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Original Articles
A prospective association between dietary mushroom intake and the risk of type 2 diabetes: the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study–Cardiovascular Disease Association Study
Yu-Mi Kim, Hye Won Woo, Min-Ho Shin, Sang Baek Koh, Hyeon Chang Kim, Mi Kyung Kim
Epidemiol Health. 2024;46:e2024017.   Published online January 8, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2024017
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
Mushrooms, known for their nutritious and functional components, are considered healthy and medicinal. This study investigated the prospective association between dietary mushroom consumption and the incidence of type 2 diabetes among Korean adults aged ≥40 years.
METHODS
In total, 16,666 participants who were not taking anti-diabetic medication or insulin and had normal fasting blood glucose (FBG; <126 mg/dL) were included. We used the cumulative average dietary consumption of mushrooms as an exposure metric, calculated from food frequency questionnaires at every follow-up, along with covariates collected during a baseline survey. To estimate incidence rate ratios (IRRs) for type 2 diabetes, a modified Poisson regression model with a robust error estimator was applied.
RESULTS
In multivariable models, dietary mushroom consumption was inversely associated with type 2 diabetes incidence in both genders (men: IRR, 0.65; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.47 to 0.90; p<sub>linearity</sub>=0.043 in the highest quartile (Q4) vs. the lowest quartile (Q1); women: IRR, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.54 to 0.93; p<sub>linearity</sub>=0.114 in Q4 vs. Q1). The inverse association remained after adjustment for dietary factors instead of dietary quality index, the baseline FBG, and the exclusion of incidence within the first year. Additionally, no significant interaction was found regarding the risk of type 2 diabetes between dietary mushroom consumption and participants’ gender or other factors.
CONCLUSIONS
Dietary mushroom consumption was inversely linked with the risk of type 2 diabetes incidence in both genders, indicating the beneficial role of mushrooms in preventing the disease.
Summary
Korean summary
- 흔히 사용하는 버섯의 식이 섭취량이 증가함에 따라 한국 40세 이상 성인에서 제2형 당뇨병 발생 위험이 낮았다. - 이러한 역관계는 성별과 다양한 식이 배경에서도 일관성을 유지하였고, 이는 버섯이 제2형 당뇨병 예방에 있어 잠재적인 식이요소로서의 가능성을 보여주는성을 보여주는 보여주는 결과이다.
Associations of cumulative average dietary total antioxidant capacity and intake of antioxidants with metabolic syndrome risk in Korean adults aged 40 years and older: a prospective cohort study (KoGES_CAVAS)
Ji-Sook Kong, Jiseon Lee, Youngjun Kim, Hye Won Woo, Min-Ho Shin, Sang Baek Koh, Hyeon Chang Kim, Yu-Mi Kim, Mi Kyung Kim
Epidemiol Health. 2023;45:e2023067.   Published online July 28, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2023067
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  • 118 Download
  • 2 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
Limited and inconsistent prospective evidence exists regarding the relationship of dietary total antioxidant capacity (dTAC) and antioxidant intake with metabolic syndrome (MetS) risk. We evaluated the associations of the cumulative averages of dTAC and antioxidant intake (in 5 classes: retinol, vitamin C, vitamin E, carotenoids, and flavonoids, as well as 7 flavonoid subclasses) with the risk of MetS.
METHODS
This study included 11,379 participants without MetS, drawn from the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study_CArdioVascular disease Association Study (KoGES_CAVAS). The cumulative average consumption was calculated using repeated food frequency questionnaires. Incidence rate ratios were estimated using a modified Poisson regression model with a robust error estimator.
RESULTS
The median follow-up period was 5.16 years, and 2,416 cases of MetS were recorded over 58,750 person-years. In men, significant inverse associations were observed in all 5 antioxidant classes, except for the highest quartile of dTAC. In women, dTAC and total flavonoids were not significantly associated with MetS; however, significant L-shaped associations were found for the remaining 4 antioxidant classes. Of the 7 flavonoid subclasses, only flavones in the highest quartile for men and flavan-3-ols in women lacked significant associations with MetS. The inverse associations were not sex-specific, but they were particularly pronounced among participants with a body mass index (BMI) of 23 kg/m<sup>2</sup> or higher.
CONCLUSIONS
The findings suggest that most antioxidant classes and flavonoid subclasses, unlike dTAC, exhibit a clear beneficial association with MetS in an L-shaped pattern in both men and women, particularly those with a high BMI.
Summary
Korean summary
농촌코호트 조사 참여자를 대상으로 식이 총항산화능, 총항산화능 하위분류, 플라보노이드 하위분류와 대사증후군 발생 위험의 전향적 연관성을 평가한 결과, 대부분의 항산화물(5개항산화물 분류:4개 항산화 비타민과 플라보노이드; 플라보노이드 7개 하부분류)에서 대사증후군과 음의 상관성을 확인할 수 있었으며 총항산화능(남자와 여자)과 플라보노이드(여자)에서 약한 연관성을 보였다. 남녀간 유의한 상호작용은 없었고 특히 BMI가 높은 집단에서 두드러졌다. 이 연구의 결과는 특히 식이 총항산화능을 구성하는 하위 유형을 적절히 섭취하는 것이 특히 비만한 성인에서 대사증후군 위험을 낮추는 예방전략으로 효과가 있을 수 있음을 시사한다.
Key Message
We observed that the cumulative average of dietary antioxidant vitamins and most flavonoids may be have pivotal roles in prevention of MetS, although there may be weak associations of dTAC and flavonoids in women. Moreover, these inverse associations were more pronounced in high BMI individuals. Our results suggest that the consumption of antioxidants and flavonoid may mitigate the MetS risk, particularly in overweight/obese individuals at high risk of developing chronic diseases.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • The association of dietary total flavonoids and their subclasses with the risk of type 2 diabetes: a prospective cohort study
    Hye Won Woo, Mi Kyung Kim, Kong Ji-Sook, Jiseon Lee, Min-Ho Shin, Sang Baek Koh, Hyeon Chang Kim, Yu-Mi Kim
    European Journal of Nutrition.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • A Systematized Review of the Relationship Between Obesity and Vitamin C Requirements
    Julia K. Bird, Edith J.M. Feskens, Alida Melse-Boonstra
    Current Developments in Nutrition.2024; : 102152.     CrossRef
Systematic Review
Associations of daily diet-related greenhouse gas emissions with the incidence and mortality of chronic diseases: a systematic review and meta-analysis of epidemiological studies
Jee Yeon Hong, Young Jun Kim, Sanghyuk Bae, Mi Kyung Kim
Epidemiol Health. 2023;45:e2023011.   Published online December 30, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2023011
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
Although the entire process extending from food production to dietary consumption makes a large contribution to total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, little and inconsistent evidence exists on the epidemiological associations of daily diet-related GHG emissions with chronic disease risk or all-cause mortality. This systematic review and meta-analysis explored the observational epidemiological relationship between daily diet-related GHG emissions and health outcomes, including the risk of chronic diseases and all-cause mortality.
METHODS
Original articles published in English until May 2022 were identified by searching PubMed, Ovid-Embase, Web of Science, CINAHL, and Google Scholar. The extracted data were pooled using both fixed-effects and random-effects meta-analyses and presented as hazard and risk ratios (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs).
RESULTS
In total, 7 cohort studies (21 study arms) were included for qualitative synthesis and meta-analysis. The GHG emissions of dietary consumption showed a significant positive association with the risk of chronic disease incidence and mortality in both fixed-effects and random-effects models (fixed: RR, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.03 to 1.05; random: RR, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.02 to 1.06). This positive association was robust regardless of how daily diet-related GHG emissions were grouped. More strongly animal- based diets showed higher GHG emissions. However, there were only a few studies on specific chronic diseases, and the subgroup analysis showed insignificant results. There was no evidence of publication bias among the studies (Egger test: p=0.79).
CONCLUSIONS
A higher GHG-emission diet was found to be associated with a greater risk of all-cause mortality.
Summary
Korean summary
식이로부터 배출되는 GHG양은 메타분석의 고정 효과 모델과 확률 효과 모델 모두에서 만성 질환 발병률 및 사망 위험과 유의미한 양의 상관 관계를 보여주었습니다. 동물성 식단은 더 높은 GHG 배출량을 나타냈으나, 특정 만성질환에 대한 연구의 수가 적었고 질환 별 하위군 분석에서 유의미한 결과를 보이지 않았습니다. 결론적으로 온실가스 배출량이 많은 식단은 모든 원인으로 인한 사망 위험이 더 큰 것으로 나타났습니다.
Key Message
Daily food consumption contributes a large part of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, however, no review study was conducted. This study is the first review paper that reviews the relationship between greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from daily diet and chronic disease risk and all-cause mortality. GHG emissions from the daily diet were significantly positively associated with disease risk and mortality. Animal-based diets contributed most to diet-derived GHG emissions. Men tended to have diets with higher GHG emissions compared to women. At times when the response to climate change is urgent, this study can help many policymakers and health officials.
Original Articles
Comparison of Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome Between Korean Emigrants and Host Country Residents in Japan and China-The Korean Emigrant Study
Myung-Hee Shin, Mi Kyung Kim, Zhong Min Li, Hyun-Kyung Oh, Soo Ryang Kim, Miyuki Taniguchi, Jinnv Fang
Epidemiol Health. 2010;32:e2010005.   Published online May 7, 2010
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih/e2010005
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  • 4 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Abstract
<sec><title>OBJECTIVES</title><p>This study aims to compare the prevalence of metabolic syndrome between Korean emigrants (KEs) and their host country residents in Japan and China.</p></sec><sec><title>METHODS</title><p>The Korean Emigrant Study (KES) is a cohort study initiated in 2005 to elucidate the effect of genetic susceptibility and environmental change on hypertension, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome. Equal numbers of KEs and host country residents, aged 30 or over, were recruited from three regions; Kobe-Osaka in Japan (total number=965), Yanbian in China (n=1,019), and Changchun in China (n=949).</p></sec><sec><title>RESULTS</title><p>The age-adjusted prevalences of metabolic syndrome among KEs in Kobe-Osaka were significantly higher than those among Japanese (in men 24.0% vs. 15.6%, p=0.04, in women 8.4% vs. 2.7%, p=0.01), while the age-adjusted prevalences among KEs in Changchun were similar to those among Chinese (in men 11.7% vs. 16.1%, p=0.37, in women 28.3% vs. 30.1%, p=0.91). The age-adjusted prevalences were generally higher in Yanbian than other regions, and KEs had higher prevalence than Chinese in men but not in women (in men 37.9% vs. 28.3%, p=0.03, women 46.0% vs. 50.6%, p=0.44). The components with significant ethnic differences in prevalence were high blood pressure and abdominal obesity in Japan, and triglyceride in China. The most influential component in diagnosing metabolic syndrome was abdominal obesity in men and triglyceride in women.</p></sec><sec><title>CONCLUSION</title><p>The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was higher in KEs than in host country residents in Japan but not in China. Abdominal obesity and triglyceride are both discriminating and influential components in metabolic syndrome.</p></sec>
Summary

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • New Common and Rare Variants Influencing Metabolic Syndrome and Its Individual Components in a Korean Population
    Ho-Sun Lee, Yongkang Kim, Taesung Park
    Scientific Reports.2018;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Cohort Profile: The Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study (KoGES) Consortium
    Yeonjung Kim, Bok-Ghee Han
    International Journal of Epidemiology.2017; 46(2): e20.     CrossRef
  • Is There Disparity in Cardiovascular Health Between Migrant Workers and Native Workers?
    Hyeonkyeong Lee, Sunghye Cho, Yune Kyong Kim, Jung Hee Kim
    Workplace Health & Safety.2016; 64(8): 350.     CrossRef
  • Coffee Intake and Liver Enzyme Association in Korean Immigrants and Japanese: A Comprehensive Cross-Sectional Study
    Soo Ki Kim, Myung-Hee Shin, Kayo Sugimoto, Soo Ryang Kim, Susumu Imoto, Ke Ih Kim, Miyuki Taniguchi, Hyun-Kyung Oh, Yoshihiko Yano, Yoshitake Hayashi, Masatoshi Kudo
    Digestive Diseases.2016; 34(6): 665.     CrossRef
Relations of Pulse Wave Velocity to Waist Circumference Independent of Hip Circumference
Min Jung Ko, Mi Kyung Kim, Jinho Shin, Bo Youl Choi
Epidemiol Health. 2010;32:e2010004.   Published online May 3, 2010
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih/e2010004
  • 54,676 View
  • 97 Download
  • 10 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Abstract
<sec><title>OBJECTIVES</title><p>Little is known about the effect of waist circumference (WC) on brachial artery pulse wave velocity (baPWV) independent of hip circumference (HC). Therefore, this study aimed to dissociate specific effect of WC on baPWV independent of HC.</p></sec><sec><title>METHODS</title><p>Of 1,053 rural residents (2004-2005), 777 subjects with no known history of coronary artery diseases or diabetes mellitus over 40 yr were included. To reduce collinearity, we assessed the independent effect of WC with HC on PWV by residual method (WC [RM]).</p></sec><sec><title>RESULTS</title><p>In women, most correlation coefficients were significant between measures of abdominal obesity and baPWV, with the highest (0.32) in waist to hip ratio (WHR), whereas no significance was found in men. All mean values of baPWV among the abdominally obese were higher than those of normal group in women, which were in the order of WHR, WC (RM), and WC. Adjusted OR with 95% CI for baPWV was significantly elevated by increase of WC (RM) upto 4.8 (95% CI: 2.1-11.2), and as 4.3 by WHR (95% CI: 1.6-11.4).</p></sec><sec><title>CONCLUSION</title><p>Considering the difficulty in biologically interpreting WHR, WC (RM) may be a useful indicator of abdominal obesity among females in that it reflects the risk of pulse wave velocity.</p></sec>
Summary

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Cardiometabolic risk factors, peripheral arterial tonometry and metformin in adults with type 1 diabetes participating in the REducing with MetfOrmin Vascular Adverse Lesions trial
    David Chen, Alicia J Jenkins, Nicola Greenlaw, Katie Dudman, Tamsin Fernandes, David M Carty, Alun D Hughes, Andrzej S Januszewski, Coen DA Stehouwer, John R Petrie
    Diabetes and Vascular Disease Research.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Relationship between anthropometric indices and arterial stiffness: Insights from an epidemiologic study
    Sahar Sobhani, Saba Vakili, Dina Javid Jam, Reihaneh Aryan, Majid Khadem‐Rezaiyan, Saeid Eslami, Maryam Alinezhad‐Namaghi
    Obesity Science & Practice.2022; 8(4): 494.     CrossRef
  • Metabolic syndrome is related to vascular structural alterations but not to functional ones both in hypertensives and healthy subjects
    Alessandro Maloberti, Michele Bombelli, Paola Vallerio, Martina Milani, Iside Cartella, Giovanni Tavecchia, Chiara Tognola, Enzo Grasso, Jinwei Sun, Benedetta De Chiara, Salvatore Riccobono, Guido Grassi, Cristina Giannattasio
    Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases.2021; 31(4): 1044.     CrossRef
  • High Systolic Blood Pressure is Associated with Increased Cardio-ankle Vascular Index in the Elderly
    Thapanee Roengrit, Ruchada Sri-amad, Nawiya Huipao
    Artery Research.2021; 27(1): 25.     CrossRef
  • Effect of carbohydrate restriction-induced weight loss on aortic pulse wave velocity in overweight men and women
    Majid M. Syed-Abdul, Qiong Hu, Miriam Jacome-Sosa, Jaume Padilla, Camila Manrique-Acevedo, Colette Heimowitz, Elizabeth J. Parks
    Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism.2018; 43(12): 1247.     CrossRef
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    Frank E. Corrigan, Heval Mohamed Kelli, Devinder S. Dhindsa, Robert E. Heinl, Ibhar Al Mheid, Muhammad Hammadah, Salim S. Hayek, Salman Sher, Danny J. Eapen, Greg S. Martin, Arshed A. Quyyumi
    Journal of Clinical Lipidology.2017; 11(6): 1354.     CrossRef
  • The role of abnormal metabolic conditions on arterial stiffness in healthy subjects with no drug treatment
    Hyo-Sang Hwang, Kwang-Pil Ko, Myeong Gun Kim, Sihun Kim, Jeonggeun Moon, Wook Jin Chung, Mi Seung Shin, Seung Hwan Han
    Clinical Hypertension.2016;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Effects of Short-Term Exenatide Treatment on Regional Fat Distribution, Glycated Hemoglobin Levels, and Aortic Pulse Wave Velocity of Obese Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients
    Ju-Young Hong, Keun-Young Park, Byung-Joon Kim, Won-Min Hwang, Dong-Ho Kim, Dong-Mee Lim
    Endocrinology and Metabolism.2016; 31(1): 80.     CrossRef
  • Abdominal obesity vs general obesity for identifying arterial stiffness, subclinical atherosclerosis and wave reflection in healthy, diabetics and hypertensive
    Jose I Recio-Rodriguez, Manuel A Gomez-Marcos, Maria C Patino-Alonso, Cristina Agudo-Conde, Emiliano Rodriguez-Sanchez, Luis Garcia-Ortiz
    BMC Cardiovascular Disorders.2012;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Prevalence and Determinants of Hyperlipidemia in Moderate Altitude Areas of the Yunnan-Kweichow Plateau in Southwestern China
    Bingjun Deng, Tingguang Luo, Yanfei Huang, Tianhang Shen, Jing Ma
    High Altitude Medicine & Biology.2012; 13(1): 13.     CrossRef
The Current Status and the Perspectives of Nutrition Survey.
Mi Kyung Kim, Kirang Kim, Cho Il Kim, Kyungwon Oh, Yoo Jin Oh, Bo Youl Choi
Korean J Epidemiol. 2007;29(2):111-128.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Abstract
The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey is a nationwide health survey in Korea. This survey is composed of three parts: the Health Interview Survey, the Health Examination Survey, and the Nutrition Survey. The aim of this study was to refine the nutrition survey system in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). Based on the literature review, we summarized international survey systems and the limitations of the current system in Korea and proposed an improved system. We suggested the following: 1) A government agency which will be exclusively responsible for KNHANES overall is needed. 2) The current short-term nutrition survey should be a year-round survey. 3) The objectives of this survey should be written with more clarity and detail. 4) Biochemical measures in relation to nutritional status should be added. 5) The budget to set up various databases in the nutrition survey should be increased. 6) Various other issues should be addressed, including the definition of raw data (i.e., whether nutrient intake data per day is raw data), ethical issues in survey techniques, and strategies to produce evidence for the public using this survey data. Not all suggestions could be adopted in the short-term, but should be integrated into long-term goals for survey system improvement.
Summary
Trend of the Anthropometric Indices Among Adolescents in a Urban and a Rural Area Over the Period 1996~2005.
SoHyun Park, Minjung Ko, Shin Ah Kim, Mi Kyung Kim, Soo Hun Cho, Bo Youl Choi
Korean J Epidemiol. 2006;28(2):189-198.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Abstract
This study investigated the secular trend of anthropometric parameters of 2,153 high school students in one urban and one rural area in Korea. The cross-sectional data was collected in 1996 and 2005 in Seoul and Gyung-gi province. As a result, the height of boys has increased by 2cm, whereas the weight has increased by 6.3kg from 1996 to 2005. By contrast, those parameters, including height or weight, did not change in girls. The prevalence of obesity has been more than doubled from 9.3% in 1996 to 20.5% in 2005 in boys; while that of girls was almost same for the same period (1998, 11.1%; 2005, 11.4%). In particular, the greater increase of obesity among boys was found in urban, which implicates the importance of environmental factor in determining weight gains among adolescents. This result emphasizes that the tailored intervention is strongly warranted, in particular among boys residing in urban area.
Summary
The Effect of Anthropometric Change on Blood Lipids in Adolescents in Rural Area of Korea.
Kyeong Soo Cheon, Myoung Hee Kim, Kirang Kim, Mi Kyung Kim, Young Jeon Shin, Bo Youl Choi
Korean J Epidemiol. 2002;24(1):17-28.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Abstract
Primary prevention of atherosclerosis is important for reducing morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular disease. As modifiable risk factors for atherosclerosis which appears and progresses in early life, obesity and hyperlipidemia are related with each other. Especially hyperlipidemia during adolescent period is closely related to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in later life, but the association between anthropometric changes in growth period and lipids level in adolescence is not known yet. Therefore we investigated the effect of anthropometric changes in growth period on adolescent lipids level among 615 high school students in rural area of Korea. The study results were as the followings; In childhood, the weight and the height of boys didn't differ from those of girls, however, began to exceed them at 14 and 15 years old respectively. The body mass index(BMI) of both genders was appeared to increase with age. The BMI increase of girls was greater than that of boys from twelve years of age. The BMI slope (annual average increment of BMI; coefficient of regression line) of girls was greater than that of boys(t-test, p<0.01). The proportion of high obesity tracking group was 13.1%(82 persons). In multivariate analysis, total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol were positively correlated with obesity tracking in boys; BMI slope and BMI at 7 years old in girls. The HDL-cholesterol didn't show any significant association with those factors. The triglyceride was related to BMI slope and obesity tracking in boy, but nothing in girls. In this study, the obesity at 7 years old, the BMI slope, and the obesity tracking are associated with adolescent serum lipid level. For primary prevention of cardiovascular disease, it is needed to develop more active prevention or health promotion program for children and adolesecents in Korea.
Summary
Obesity and Physical Activity Related to Colorectal Adenoma by Anatomic Sites in Korea.
Mi Kyung Kim, Won Chul Lee, Kyu Yong Choi, Se Young Lee, Sukil Kim, Yang Cha Lee-Kim, Kwang Ho Meng
Korean J Epidemiol. 1999;21(2):254-265.
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Abstract
Although the etiology of colorectal adenoma is not yet clear, numerous epidemiologic studies of colorectal adenoma(precursors of cancer) have shown a positive association with obesity and an inverse association with physical activity. The difference of the possible association of colorectal adenoma with body mass index(BMI= wt(kg)/ht2(m2) and physical activity(kcal/day) according to anatomic sites and gender was investigated in this case-control study. Between July 1994 and october 1998, 345 cases of patients(male 181, female 164) with pathologically confirmed incident colorectal adenoma and 1655 control subjects(male 598, female 1,057) were collected from Our Lady of Mercy Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea. After colonoscopy, self-reported weight and height, together with measures of intensity and time of exercise and lifetime job activity was obtained by the interviewers. Site- and gender-specific odds ratios relative to the lowest tertile of BMI and physical activity were determined using unconditional logistic regression after adjusting for potential confounders. Compared with subjects in the lowest terile of body mass index, multivariate-adjusted odds ratio of right colon for male and female in highest tertile were 1.49(95% CI:0.74-3.01) and 1.96(95% CI:0.93-4.15), respectively. Compared with subjects in the lowest tertile of physical activity, multivariate-adjusted odds ratio of right colon for male and female in highest tertile were 0.66(95% CI:0.35-1.26) and 0.83(95% CI:0.50-1.39), respectively. These results support a positive association between body mass index and occurrence or progression of adenoma in left colon and physical activity is associated with an elevated risk of right colon.
Summary
A Case-Control Study on dietary Factors of Colorectal Adenomatous Polyps by Sites.
Mi Kyung Kim, Won Chul Lee, Kyu Yong Choi, Su Kil Kim, Se Young Lee, Yang Cha Lee-Kim, Kwang Ho Meng
Korean J Epidemiol. 1998;20(1):154-166.
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Abstract
Colorectal adenomas are benign neoplasm in the large bowel that are thought to be precursors lesion to colorectal cancer. So, studying adenomatous polyps instead of cancer might allow one to measure the diet of relatively asymptomatic subjects closer to the time of the initial neoplastic process. Some dietary factor, or set of factors, apparently plays an impotant role in the etiology of colorectal adenomatous polyps. The difference of the possible association of colorectal adenomatous polyps with dietary risk factors by anatomic subsite and gender was investigated in this case-control study. Between July 1994 and April 1998, 314 cases of patients with pathologically confirmed incident colorectal adenomatous polyps and 88 control subjects were collected from Our Lady of Mercy Hospital, The Catholic University. After colonoscopy, infor-mation on exposure was obtained by the interviewers. Also, subjects were interviewed using the semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire, and average daily nutrient intakes were calculated. Site- and gender-specific odds ratio relative to the lowest tertile of intake for each nutrient were determined using unconditional logistic regression after adjusting for a number of potential confounders. In females, significant odds ratio were found for b-carotene(0.31, 95% CI, 0.10~0.95), vitamin C(0.11, 95% CI, 0.02~0.61), vitamin-E(0.11, 95% CI, 0.02~0.78) in right colon but only the odds ratio of vitamin E(0.17, 95% CI, 0.03~0.90) was statistically significant in left colon. Among food groups, the odds ratio of green yellow vegetables was significant(OR=0.21, 95% CI, 0.05~0.96) in right colon. In males, almost all the above dietary factors were statistically not significant. In males, cigarette smoking appears to be a signigicant risk factor(OR=8.86, 95% CI, 1.10~71.5) in left colon, it was statistically not signigicant(OR=1.63, 95% CI, 0.42~4.76) in the right colon. Findings fron this study show that many associations of the nutrients with colorectal adenomatous polyps risk are different by anatomic subsite and gender and support the hypothesis that high intake of antioxidant vitamins and green yellow vagetables decreases the risk of polyps.
Summary
A case-control study on the risk factors of colorectal adenomatous polyp.
Mi Kyung Kim, Yang Cha Lee, Kyu Yong Choi, Won Chul Lee, Kyung Jae Lee, Kwang Ho Meng, Yoon Kyong Lee, In Mee Kim
Korean J Epidemiol. 1995;17(2):167-187.
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Abstract
The possible association of colorectal adenomatous polyps, a precursor lesion for colorectal cancer, with risk factors including cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, coffee consumption, family history and dietary factors was investigated in a case-control study. Between January 1993 and March 1995, 143 cases of patients with pathologically confirmed incident colorectal adenomatous polyps and 301 control subjects were collected from Our Lady of Mercy Hospital. Information on exposure was obtained by structured interviews. After adjustment for age and sex, statistically significant odds ratio (highest-lowest tercile) were found for cigarette smoking(5.53; 95% confidence interval CI, 3.26 9.38), coffee consumption (2.01 ; 95% CI 1. 15-3.53). For dietary factors, significant odds ratio were found for yogurt consumption (0.35 ; 95% CI 0.14-0.85) and milk consumption (0.34; 95% CI 0.17-0.70). No significant associations were observed for total fat intake and total fiber intake after adjustment for age, sex and total calorie. Odds ratio of family history of colorectal cancer and/or polyp was 3.05(95% CI 0.84-11.05). Cigarette smoking, coffee consumption, appears to be a significant risk factor, and milk consumption, yogurt consumption appears to be a significant protective factor for colorectal adenomatous polyps.
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Semiquantitative Food Frequency Method as an Epidemiological tool in a Rural community, Korea.
Mi Kyung Kim, Bo Youl Choi, Young Jeon Shin, Yoon Ok Ahn, Sang Sun Lee, Young Sun Cho
Korean J Epidemiol. 1994;16(1):54-65.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Abstract
This study was performed to evaluate the semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire used to obtain information about. dietary patterns of adults in a rural county, Yang-pyeung Gun. The study population was 1311 adults aged 17~85 years. And well-trained interviewers interviewed subjects in 1990, 1992, 1993. The results are as follows. 1) Nutrients intake calculated from each questionnaire showed significant difference, because the number of question was not same(fifty questions in 1990, eighty questions in 1992, 1993). 2) Estimated nutrients intake from separate food items was significantly different when food items are combined in one question. 3) The agreement of nutrients intake level except vit C were high when the subjects are cross-classified by their ranks on the nutrients intake level from items in both questionnaires and on the nutrient intake level from items in each questionnaire. 4) And analysing this study data by multiple stepwise regression, we selected twenty seven food items whic could explained over 85% of inter-individual variation of nutrients(energy, carbohydrate, fat, protein, vit A, vit B1, vit B2, vit C, Ca). From above results, we suggested that it is neccessary to standardize questionnaire and perform validity studies.
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Epidemiol Health : Epidemiology and Health