık Durumu Ve İlişkili Faktörler
    Zeynep KENDİ ÇELEBİ, Didem TURGUT
    Celal Bayar Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Enstitüsü Dergisi.2020; 7(2): 188.     CrossRef
  • A Multi-Disciplinary Study Into the Drivers of Smoking Cessation in South Korea
    James E. Prieger, Anna Choi
    SSRN Electronic Journal.2020;[Epub]     CrossRef

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