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Knowledge of and attitudes toward HIV/AIDS among Iranian women
Ehsan Zarei, Roghayeh Khabiri, Maryam Tajvar, Shirin Nosratnejad
Epidemiol Health. 2018;40:e2018037.   Published online August 3, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2018037
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  • 7 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
This study investigated the knowledge of Iranian women about HIV/AIDS and whether they had accepting attitudes towards people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and sought to identify factors correlated with their knowledge and attitudes.
METHODS
The data analyzed in the present study were taken from Iran’s Multiple Indicator Demographic and Health Survey, a national survey conducted in 2015. In total, 42,630 women aged 15-49 years were identified through multi-stage stratified cluster random sampling and interviewed. Associations of the socio-demographic characteristics of participants with their knowledge and attitudes were examined using multiple logistic regression analysis.
RESULTS
The majority (79.0%) of Iranian women had heard about HIV/AIDS, but only 19.1% had a comprehensive knowledge. In addition, only 15.4% of women had accepting attitudes toward people with HIV. Being older, married, more highly educated, and wealthier were factors associated with having more comprehensive knowledge of HIV/AIDS, and living in urban areas was associated with having more positive attitudes toward people with HIV.
CONCLUSIONS
The relatively poor knowledge of Iranian women and the low prevalence of accepting attitudes toward people living with HIV highlight the need to develop policies and interventions to overcome this issue, which would be a basis for further prevention of HIV/AIDS in Iran.
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Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Knowledge and practice of high school students regarding HIV/AIDS prevention and transmission: Results from a cross-sectional study in an Iranian less-developed, high-risk region
    Alireza Mohamadian, Hamid Sharifi, Jafar Hassanzadeh, Mohsen Mohebbi-Nodezh, Mohammad Mohebbi-Nodezh, HosseinM Vardanjani
    Journal of Education and Health Promotion.2023; 12(1): 117.     CrossRef
  • Public Awareness and Stigmatizing Attitudes toward People Living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome in Saudi Arabia
    Marwan J. Alwazzeh, Abdullah H. Kabbani, Muhannad A. Alghamdi, Khalid I. Alharbi, Abdullah A. Qoqandi, Abdulrazaq I. Alsomali, Jose Ramon Fiore
    The Open AIDS Journal.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Self-health care behaviors and knowledge of youth living with HIV
    Kanjana Treejan, Peerawat Jinatongthai, Summana Moolasarn, Bee Yean Low, Claire Anderson, Teeraporn Supapaan
    Journal of the American Pharmacists Association.2022; 62(4): 1249.     CrossRef
  • Socio-Economic and Demographic Factors Associated with Knowledge and Attitude of HIV/AIDS among Women Aged 15–49 Years Old in Indonesia
    Feny Deya Virdausi, Ferry Efendi, Tiyas Kusumaningrum, Qorinah Estiningtyas Sakilah Adnani, Lisa McKenna, Kadar Ramadhan, Ika Adelia Susanti
    Healthcare.2022; 10(8): 1545.     CrossRef
  • The Prevention of Mother-to-Child HIV/AIDS Transmission at Public Health Centers: A Phenomenology Study
    Dhesi Ari Astuti, Mohammad Hakimi, Yayi Suryo Prabandari, Ida Safitri Laksanawati, Atik Triratnawati
    The Open Nursing Journal.2021; 15(1): 195.     CrossRef
  • Association of comprehensive correct HIV/AIDS knowledge among caregivers of children living with HIV and disclosure of HIV status
    NishanthKrishna Kodyalamoole, SanjeevB Badiger
    Muller Journal of Medical Sciences and Research.2021; 12(2): 70.     CrossRef
  • Knowledge gaps of STIs in Africa; Systematic review
    Marwan M. Badawi, Maryam A. SalahEldin, Alaa B. Idris, Elfatih A. Hasabo, Zeinab H. Osman, Widad M. Osman, Jayanta Bhattacharya
    PLOS ONE.2019; 14(9): e0213224.     CrossRef
Knowledge, attitudes, and behavioural risk factors regarding zoonotic infections among bushmeat hunters and traders in Nsukka, southeast Nigeria
Kingsley Uchenna Ozioko, Chris Ikem Okoye, Rose Nduka Obiezue, Raymond Awudu Agbu
Epidemiol Health. 2018;40:e2018025.   Published online June 16, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2018025
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  • 8 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
In light of the dramatic spread of Ebola virus in some parts of Africa and the 2014 outbreak in Nigeria, a study was conducted to evaluate bushmeat dealers’ knowledge and attitudes about zoonotic infections and the risk of transmission to humans.
METHODS
A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a community in Nsukka, southeast Nigeria. Hunters (n=34) and bushmeat traders (n=42) were interviewed. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to generate the data. The Fisher exact test was used to evaluate the significance of differences between these groups.
RESULTS
Only 11.8% of the hunters, as compared to 35.7% of the traders, had no knowledge of possible causes of zoonotic infections (p<0.05). However, 64.7% of the hunters, compared to 38.1% of the traders, were ignorant regarding the responsibility of public health personnel and veterinarians (p<0.05), and 76.5% of the hunters compared to 42.9% of the traders were ignorant regarding the existence of zoonoses in Nigeria (p<0.05). A statistically significant difference was also found between these groups regarding the risk of contracting an infection from ectoparasites (p<0.05). The attitudes of respondents towards zoonotic diseases did not differ significantly between the groups.
CONCLUSIONS
The level of awareness about zoonotic diseases was low in this area, underscoring the need for interventions.
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Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Public and health professional epidemic risk perceptions in countries that are highly vulnerable to epidemics: a systematic review
    Nada Abdelmagid, Francesco Checchi, Bayard Roberts
    Infectious Diseases of Poverty.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Knowledge, attitudes, and practices associated with zoonotic disease transmission risk in North Sulawesi, Indonesia
    Tina Kusumaningrum, Alice Latinne, Stephanie Martinez, Jusuf Kalengkongan, Ageng Wiyatno, Aghnianditya Kresno Dewantari, Novie Kasenda, Janno B. B. Bernadus, Ungke Anton Jaya, Chairin Nisa Ma’roef, Leilani Francisco, Emily Hagan, Maureen Miller, Khin Saw
    One Health Outlook.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Prevalence assessment of ectoparasitic arthropods among commonly consumed wildlife in Nsukka, southeast Nigeria
    Kingsley Uchenna Ozioko, Chris Ikem Okoye, Patience Obiageli Ubachukwu, Raymond Awudu Agbu, Bede Izuchukwu Ezewudo, Celestine Osita Ezea
    Bulletin of the National Research Centre.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Pre- and post-Ebola outbreak trends in wild meat trade in West Africa
    Stephan M. Funk, Julia E. Fa, Stephanie N. Ajong, Edem A. Eniang, Daniele Dendi, Massimiliano Di Vittorio, Fabio Petrozzi, NioKing Amadi, Godfrey C. Akani, Luca Luiselli
    Biological Conservation.2021; 255: 109024.     CrossRef
  • Reemergence of Human Monkeypox and Declining Population Immunity in the Context of Urbanization, Nigeria, 2017–2020
    Phi-Yen Nguyen, Whenayon Simeon Ajisegiri, Valentina Costantino, Abrar A. Chughtai, C. Raina MacIntyre
    Emerging Infectious Diseases.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Reemergence of Human Monkeypox and Declining Population Immunity in the Context of Urbanization, Nigeria, 2017–2020
    Phi-Yen Nguyen, Whenayon Simeon Ajisegiri, Valentina Costantino, Abrar A. Chughtai, C. Raina MacIntyre
    Emerging Infectious Diseases.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Bushmeat, wet markets, and the risks of pandemics: Exploring the nexus through systematic review of scientific disclosures
    Colin Scott Peros, Rajarshi Dasgupta, Pankaj Kumar, Brian Alan Johnson
    Environmental Science & Policy.2021; 124: 1.     CrossRef
  • Comparison of the Level of Awareness about the Transmission of Echinococcosis and Toxocariasis between Pet Owners and Non-Pet Owners in Greece
    Christina Kantarakia, Maria E. Tsoumani, Antonis Galanos, Alexander G. Mathioudakis, Eleni Giannoulaki, Apostolos Beloukas, Chrysa Voyiatzaki
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2020; 17(15): 5292.     CrossRef
Handwashing with soap and national handwashing projects in Korea: focus on the National Handwashing Survey, 2006-2014
Moo-Sik Lee, Su Jin Hong, Young-Taek Kim
Epidemiol Health. 2015;37:e2015039.   Published online August 31, 2015
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih/e2015039
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  • 17 Citations
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
Handwashing is the most fundamental way to prevent the spread of infectious diseases. Correct handwashing can prevent 50 to 70% of water-infections and foodborne-infections. We report the results of a fact-finding study on general handwashing attitude and practice in the Republic of Korea by analyzing habits and awareness among adults and students (grades 4 to 12) based on the 2006 to 2014 National Handwashing Surveys and observational surveys.
METHODS
The awareness survey was performed by telephone interviews with adults and students in 16 municipalities and provinces sampled by quota for region, sex and age. The observational survey was performed in subway, railway, and other public restrooms in seven municipalities selected through systematic sampling.
RESULTS
Adults and students washed their hands with soap/sanitizer an average of 6.6 and 5.2 times daily, respectively, in 2014, an increase and decrease compared to 2006 (4.8) and 2013 (6.8). Their average daily handwashing frequency in 2014, 9.8 and 8.3, was higher than in 2006 (7.6), but lower than in 2013 (10.3).The percentage of participants handwashing with soap after using the restroom (29.5%) has been increasing since 2009, but remain slower than in other countries (42% to 49%). The percentages of participants handwashing with water in 2014, 2013, and 2011 were 57.5%, 72.6%, and 71.4%, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS
Handwashing with soap is an important national public health issue, and national projects promoting it should be given high priority. Research support is necessary to provide scientific evidence of the importance of handwashing with soap and to develop and implement evidence-based policies.
Summary
Korean summary
우리나라(한국)의 2006년부터 2014년 사이에 수행된 손씻기 실태조사 결과분석을 통하여 성인과 초•중•고등학생들의 평소 손씻기 실태 및 인식, 공공화장실 이용시 손씻기 행동의 수준 및 추세를 파악함으로써 추후 비누로 손씻기 사업의 근거와 정책 및 전략 개발의 기초자료를 제공하고자 하였다.
Key Message

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Unintended health benefits of adopting preventive behaviors during a virus outbreak
    Sok Chul Hong, Eunju Lee, Seojung Oh
    Health Economics.2023; 32(2): 324.     CrossRef
  • Hands Are Frequently Contaminated with Fecal Bacteria and Enteric Pathogens Globally: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
    Molly E. Cantrell, Émile Sylvestre, Hannah C. Wharton, Rahel Scheidegger, Lou Curchod, David M. Gute, Jeffrey Griffiths, Timothy R. Julian, Amy J. Pickering
    ACS Environmental Au.2023; 3(3): 123.     CrossRef
  • Factors Associated with Handwashing Behaviors During the COVID-19 Pandemic: An Analysis of the Community Health Survey in Korea
    Soojung Jo, Soo-Yeon Han, Nancy Howe
    SAGE Open Nursing.2023; 9: 237796082311723.     CrossRef
  • Association among the exposure to giving knowledge, attitude and practice for handwashing in people residing in Seoul, South Korea: a retrospective cross-sectional study
    Jayeun Kim, Kyuhyun Yoon
    BMJ Open.2022; 12(2): e053329.     CrossRef
  • Observational study on hand washing practice during COVID-19 pandemic among bank visitors in Gondar Town, Northwest Ethiopia
    Niguse Yigzaw, Getnet Ayalew, Yitayal Alemu, Bizuneh Tesfaye, Demeke Demilew
    Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment.2022; 32(6): 697.     CrossRef
  • Association between years with incidence of communicable diseases focused on COVID-19 and hand hygiene among adults in South Korea: a cross-sectional study
    Yun Hwa Jung, Yu Shin Park, Eun-Cheol Park, Sung-In Jang
    BMC Public Health.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Modelling disease transmission from touchscreen user interfaces
    Andrew Di Battista, Christos Nicolaides, Orestis Georgiou
    Royal Society Open Science.2021; 8(7): 210625.     CrossRef
  • Handwashing Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices among Students in Eastern Province Schools, Saudi Arabia
    Munthir M. Almoslem, Talal A. Alshehri, Arwa A. Althumairi, Mohammed T. Aljassim, Mohamed E. Hassan, Mahmoud M. Berekaa, Angel Dzhambov
    Journal of Environmental and Public Health.2021; 2021: 1.     CrossRef
  • Hand‐Hygiene Mitigation Strategies Against Global Disease Spreading through the Air Transportation Network
    Christos Nicolaides, Demetris Avraam, Luis Cueto‐Felgueroso, Marta C. González, Ruben Juanes
    Risk Analysis.2020; 40(4): 723.     CrossRef
  • Immediate influences of hygiene education sessions on handwashing behaviors of selected Nepali students
    Govinda Prasad Devkota, Sheri Bastien, Petter D. Jenssen, Manoj K. Pandey, Bhimsen Devkota, Shyam Krishna Maharjan
    Journal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development.2020; 10(4): 979.     CrossRef
  • Associations Between Hand Hygiene Education and Self-Reported Hand-Washing Behaviors Among Korean Adults During MERS-CoV Outbreak
    Jieun Yang, Eun-Cheol Park, Sang Ah Lee, Sang Gyu Lee
    Health Education & Behavior.2019; 46(1): 157.     CrossRef
  • Hand Hygiene Practices Among Adults with Diabetes Living in Communities: The 2015 Korea Community Health Survey
    Mi Ah Han
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2019; 16(7): 1279.     CrossRef
  • Mediation Effect of Self-Efficacy on the Relationship between Knowledge of and Compliance with Handwashing in Cosmetology Students
    Mi-Jeung Ahn, Sun-Ju Park
    Asian Journal of Beauty and Cosmetology.2019; 17(2): 277.     CrossRef
  • Hand Hygiene and Tuberculosis Risk in Korea: An Ecological Association
    Mi Ah Han
    Asia Pacific Journal of Public Health.2018; 30(1): 67.     CrossRef
  • New procedures for food handlers under infectious gastrointestinal disease: To control emerging microbial problems
    Jong Myong Park, Hyun Min Cho, Jong Mun Kim, Sa-Youl Ghim
    Journal of Food Safety.2018; 38(5): e12481.     CrossRef
  • Burden of Disease Attributable to Inadequate Drinking Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene in Korea
    Jong-Hun Kim, Hae-Kwan Cheong, Byoung-Hak Jeon
    Journal of Korean Medical Science.2018;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Moderation and Mediation Effects of Self-efficacy and Perceived Behavioral Control on the Relationship between Knowledge of and Compliance with Handwashing in Nursing Students
    Soonjoo Park
    Journal of Korean Academy of Fundamentals of Nursing.2017; 24(3): 219.     CrossRef
Reporting of National Notifiable Infectious Diseases (NNIDs) and Related Characteristics.
Ye soon Kim, Kee ho Park, Hyo soon Yoo, Jun wook Kwon, Euichul Shin
Korean J Epidemiol. 2007;29(2):200-210.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Abstract
communicable diseases. The purposes of the study is to estimate reporting proportion of National Notifiable Infectious Diseases(NNIDs) and investigate characteristics related to reporting using KAP(knowledge, attitude, practice) model.
METHOD
We surveyed randomly selected 2,185 physicians (speciality: internal medicine, family medicine, pediatrics, dermatology, general physicians) of their knowledge, attitude, and practice of NNIDs reporting through self-administered mail questionnaires. Of them, 231 physicians responded (response proportion: 10.6%).
RESULT
The reporting proportion was estimated to 27.0%. Recognition level (knowledge) of NNIDs was relatively high with proportion of 69.4%, and attitude (public health importance) of reporting was 65.8%. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that knowledge, attitude significantly affected physicians' reporting in a positive direction (O.R. 6.2, 6.2 respectively). Whereas, senior age group, specialty (family medicine, pediatrics, dermatology) showed significantly lower reporting. General (tertiary care) hospital level of care showed significantly higher reporting practice (alpha=0.05).
CONCLUSION
The NNIDs reporting proportion, 27.0% is similar with those studied recently. Continuous efforts to increase the performance level of communicable diseases surveillance system. Of those, restructuring surveillance systems considering characteristics of notifiable diseases classes must be stressed. Educational approach of physicians needs to be tailored specially to newly-designated diseases such as Group II, Designated Group NNIDs.
Summary
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Knowledges and Attitudes of College Student to Aquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome.
Jin Ho Chun, Seong Hoon Lee, Hae Sook Sohn, Jong Tae Lee
Korean J Epidemiol. 2002;24(1):37-53.
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Abstract
OBJECTIVES
Though AIDS is one of the most serious and world-wide health problem, there have been developed no effective control measure but individually oriented prevention. This study was performed to help preparing the efficient control program for college student who are sexually active, considered as a risk group for HIV infection.
METHODS
Subjects were 852 college students of one university in Gyungsangnam-do. From September to October 2001, questionnaire survey on the students' knowledge and attitude, and status of health education about AIDS (HEAIDS) was done. Collected data was analyzed using SAS (ver 6.21) program.
RESULTS
The subjects were freshman (52.1%) and enrollment (47.9%), with department of medicine (19.1%), nursing (25.8%), health administration (9.1%), business (11.4%), chemical (16.2%), food (8.8%), gymnastics (9.5%). Though about 90% of them agreed with the necessity of HEAIDS, half of them (54.7%) had no experience of HEAIDS and most (88.1%) of them considered it had been insufficient. The informations about AIDS was acquired mainly from TV newspaper (73.0%), but partly from specified health education (16.1%). They have no experience of unsafe sexual contact (96.1%), however, they considered that they can have accidental sexual contact (22.7%) in the future. Response for intention to use of preventative condom use was certainly (66.7%) and questionable (33.3%). About the knowledges on HIV infection and transmission, most of them knew relatively well about no curative medicine (94.8%), infected by sexual contact (85.7%), common use of needle (96.4%), transfusion (95.2%), transplantation (89.8%), longitudinal infection (88.7%). However, the correct answer rate was relatively low in clinical spectrum; can maintain normal life with medical care (31.0%), and some transmission route; kiss (46.9%), cough sneezing (45.8%), common use of bowl towl (49.1%) and bath (43.4%), insect like mosquitos (49.1%), razor (35.4%). The mean level of the knowledges on HIV infection and transmission was 67.5 and 71.6 out of a possible 100, respectively. The knowledge level (p=0.003) and certainty to use of preventable condom use (p=0.001) was higher in HEAIDS experienced group. Experiences to HEAIDS was more in enrollment (50.5%) than freshman (40.5%) (p=0.004), medicine (51.4%) than health (32.1%) and general (41.9%) by department group (p=0.001). With regard to the attitudes on HIV infection, they didn't agreed with 'had intention to check themselves for HIV infection (94.2%)', 'case or suspected case can attend to same school with my children (71.8%)', 'had intention to join in clinical trial of new regimen for AIDS (74.4%)'.
CONCLUSIONS
This result showed that present status of HEAIDS for college students is still insufficient. Because the knowledges and attitudes about AIDS are influenced by HEAIDS, professional and efficient education program would be emphasized on the practical level for health protection, eg, preventative condom use. This study has also another meanings to reveal the positive effect and to recall the motive for individual-based prevention
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Knowledges and Attitudes of Overseas Seamen on HIV Infection.
Jin Ho Chun, Bok Soon Oh
Korean J Epidemiol. 1999;21(1):8-19.
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Abstract
BACKGROUND
Though AIDS is one of the most serious health problem in worldwide, there have been developed no effective control measure yet. Therefore, individual-based prevention is the only way to control AIDS. Because overseas seamen would be considered as a high risk group for HIV infection due to their life style, this study was conducted in order to provide some informations for preparing the control program fit for them.
METHODS
The knowledges and attitudes on HIV infection among 201 Korean male overseas seamen - who were belonged to the one shipping company - were surveyed through questionnaire The survey was conducted for 2 months from October 1, 1997 and the results were analyzed by PC SAS (ver 6.12).
RESULTS
The mean age of the subjects was 36.4 years old, and the average tenure was 10.6years. 69.2% of them were married. The information about AIDS was acquired mostly from television(40.3%) and newspapers or magazines(32.8%). 30.8% of them have not received any AIDS-related education, and 66.7% were not satisfied with the fidelity of education. About the knowledges on HIV infection, most of them knew relatively well about cause(84.1%), diagnosis(97.0%), epidemiology (94.5%) etc, however, they did not know about clinical spectrum and treatability well. With regard to the transmission of AIDS, most of them knew relatively well about needle(93.0%), longitudinal infection(92.5%), transfusion(91.0%), homosexuality(88.0%), trans plantation(81.6%), sexual contact (80.1%). However, they showed different responses about kiss, cough sneezing, mosquitos, and razor. With regard to the attitudes on HIV infection, they weighted 'isolation', for example, 'patients isolation'(65.7%), 'school-life isolation'(54.2%), 'divorce with his wife'(41.8%). There showed rather accurate knowledges and resonable attitudes in the educated group, and the response of 'will divorce with his wife' was higher in older group. With regard to the characteristics on sexual life, the possibility of future sexual contact was higher in the uneducated group, and intention to use of preventative condoms was higher in the seamanship group than the sailer group, but no difference by marrital status.
CONCLUSIONS
It should be emphasized to get the accurate knowledge about HIV infection through health education, especially focused on the practical levels, eg, preventative use of condoms during sexual contacts. This study has also another meanings to reveal the positive effect and to recall the motive for individual-based prevention.
Summary
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Key Message
The Changing Pattern of Cigarette Smoking of Students in Junior and Senior High Schools in Korea: 1988-1997.
Il Suh, Sun Ha Jee, Soh Yoon Kim, Dong Choun Shin, Soh Yeon Ryu, Il Soon Kim
Korean J Epidemiol. 1998;20(2):257-266.
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Abstract
In order to examine the actual condition of smoking, the change of knowledge and the attitude on smoking of the students attending junior and senior high schools in Korea, the survey was performed six times ranging from 1988 to 1997. The first two years, the survey was performed only for male students. Since 1991, both male and female students were surveyed. The students in junior and senior high school were selected by a random sampling method and surveyed by mail. In this survey, the number of classes of Junior and senior high schools in Korea was a sampling unit, and the classes were selected in proportion to the number of classes of each city and each county. The total number of respondents was 3,437 in 1988, 3,055 in 1989, 6,087 in 1991(2,923 of male, 3,164 of female), 7,067 in 1993(3,162 of male, 3,905 of female), 5,412 in 1995(2,598 of male, 2,814 of female), 4,754 in 1997(2,281 of male, 2,473 of female). The results obtained from the data analysis are as follows; 1.The ratio of smokers among male junior high school students has increased from 1.8% in 1988 to 3.9% in 1997. The ratio of smokers among female junior high school students has increased from 1.2% in 1991 to 3.9% in 1997. The ratio of smokers among male senior high school students has increased from 23.9% in 1988 to 35.3% in 1997. The ratio of smokers among male senior high school students has increased from 23.9% in 1988 to 35.3% 1997. And the ratio of smokers among female senior high school students has increased from 3.0% in 1991 to 8.7% in 1997. Especially the ratio of smokers among female junior high school students is same as that of male in 1997. 2. With respect to areas, the number of current smokers and the experienced ones was higher in the county than in the city in 1988. But in 1997, the number of current smokers and the experienced one is higher in the city than in the county. 3. In respect of whether or not there is a smoker among the member of a family, the odds ratio of smoking among the male senior high school students was 1.70 in 1988 and 1.94 in 1997. the odds ratio of smoking among female senior high school students was 1.43 in 1991 and 1.98 in 1997. This result showed that the effect of family smoking on adolescent smoking has not decreased.
Summary
Korean summary
Key Message

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