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The Asenze Cohort Study in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa: protocol and cohort profile
Chris Desmond, Gabriella A. Norwitz, Jane D. Kvalsvig, Rachel S. Gruver, Shuaib Kauchali, Kathryn G. Watt, Nonhlanhla P. Myeza, Adele Munsami, Leslie L. Davidson
Epidemiol Health. 2022;44:e2022037.   Published online April 5, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2022037
  • 8,826 View
  • 258 Download
  • 1 Web of Science
  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Abstract
The Asenze cohort is set in South Africa, a middle-income country impacted by one of the highest global rates of people living with HIV/AIDS and high levels of socioeconomic inequality. This longitudinal population-based cohort of children and their primary caregivers assesses household and caregiver functioning, child health, social well-being, and neuro-development from childhood through adolescence. Almost 1,600 children born at the peak of the human immunodeficiency virus epidemic (2003-2005) were followed (with their primary caregivers) in 3 waves, between 2008 and 2021, at average ages of 5, 7, and 16. Wave 3 is currently underway, having assessed over 1,100 of the original wave 1 children. Wave 4 begins in 2022. The study, with a dyadic structure, uses a broad range of measures, validated in South Africa or recommended for global use, that address physical, social and neuro-development in childhood and adolescence, and the social, health, and psychological status of children’s primary caregivers. The Asenze study deepens our understanding of childhood physical, cognitive, and social abilities and/or disabilities, including risk-taking behaviors, and biological, environmental, and social determinants of health. We anticipate the findings will contribute to the development of community-informed interventions to promote well-being in this South African population and elsewhere.
Summary
Key Message
The Asenze Cohort Study, one of a limited number of population-based studies set in low- and middle-income countries, with a high level of retention, provides an understanding of neuro-developmental, psychosocial, home environmental and economic exposures and outcomes of over 1100 adolescents and their primary caregivers in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

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  • The impact of caregiver mental health on child prosocial behavior: A longitudinal analysis of children and caregivers in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa
    Gabriella A. Norwitz, Chris Desmond, Rachel S. Gruver, Jane D. Kvalsvig, Amaleah F. Mirti, Shuaib Kauchali, Leslie L. Davidson, Giulia Ballarotto
    PLOS ONE.2023; 18(10): e0290788.     CrossRef
COVID-19: Systematic Review
Clinical outcomes of COVID-19 amongst HIV patients: a systematic literature review
Thomas Massarvva
Epidemiol Health. 2021;43:e2021036.   Published online May 17, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2021036
  • 12,323 View
  • 413 Download
  • 3 Web of Science
  • 2 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
The global pandemic coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) emerged in the city of Wuhan, China around December 2019. Since then, the virus has caused severe morbidity and mortality worldwide and has put pressure on the global medical system. Still, there are limited data regarding the clinical impact of COVID-19 on people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The primary aim of this study was, therefore, to systematically review up-to-date studies reporting the clinical outcomes of COVID-19 amongst HIV patients.
METHODS
A thorough literature search was carried out using MEDLINE, Embase, Scopus, and the Cochrane Library Databases in accordance with the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines.
RESULTS
A total of 22 studies were identified. Amongst 730 HIV/COVID-19-coinfected patients, 79.4% were males, the median age was 51.5 years, and the number of reported patients receiving antiretroviral drugs was 708 (97.2%). Most coinfected patients had mild to moderate symptoms, including cough (37.7%), fever (37.5%), and dyspnoea (24.7%). Among pre-existing comorbidities, hypertension (26.3%) was the most prevalent in HIV/COVID-19 coinfected patients, and 87% of coinfected patients recovered.
CONCLUSIONS
Based on the existing data in this systematic literature review, HIV patients with pre-existing comorbidities, obesity, and older age should be considered as a high-risk group for COVID-19. Furthermore, coinfected patients appear to have marginally comparable clinical outcomes with the general population. The study’s findings highlight the need for further investigation to elucidate the impact of COVID-19 infection on HIV patients.
Summary
Key Message
In this systematic literature review, various aspects of COVID-19 outcomes amongst HIV patients are identified and quantified, including the proportion of different symptoms, severity, pre-existing comorbidities, recovery, death, and the most commonly prescribed antiretroviral drugs in HIV patients with COVID-19 coinfection.

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  • Double Trouble Co-Infections: Understanding the Correlation Between COVID-19 and HIV Viruses
    Sassi Ashraf Ali Abbasi, Tarika Noor, Maneeth Mylavarapu, Monika Sahotra, Hunmble A Bashir, Rakshita Ramesh Bhat, Urmi Jindal, Uzma Amin, Anushree V, Humza F Siddiqui
    Cureus.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • HIV and COVID-19: review of clinical course and outcomes
    Lauren K. Barbera, Kevin F. Kamis, Sarah E. Rowan, Amelia J. Davis, Soraya Shehata, Jesse J. Carlson, Steven C. Johnson, Kristine M. Erlandson
    HIV Research & Clinical Practice.2021; 22(4): 102.     CrossRef
Brief Communication
Prospective cohort data quality assurance and quality control strategy and method: Korea HIV/AIDS Cohort Study
Soo Min Kim, Yunsu Choi, Bo Youl Choi, Minjeong Kim, Sang Il Kim, Jun Young Choi, Shin-Woo Kim, Joon Young Song, Youn Jeong Kim, Mee-Kyung Kee, Myeongsu Yoo, Jeong Gyu Lee, Bo Young Park
Epidemiol Health. 2020;42:e2020063.   Published online September 4, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2020063
  • 11,925 View
  • 213 Download
  • 3 Web of Science
  • 3 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
The aim of effective data quality control and management is to minimize the impact of errors on study results by identifying and correcting them. This study presents the results of a data quality control system for the Korea HIV/AIDS Cohort Study that took into account the characteristics of the data.
METHODS
The HIV/AIDS Cohort Study in Korea conducts repeated measurements every 6 months using an electronic survey administered to voluntarily consenting participants and collects data from 21 hospitals. In total, 5,795 sets of data from 1,442 participants were collected from the first investigation in 2006 to 2016. The data refining results of 2015 and 2019 were converted into the data refining rate and compared.
RESULTS
The quality control system involved 3 steps at different points in the process, and each step contributed to data quality management and results. By improving data quality control in the pre-phase and the data collection phase, the estimated error value in 2019 was 1,803, reflecting a 53.9% reduction from 2015. Due to improvements in the stage after data collection, the data refining rate was 92.7% in 2019, a 24.21%p increase from 2015.
CONCLUSIONS
Despite this quality management strategy, errors may still exist at each stage. Logically possible errors for the post-review refining of downloaded data should be actively identified with appropriate consideration of the purpose and epidemiological characteristics of the study data. To improve data quality and reliability, data management strategies should be systematically implemented.
Summary
Korean summary
이 연구는 한국 에이즈 코호트 자료의 연구 목적과 역학적 특성을 고려한 체계적인 질 관리 방법과 결과를 제시한다. 시간적 선후 관계를 고려한 로직을 활용한 자료정제 과정을 비롯한 3단계의 체계적인 질 관리 방법은 이제껏 없었던 국내 코호트 자료 질 관리에 도움이 될 것으로 사료된다.

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  • Adopting Data to Care to Identify and Address Gaps in Services for Children and Adolescents Living With HIV in Mozambique
    Belmiro Sousa, Sergio Chiale, Hayley Bryant, Lisa Dulli, Tanya Medrano
    Global Health: Science and Practice.2024; 12(2): e2300130.     CrossRef
  • Effect of characteristics on the clinical course at the initiation of treatment for human immunodeficiency virus infection using dimensionality reduction
    Yunsu Choi, Bo Youl Choi, Sang Il Kim, Jungsoon Choi, Jieun Kim, Bo Young Park, Soo Min Kim, Shin-Woo Kim, Jun Yong Choi, Joon Young Song, Youn Jeong Kim, Hyo Youl Kim, Jin-Soo Lee, Jung Ho Kim, Yoon Hee Jun, Myungsun Lee, Jaehyun Seong
    Scientific Reports.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • A Nationwide Evaluation of the Prevalence of Human Papillomavirus in Brazil (POP-Brazil Study): Protocol for Data Quality Assurance and Control
    Jaqueline Driemeyer Correia Horvath, Marina Bessel, Natália Luiza Kops, Flávia Moreno Alves Souza, Gerson Mendes Pereira, Eliana Marcia Wendland
    JMIR Research Protocols.2022; 11(1): e31365.     CrossRef
Original Articles
Epidemiological characteristics of HIV infected Korean: Korea HIV/AIDS Cohort Study
Yunsu Choi, Bo Youl Choi, Soo Min Kim, Sang Il Kim, June Kim, Jun Young Choi, Shin-Woo Kim, Joon Young Song, Youn Jeong Kim, Dae Won Park, Hyo Youl Kim, Hee-Jung Choi, Mee-Kyung Kee, Young Hyun Shin, Myeongsu Yoo
Epidemiol Health. 2019;41:e2019037.   Published online September 3, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2019037
  • 15,570 View
  • 341 Download
  • 21 Web of Science
  • 19 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
To manage evidence-based diseases, it is important to identify the characteristics of patients in each country.
METHODS
The Korea HIV/AIDS Cohort Study seeks to identify the epidemiological characteristics of 1,442 Korean individuals with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection (12% of Korean individuals with HIV infection in 2017) who visited 21 university hospitals nationwide. The descriptive statistics were presented using the Korea HIV/AIDS cohort data (2006-2016).
RESULTS
Men accounted for 93.3% of the total number of respondents, and approximately 55.8% of respondents reported having an acute infection symptom. According to the transmission route, infection caused by sexual contact accounted for 94.4%, of which 60.4% were caused by sexual contact with the same sex or both males and females. Participants repeatedly answered the survey to decrease depression and anxiety scores. Of the total participants, 89.1% received antiretroviral therapy (ART). In the initial ART, 95.3% of patients were treated based on the recommendation. The median CD4 T-cell count at the time of diagnosis was 229.5 and improved to 331 after the initial ART. Of the patients, 16.6% and 9.4% had tuberculosis and syphilis, respectively, and 26.7% had pneumocystis pneumonia. In the medical history, sexually transmitted infectious diseases showed the highest prevalence, followed by endocrine diseases. The main reasons for termination were loss to follow-up (29.9%) and withdrawal of consent (18.7%).
CONCLUSIONS
Early diagnosis and ART should be performed at an appropriate time to prevent the development of new infection.
Summary
Korean summary
국내 감염인은 대부분 성 접촉으로 인해 감염되었고, 감염인의 약 90%가 치료를 경험하였다. 하지만 여전히 결핵, 매독, 주폐포자충 폐렴 등과 같은 HIV 관련 질환의 유병률이 높았고, 치료를 통해 수명이 연장되어 노화 혹은 치료 약제 부작용과 관련된 HIV 비 관련 만성 질환의 유병률도 높았다. 향후 감염인의 HIV/AIDS 비 관련 질환에 대한 연구 및 사망 원인 등에 대한 후속 연구가 필요하겠다.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Factors associated with health-related quality of life among people living with HIV in South Korea: Tobit regression analysis
    Gwang Suk Kim, Layoung Kim, SangA Lee, Mi-So Shim, Youngjin Lee, Seoyoung Baek, Claus Kadelka
    PLOS ONE.2024; 19(5): e0303568.     CrossRef
  • Smoothed quantile residual life regression analysis with application to the Korea HIV/AIDS cohort study
    Soo Min Kim, Yunsu Choi, Sangwook Kang, Korea HIV/AIDS cohort study
    BMC Medical Research Methodology.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Distribution of Opportunistic Pathogens in People Living with HIV at a University Hospital in Istanbul over a One-Year Treatment Period and Its Association with CD4 T Cell Counts
    Hayriye Kirkoyun Uysal, Muammer Osman Koksal, Kutay Sarsar, Pinar Soguksu, Gonca Erkose Genc, Gizem Yapar, Evrim Ozdemir, Mustafa Onel, Sevim Mese, Mehmet Demirci, Zayre Erturan, Eray Yurtseven, Omer Haluk Eraksoy, Ali Agacfidan
    Pathogens.2023; 12(10): 1226.     CrossRef
  • Effect of characteristics on the clinical course at the initiation of treatment for human immunodeficiency virus infection using dimensionality reduction
    Yunsu Choi, Bo Youl Choi, Sang Il Kim, Jungsoon Choi, Jieun Kim, Bo Young Park, Soo Min Kim, Shin-Woo Kim, Jun Yong Choi, Joon Young Song, Youn Jeong Kim, Hyo Youl Kim, Jin-Soo Lee, Jung Ho Kim, Yoon Hee Jun, Myungsun Lee, Jaehyun Seong
    Scientific Reports.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Epidemiological Analysis of HIV/AIDS in Kazakhstan During 2018-2020
    Galiya Bilibayeva, Dinara Ospanova, Anarkhan Nurkerimova, Farida Kussainova, Marat Tukeev, Moldir Shokybaeva, Shynar Tanabayeva, Ildar Fakhradiyev, Timur Saliev
    Journal of Research in Health Sciences.2023; 23(2): e580.     CrossRef
  • COPD Risk Factor Profiles in General Population and Referred Patients: Potential Etiotypes
    Jang Ho Lee, Sehee Kim, Ye-Jee Kim, Sei Won Lee, Jae Seung Lee, Yeon-Mok Oh
    International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.2023; Volume 18: 2509.     CrossRef
  • Nationwide population-based incidence of cancer among patients with HIV/AIDS in South Korea
    Soon Ok Lee, Jeong Eun Lee, Shinwon Lee, Sun Hee Lee, Jin Suk Kang, Hyunjin Son, Hyungi Lee, Jinmi Kim
    Scientific Reports.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Risk of Anorectal Cancer Associated with Benign Anal Inflammatory Diseases: A Retrospective Matched Cohort Study
    Wonjeong Chae, Seung Yeon Kang, Sung-In Jang, Yoon Dae Han
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2022; 19(12): 7467.     CrossRef
  • Cancer Incidence Among Adults With HIV in a Population-Based Cohort in Korea
    Boyoung Park, Kyoung Hwan Ahn, Yunsu Choi, Jung Ho Kim, Hye Seong, Youn Jeong Kim, Jun Young Choi, Joon Young Song, Eunjung Lee, Yoon Hee Jun, Young Kyung Yoon, Won Suk Choi, Myungsun Lee, Jaehyun Seong, Shin-Woo Kim
    JAMA Network Open.2022; 5(8): e2224897.     CrossRef
  • Comparison of Three Cardiovascular Risk Scores among HIV-Infected Patients in Korea: The Korea HIV/AIDS Cohort Study
    Ji Yun Bae, Soo Min Kim, Yunsu Choi, Jun Yong Choi, Sang Il Kim, Shin-Woo Kim, Bo Young Park, Bo Youl Choi, Hee Jung Choi
    Infection & Chemotherapy.2022; 54(3): 409.     CrossRef
  • Spatiotemporal Clusters and Trends of Pneumocystis Pneumonia in Korea
    Hwa Sun Kim, Ho-Woo Nam, Hye-Jin Ahn, Sang Haak Lee, Yeong Hoon Kim
    The Korean Journal of Parasitology.2022; 60(5): 327.     CrossRef
  • A Korean Post-Marketing Surveillance Study of Dolutegravir Single-Agent Tablets in Patients with HIV-1
    Sungshin Kwon, Jung-Eun Cho, Eun-Bin Lee, Yeon-Sook Kim, Jang-Wook Sohn
    Infection & Chemotherapy.2022; 54(4): 711.     CrossRef
  • The first 6 months of HIV-SARS-CoV-2 coinfection: outcomes for 6947 individuals
    Rowena Johnston
    Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS.2021; 16(1): 54.     CrossRef
  • Characterization of HIV-1 recombinant and subtype B near full-length genome among men who have sex with men in South Korea
    Sangmi Ryou, Myeongsu Yoo, Kisoon Kim, Sangsoo Kim, Sang Il Kim, Youn Jeong Kim, Dae Won Park, Jun Yong Choi, Hyo Youl Kim, Jung Ho Kim, Joon Young Song, Shin-Woo Kim, Hyun-Ha Chang, Bo Youl Choi, Mee-Kyung Kee
    Scientific Reports.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Soon Ok Lee, Jeong Eun Lee, Shinwon Lee, Sun Hee Lee, Jin Suk Kang, Jason T. Blackard
    PLOS ONE.2021; 16(4): e0249361.     CrossRef
  • Large Evolutionary Rate Heterogeneity among and within HIV-1 Subtypes and CRFs
    Arshan Nasir, Mira Dimitrijevic, Ethan Romero-Severson, Thomas Leitner
    Viruses.2021; 13(9): 1689.     CrossRef
  • Assessment of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Care Continuum in Korea using the National Health Insurance System Data
    Yoon-Min Cho, BumSik Chin
    Infection & Chemotherapy.2021; 53(3): 477.     CrossRef
  • Prevalence of Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis in HIV/Tuberculosis Co-Infected Patients
    Chan Mi Lee, Eunyoung Lee, Ji Hwan Bang, Sang-Won Park, Wan Beom Park, Myoung-don Oh, Nam Joong Kim
    Infection & Chemotherapy.2021; 53(4): 792.     CrossRef
  • Trends of Cause of Death among Human Immunodeficiency Virus Patients and the Impact of Low CD4 Counts on Diagnosis to Death: a Retrospective Cohort Study
    Yoonjung Kim, Shin-Woo Kim, Hyun-Ha Chang, Ki Tae Kwon, Sohyun Bae, Soyoon Hwang
    Journal of Korean Medical Science.2020;[Epub]     CrossRef
Incidence and predictors of tuberculosis among HIV-positive children at Adama Referral Hospital and Medical College, Oromia, Ethiopia: a retrospective follow-up study
Masino Tessu Beshir, Aklil Hailu Beyene, Kenean Getaneh Tlaye, Tefera Mulugeta Demelew
Epidemiol Health. 2019;41:e2019028.   Published online June 22, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2019028
  • 14,801 View
  • 341 Download
  • 11 Web of Science
  • 14 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
Tuberculosis (TB) is common in children with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), but its effect on the survival of HIV-infected children is not well understood. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the incidence and predictors of active TB among HIV-positive children at Adama Referral Hospital and Medical College, Oromia, Ethiopia.
METHODS
A retrospective study was conducted over 5 years using a checklist to gather data from 428 randomly selected pediatric patient charts. The checklist was adapted from the standardized antiretroviral therapy (ART) follow-up form currently used by the institution’s ART clinic. Data were analyzed by bivariate and multivariable analysis using Cox regression proportional hazards models, as appropriate. Survival was calculated and compared using the Kaplan-Meier and log-rank tests.
RESULTS
Of the 466 charts reviewed, 428 patient records were included in the analysis. A total of 67 new TB cases were observed during the follow-up period. Hence, the incidence rate in this cohort was found to be 6.03 per 100 child-years of observation. A baseline hemoglobin level <10 g/dL (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 7.04; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03 to 48.15), moderate wasting (aHR, 2.86; 95% CI, 1.02 to 7.99), and not receiving isoniazid preventive therapy (aHR, 8.23; 95% CI, 2.11 to 32.06) were among the independent predictors of TB occurrence.
CONCLUSIONS
The incidence of TB was high, particularly in pre-ART patients receiving chronic care for HIV. Close followup of HIV-positive children is crucial to protect them against the development of TB. Initiating isoniazid preventive therapy, averting malnutrition, and managing anemia are also of significant importance.
Summary

Citations

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  • Predictors of a high incidence of opportunistic infections among HIV-infected children receiving antiretroviral therapy at Amhara regional state comprehensive specialized hospitals, Ethiopia: A multicenter institution-based retrospective follow-up study
    Gebrehiwot Berie Mekonnen, Binyam Minuye Birhane, Melaku Tadege Engdaw, Wotetenesh Kindie, Amare Demsie Ayele, Amare Wondim
    Frontiers in Pediatrics.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Epidemiological survival pattern, risk factors, and estimated time to develop tuberculosis after test and treat strategies declared for children living with human immune deficiency virus
    Dejen Tsegaye, Sintayehu Wude, Tsehay Kebede, Setamlak Adane, Tesfaye Shumet, Fassikaw Kebede
    Indian Journal of Tuberculosis.2023; 70: S89.     CrossRef
  • The incidence rate of tuberculosis and its associated factors among HIV-positive persons in Sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review and meta-analysis
    Temesgen Gebeyehu Wondmeneh, Ayal Tsegaye Mekonnen
    BMC Infectious Diseases.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Incidence and predictors of tuberculosis among children receiving antiretroviral therapy in the Wolaita Zone: A retrospective cohort study
    Daneil Tekese, Desalegn Dawit, Behailu Hawulte, Hussein Mohammed, Fekede Asefa, Lemessa Oljira, Mohammed Feyisso Shaka
    PLOS ONE.2023; 18(9): e0291502.     CrossRef
  • Incidence and Predictors of Pulmonary Tuberculosis among Children Who Received Antiretroviral Therapy (ART), Northwest Ethiopia: A Multicenter Historical Cohorts Study 2009–2019
    Fassikaw Kebede, Habtamu Tarekegn, Mulugeta Molla, Dube Jara, Abebe Abate, Maoshui Wang
    Journal of Tropical Medicine.2022; 2022: 1.     CrossRef
  • Global trends, regional differences and age distribution for the incidence of HIV and tuberculosis co-infection from 1990 to 2019: results from the global burden of disease study 2019
    Yaping Wang, Wenzhan Jing, Jue Liu, Min Liu
    Infectious Diseases.2022; 54(11): 773.     CrossRef
  • Bayesian parametric modeling of time to tuberculosis co-infection of HIV/AIDS patients at Jimma Medical Center, Ethiopia
    Abdi Kenesa Umeta, Samuel Fikadu Yermosa, Abdisa G. Dufera
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    Gloria Ebelechukwu Anyalechi, Rommel Bain, Gurpreet Kindra, Mary Mogashoa, Nonzwakazi Sogaula, Anthony Mutiti, Stephen Arpadi, Emilia Rivadeneira, Elaine J Abrams, Chloe A Teasdale
    Journal of Tropical Pediatrics.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Balta Bargude, Fanta Amanuel
    Journal of Advanced Pediatrics and Child Health.2022; 5(1): 042.     CrossRef
  • Anemia as a risk factor for tuberculosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis
    Yemataw Gelaw, Zegeye Getaneh, Mulugeta Melku
    Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Incidence and predictors of tuberculosis among HIV patients after initiation of antiretroviral treatment in Ethiopia: a systematic review and meta-analysis
    Melkalem Mamuye Azanaw, Nebiyu Mekonnen Derseh, Gebeyehu Shumuye Yetemegn, Dessie Abebaw Angaw
    Tropical Medicine and Health.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Effect of Isoniazid Preventive Therapy on the Incidence of Tuberculosis among Seropositive Children Attending HIV/AIDS Care in Two General Hospitals, Northwest Ethiopia, 2021
    Fassikaw Kebede, Birhanu Kebede, Tsehay Kebede, Melaku Agmasu, Maoshui Wang
    Journal of Tropical Medicine.2021; 2021: 1.     CrossRef
  • Time to Develop and Predictors for Incidence of Tuberculosis among Children Receiving Antiretroviral Therapy
    Fassikaw Kebede, Tsehay Kebede, Birhanu Kebede, Abebe Abate, Dube Jara, Belete Negese, Tamrat Shaweno, Karl Drlica
    Tuberculosis Research and Treatment.2021; 2021: 1.     CrossRef
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Spatial inequalities and predictors of HIV/AIDS mortality risk in Hamadan, Iran: a retrospective cohort study
Somayeh Momenyan, Amir Kavousi, Jalal Poorolajal, Narges Momenyan
Epidemiol Health. 2018;40:e2018038.   Published online August 5, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2018038
  • 11,780 View
  • 212 Download
  • 5 Web of Science
  • 5 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
Understanding the geographic variation of HIV/AIDS mortality risk and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection could help identify high-burden areas. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effects of predictors of the time interval between HIV diagnosis to death, while accounting for spatial correlations across counties, and to assess patterns of spatial inequalities in the risk of HIV/AIDS mortality in Hamadan Province, Iran.
METHODS
This retrospective study was conducted on 585 patients. The outcome in this study was the time period between the date of HIV/AIDS diagnosis and the date of death. A Weibull regression model with spatial random effects was used.
RESULTS
According to multivariate analysis, there were significant associations between age, tuberculosis co-infection, and marital status and the risk of death. In terms of spatial inequalities, a cluster of counties was identified with a somewhat higher death hazard in the north, northwest, northeast, and central regions. Additionally, a cluster with a somewhat lower hazard was identified in the south, southwest, southeast, and west regions.
CONCLUSIONS
The spatial pattern of HIV/AIDS death risk could reflect inequalities in access to antiretroviral therapy and public health services. Our results underscore the importance of attention to vulnerable groups in urban areas.
Summary

Citations

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  • Prevalence, Antibiotic Susceptibility Pattern, and Associated Factors of Enteric Bacterial Pathogens Among HIV Infected Patients with Diarrhea Attending the ART Clinic of Dilla University Referral Hospital, Southern Ethiopia
    Asaye Mitiku, Zerihin Solomon, Berhanu Gidisa, Kasie Gebeyhu, Haymanot Tewabe, Demissew Shenkute, Melkayehu Kassa, Addisu Gize
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    Ana Paula da Cunha, Marly Marques da Cruz
    Epidemiologia e Serviços de Saúde.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Marcus Matheus Quadros Santos, Bianca Alessandra Gomes do Carmo, Taymara Barbosa Rodrigues, Bruna Rafaela Leite Dias, Cleyton Abreu Martins, Glenda Roberta Oliveira Naiff Ferreira, Andressa Tavares Parente, Cíntia Yollete Urbano Pauxis Aben-Atha, Sand
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    McEwen Khundi, Peter MacPherson, Helena R. A. Feasey, Rebeca Nzawa Soko, Marriott Nliwasa, Elizabeth L. Corbett, James R. Carpenter
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    Geospatial Health.2020;[Epub]     CrossRef
Knowledge of and attitudes toward HIV/AIDS among Iranian women
Ehsan Zarei, Roghayeh Khabiri, Maryam Tajvar, Shirin Nosratnejad
Epidemiol Health. 2018;40:e2018037.   Published online August 3, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2018037
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
This study investigated the knowledge of Iranian women about HIV/AIDS and whether they had accepting attitudes towards people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and sought to identify factors correlated with their knowledge and attitudes.
METHODS
The data analyzed in the present study were taken from Iran’s Multiple Indicator Demographic and Health Survey, a national survey conducted in 2015. In total, 42,630 women aged 15-49 years were identified through multi-stage stratified cluster random sampling and interviewed. Associations of the socio-demographic characteristics of participants with their knowledge and attitudes were examined using multiple logistic regression analysis.
RESULTS
The majority (79.0%) of Iranian women had heard about HIV/AIDS, but only 19.1% had a comprehensive knowledge. In addition, only 15.4% of women had accepting attitudes toward people with HIV. Being older, married, more highly educated, and wealthier were factors associated with having more comprehensive knowledge of HIV/AIDS, and living in urban areas was associated with having more positive attitudes toward people with HIV.
CONCLUSIONS
The relatively poor knowledge of Iranian women and the low prevalence of accepting attitudes toward people living with HIV highlight the need to develop policies and interventions to overcome this issue, which would be a basis for further prevention of HIV/AIDS in Iran.
Summary

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    Alireza Mohamadian, Hamid Sharifi, Jafar Hassanzadeh, Mohsen Mohebbi-Nodezh, Mohammad Mohebbi-Nodezh, HosseinM Vardanjani
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    Gülpınar ASLAN, Ayşe Berivan BAKAN
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Cohort Profile
Korea HIV/AIDS Cohort Study: study design and baseline characteristics
Bo Youl Choi, Jun Yong Choi, Sang Hoon Han, Sang Il Kim, Mee-Kyung Kee, Min Ja Kim, Shin-Woo Kim, Sung Soon Kim, Yu-Mi Kim, Nam Su Ku, Jin-Soo Lee, Joo-Shil Lee, Yunsu Choi, Kyong Sil Park, Joon Young Song, Jun Hee Woo, Moon Won Kang, June Kim
Epidemiol Health. 2018;40:e2018023.   Published online June 6, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2018023
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
The number of persons infected by HIV/AIDS has consistently increased in Korea since the first case of HIV/AIDS infection in 1985 and reached 15,208 by 2016. About 1,100 new patients with HIV/ AIDS infections have emerged every year since 2013. In Korea, the Korea HIV/AIDS Cohort Study was established for the evidenced-based prevention, treatment, and effective management of patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in December 2006. This study monitored 1,438 patients, who accounted for about 10% of all patients with HIV/AIDS in Korea, for 10 years with the following aims: (1) to develop an administrative system for the establishment of a HIV/AIDS cohort-based study; (2) to standardize methodologies and the case report forms; and (3) to standardize multi-cohort data and develop a data cleaning method. This study aims to monitor at least 1,000 patients (excluding those for whom investigation had been completed) per year (estimated number of patients who can be monitored by January 2018: 939). By December 2016, the sex distribution was 93.3% for men, and 6.7% for women (gender ratio, 13.9:1.0), and 98.9% of all participants were Korean. More than 50.0% of the participants were confirmed as HIV positive after 2006. This study reports competitive, long-term research that aimed to develop policies for the prevention of chronic infectious diseases for patients with HIV. The data collected over the last decade will be used to develop indices for HIV treatment and health promotion.
Summary
Korean summary
세계적으로 HIV 감염인은 감소하고 있으나, 한국의 HIV 감염은 증가하여 2013년 이후 매년 1,000명이 넘는 신규 감염인이 보고되고 있다. HIV/AIDS 코호트 연구진은 2006년부터 HIV 감염인과 AIDS 환자를 대상으로 6개월 간격의 반복 조사를 시행하여 역학과 임상 자료를 수집하여 데이터베이스를 구축하고, 생물검체를 채취하여 인체자원은행에 보관하여, HIV/AIDS의 발생 기전을 구명하고, 자연사를 파악하며, 예방과 진단, 치료, 관리 방법을 개발하기 위한 기초와 임상, 역학 연구에 활용하고 있다.

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Original Articles
Using the capture-recapture method to estimate the human immunodeficiency virus-positive population
Jalal Poorolajal, Younes Mohammadi, Farzad Farzinara
Epidemiol Health. 2017;39:e2017042.   Published online October 10, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2017042
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
The capture-recapture method was applied to estimate the number of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive individuals not registered with any data sources.
METHODS
This cross-sectional study was conducted in Lorestan Province, in the west of Iran, in 2016. Three incomplete sources of HIV-positive individuals, with partially overlapping data, were used, including: (a) transfusion center, (b) volunteer counseling and testing centers (VCTCs), and (c) prison. The 3-source capture-recapture method, using a log-linear model, was applied for data analysis. The Akaike information criterion and the Bayesian information criterion were used for model selection.
RESULTS
Of the 2,456 HIV-positive patients registered in these 3 data sources, 1,175 (47.8%) were identified in transfusion center, 867 (35.3%) in VCTCs, and 414 (16.8%) in prison. After the exclusion of duplicate entries, 2,281 HIV-positive patients remained. Based on the capture-recapture method, 14,868 (95% confidence interval, 9,923 to 23,427) HIV-positive individuals were not identified in any of the registries. Therefore, the real number of HIV-positive individuals was estimated to be 17,149, and the overall completeness of the 3 registries was estimated to be around 13.3%.
CONCLUSIONS
Based on capture-recapture estimates, a huge number of HIV-positive individuals are not registered with any of the provincial data sources. This is an urgent message for policymakers who plan and provide health care services for HIV-positive patients. Although the capture-recapture method is a useful statistical approach for estimating unknown populations, due to the assumptions and limitations of the method, the population size may be overestimated as it seems possible in our results.
Summary

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Perspectives of Policies on HIV/AIDS and Tuberculosis Control in Korea.
Bo Youl Choi
Korean J Epidemiol. 2006;28(1):75-84.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Abstract
Since the early 1990s, Korea has made efforts to strengthen its National Communicable Disease Control System. In 2005, the Korea government developed various goals for communicable diseases control as a part of Health Plan 2010. The goals include 40 objectives, for the achievement of which a variety of programs and research subjects have been developed. These efforts will contribute to raising the preparedness for and response to the global threat of emerging and reemerging infectious diseases. The author reviewed the status, management goals and future tasks of HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis in Korea. HIV/AIDS is an emerging infectious disease, and tuberculosis is an endemic disease in Korea. These two diseases are included in the UN Millennium Development Goal 6. The number of HIV/AIDS cases reported in Korea at the end of December 2005 was 3,829, of which 721 have died. The reported HIV prevalence rate among adults aged in 15-49 years is below 0.1%, and the infection level is categorized as "very low". However, the number of newly infected cases has been rising rapidly. The goal of HIV/AIDS control in Health Plan 2010 is to reduce the increasing rate of HIV/AIDS to 35% in 2010. Compared with the global Millennium Development Goal, which is to halt and reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS by 2015, we should set up long-term, high level goals, in addition to a comprehensive national plan for the prevention and control of HIV/AIDS. Korea first implemented a Nationwide Tuberculosis Control Program in the 1960s. By 2005, the prevalence of radiologically active tuberculosis had fallen to 0.35% which is one-fifteenth of the level of 1965. Nevertheless, the current prevalence of and death rate from tuberculosis continue to be much higher than those of advanced nations. Given this such a level of infection, the goals of tuberculosis control need to be specified, and an enhanced tuberculosis control program needs to be implemented to reduce the incidence of tuberculosis and associated death rates.
Summary
The Effect of Work Department, Income and Job Status on the Workplace Injury Rates in One Car Manufacturing Factory.
Mi A Son
Korean J Epidemiol. 2001;23(2):52-63.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Abstract
PURPOSE
There has been little research into socio-economic factors and work condition s as risk factors for workplace injuries in Korea. Separating work from social class is difficult as the social division of labour is at the origin of social class (1). The objective of this study is to investigate the relationship of working conditions and socio-economic factors with workplace injury rates.
METHODS
Three year-follow up data sets for workplace injury data analysis for retrospective cohort study were obtained linking the total workforce and workplace injuries between 1995 and 1997. The Proportional Hazards Model (Cox regression) is used to estimate the hazard ratios for workplace injury by different possible risk factors: work department, income, job status, age and tenure.
RESULTS
The press, body and engine departments have higher hazard rates for severe injuries; the press, engine, and supporting departments for lower-back pain; and the assembly line (with wider confidence interval) and supporting departments for Herniated Intervertebral Discs. Lower waged workers have higher rates of workplace injuries, especially for lower-back pain. Workers with low job status have higher rates than foremen or supervisors. Thus, socio-economic factors and work department contribute independently to workplace injury rates.
CONCLUSIONS
Even though this study could not fully investigate the relationship between socio-economic factors and working conditions, the working conditions as well as socioeconomic factors need to be considered as risk factors of workplace injuries in the workplace.
Summary

Epidemiol Health : Epidemiology and Health