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Volume 4 (1); December 1982
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Editorial department
Korean J Epidemiol. 1982;4(1):200-201.
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Report
Others
Editorial department
Korean J Epidemiol. 1982;4(1):199-199.
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  • 17 Download
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Abstract
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Instruction
Instruction for authors
Korean Society of Epidemiology
Korean J Epidemiol. 1982;4(1):198-198.
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Abstract
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Report
Public affairs reporting
Korean Society of Epidemiology
Korean J Epidemiol. 1982;4(1):195-197.
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Lists
Board and staff listing
Korean Society of Epidemiology
Korean J Epidemiol. 1982;4(1):193-194.
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List of membership
Korean Society of Epidemiology
Korean J Epidemiol. 1982;4(1):190-193.
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Article
Articles of association
Korean Society of Epidemiology
Korean J Epidemiol. 1982;4(1):189-189.
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Original Articles
A study of the effect of radiation on chromosome number and tumorigenicity in a mouse tumor cell line
Hai Won Chung, Joung Soon Kim, Won Young Lee
Korean J Epidemiol. 1982;4(1):175-188.
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Abstract
The effects of radiation on the distribution of chromosome number in mouse Sarcoma 180 Y.S. cells were studied in respect to heterogeneity of their chromosome number and their tumorigenicity. The results summarized are as follows: 1. Modal chromosome number were shifted from 111-120 to 101-110 when the tumor cells were irradiated with 300 rad - 700 rad of γ-rays, which is in the range within the sublethal irradiation dose (700 rad). The overall distribution of chromosome number, however, was not much different from that of control ceils. Frequency distribution of hypofcetraploid cells decreased gradually by increased radiation dose, for example in control the proportion of hypotetraploid cells was 22.3% whereas the proportion decreased to 16.4% in 100 rad irradiation group, 14.5% in 200 rad, 14.8% in 300 rad, 12.9% in 500 rad, and 5.9% in 700 rad irradiation group. 2. The tumorigenicity measured by the fifty percent survival day of inoculated mice, was also reduced according to the increased radiation dose; fifty percent survival days of mice inoculated with irradiated tumor cells (104 cells/mouse) in vivo by probit analysis were 25.2, 27.2 and 30.8 days with rariation dose of 0, 300 and 700 rad respectively on day 1 after irradiation. Similar results were obtained on day 6 after irradiation and fifty percent survival days were 23.0, 27.3 and 29.8 days at 0, 300 and 700 rad respectively. Tumorigenicity of the cells was proportional to the dose of cells inoculated, but it was proportionally decreased to the radiation dose. Moreover these results were consistent with Sarcoma producing ability in syngenic mice and the DNA synthetic ability in irradiated tumor cells. Considering these findings in relation to the chromosome number of the tumor cells, the reduction of tumorigenicity by γ-radiation seems to be correlated with reduction of hypotetraploid cells. Meanwhile when tumor cells were cultured in vitro, the proportions of cells with more than 200 chromosomes were increased in accordance as the radiation dose increased; 14.3% in control, 18.4% in 500 rad and 23.6% in 700 rad irradiation group. 3. Proportions of hypotetraploid tumor cells cultured in vivo after in vivo irradiation with 700 rad were 5.4% and 6% on day 1 and 6 after irradiation respectively, and 12.7%, 10% and 9% according to serial vivo passage thereafter. On the other hand the proportions of cells with more than 200 chromosomes in in vitro cultures after in vitro irradiation with 700 rad were increased to 23.6% from 14.3% on day 2, which was then decreased to 11% on day 20 after irradiation. 4. It may be concluded that repeated sampling of tumor cells and follow-up studies are necessary during the entire clinical course from early stage of the disease in the same patient because cytogenetic feature of tumor ceil population varied all the time according to their varying culture conditions and irradiation. Furthermore the tumor cell study may be of great help in determination of the subsequent treatment method after radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy for an effective and efficient management of cancer patient.
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A study on heterogeneity of chromosome and tumorigenicity in a mouse tumor cell line
Hai Won Chung, Joung Soon Kim, Won Young Lee
Korean J Epidemiol. 1982;4(1):158-174.
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Abstract
The effects of culture conditions on the distribution of chromosome number in mouse Sarcoma 180 Y.S. cells were studied in respect to heterogeneity of their chromosome number and their tumorigenicity; four subpopulations separated by ficoll gradient centrifugation from in vivo cultured tumor cells demonstrated different tumorigenic properties and the hypotetraploid cells were found to be the most tumorigenic. The results summarized are as follows 1. The tumor cell populations were heterogeneous in their chromosome number and their tumorigenicity, and these heterogeneity could be changed by different culture conditions. The chromosome numbers of tumor cells cultured in vivo were varied from 15 to 140 with modal number of 110-120, while those cultured in vitro ranged from 60 to over 300 with modal number of 121-130. Frequency distribution of hypotetraploid cells in in vivo cultures was 22.3% whereas it was 2.4% in in vitro cultures. 2. When the tumor cells were cultured in vitro and inoculated into the peritoneum of mice, the frequency of cells with high chromosome number of more than 300 (15n) was increased from 1.2% to 8.6% and 33.1% as the passage number increased. Hypotetraploid cells were increased along with serial in vitro to in vivo passage. 3. Tumor producing ability in cells cultured in vitro was increased from 20% to 25% and 40% in accordance with serial in vivo passage thereafter. It is, therefore, suggested that altered characteristics of tumor cells cultured in vitro appeared to be reversed into their original properties by maintaining them in vivo. 4. When the tumor cells were separated by 10%, 15% and 20% ficoll concentration gradient, the highest relative frequency of hypotetraploid cells were found in 10% ficoll concentration. Fifty percent survival days of mice inoculated with these subpopulations were 25.3 days, 28.7 days and 29.4 days for each subpopulation separated by the concentration of 10%, 15% and 20% ficoll respectively. From the above results it is suggested that cells with high hypotetraploid among the heterogeneous tumor cell population appeared to be an important factor responsible for tumor producing ability.
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A study of sensitivity for the antibiotic and state of carrier with bacteria in the nasal organ of hospital personnel in one general hospital in Seoul city
Young Ae Kim, Moon Shik Zong
Korean J Epidemiol. 1982;4(1):149-157.
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Abstract
The public health importance of hospital acquired disease has been obvious. This report is a summary of the result of study for state of carrier with bacteria in the nasal organ. The objects of study were 116 of hospital personnel who have been worked for more than one year in One General Hospital in Seoul City. A study was done during September and October in 1980. The results were as follows: 1. The rate of carrier for pathogenic bacteria among service departments was tested as below. The rate of nasal-carriers was 31%. The rate of highest carrier (44.4%) was noted in the internal medical group. The rate of lowest carrier (22.4%) was noted in nursery and premature room group. There was significant difference of nasal-carrier rate between service departments (P<0.01). 2. The rate of carrier for pathogenic bacteria between type of speciality groups was tested as below. The rate of nasal-carriers was 31%. The rate of highest carrier (40%) was noted in medical techinician group. The rate of lowest carrier (25%) was noted clerical employee group. There was significant difference of nasal-carrier rate between type of speciality groups (P<0.01). 3. The rate of carrier for pathogenic bacteria differentiation among service departments was tested as below. The rate of carrier for Staphylococcus aureus was 22.4%. The rate of highest carrier (44.4%) was noted in the internal medical group. The rate of lowest carrier (7.7%) was noted in the surgery group. There was significant difference of nasal-carrier rate for Staphylococcus aureus between service departments (p<0.01). The rates of carrier for pathogenic bacteria in nasal sampling were Streptococcus pneumoniae 5.2%, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus variation lowffi 4.3%, Escherichia coli 4.3%, in that orders. 4. The rate of carrier for pathogenic bacteria differentiation between type of specility groups was tested as below. The rate of carrier for Staphylococcus aureus was 22.4%. The rate of highest carrier (30%) was noted in the medical technician group. The rate of lowest carrier (15%) was noted in the clerical employee group. There was significant difference of nasal-carrier rate for Staphylococcus aureus between type of speciality groups, (p<0.01) . 5. Classifications of bacteria in nasal sampling of hospital personnel were Staphylococcus epidermidis 76.7%, Corynebacterium spp. 50%, Staphylococcus aureus 22.4%, Haemophilus 12.1% and Neisseria was 12.1%, in that orders. 6. The sensitivity Staphylococcus aureus for antibiotic was tested as below. Penicillin was the highest in the rate of resistance with 88.5%. Ampicillin 84.6% and Tetracycline was 69.2%. 7. The sensitivity of Gram negative enteric bacteria for antibiotic was tested as below. Ampicillin was the highest in the rate of resistance with 87.5%, Lincomycin 82.1% and Chloramphenicol was 31.2%.
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A study on the prevalence rate of hepatitis B surface antigen among American soldiers in Korea
Hyuk Han Kwon
Korean J Epidemiol. 1982;4(1):138-148.
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Abstract
The infection of hepatitis B virus is prevalent in all over the world, and the acute viral hepatitis type B virus can be converted into chronic hepatitis and again progressed to liver cirrhosis, followed by hepatoma. Therefore, the infection of viral hepatitis type B has been a health problem for all over the world in addition to Korea. The positive rate of HBsAg is different according to the social-economic, life environments, local and immunological state, and gene. Recently exploring of vaccine is contributed to preventive the infection of hepatitis B virus. Especially in Korea, where viral hepatitis type B is epidemic and the prevalence rate of HBsAg among healthy people is higher than that of them in developed country, there is a growing need to study the immunolgic or epidemiologic aspect and preventive measures of HBsAg. The auther detected HBsAg by modifide micro-Ouchterlony double immunodiffusion techniques in 1,231 serum samples of American soldiers who have been residued more than six months in Korea, during the period from May to Nov. 1980. The results are summarized as follows 1. HBsAg was detected in 25 samples among 1,231 samples with the positive rate of 2.03%. 2. The positive rate of HBsAg was higher in female 4.46% (5 samples/112 samples) than that in male 1.79% (20 samples/1,119 samples). 3. The lowest prevalence rate of HBsAg was found in the age group of 20-29 years (1.71%) and the highest (93.23%) was in those above 50 years of age. High positive rate of HBsAg was found in the old age group. 4. The prevalence rate of Anti-HBs was found 0.16% (2 Samples/1,231 Samples).
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Contamination of hand with eggs and coliform bacteria in enterobiasis cases
Y.S Ryang, E.B Park
Korean J Epidemiol. 1982;4(1):133-137.
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Abstract
To evaluate the degree of bacteria and egg contamination of hand in enterobiasis cases in relation with degree of enterobiasis infection, a total of 35 orphans was divided into 3 groups; 10 children who gave 3 consecutively negative anal swab for Enterobias eggs (Group I), 10 children with alternately positive results (Group II) and 15 children with consecutively positive results (Group III). Those children were examined for 4 times during 4 month period, for coliform bacterial contamination by culturing the hand washing water on the Endo broth, and for Enterobias eggs by brine flotation technique. The results were summerized as follows: 1. By 12 times of follow-up anal swab during 4 month period, the mean positive rate was 21.7% in Group I, 48.3% in Group II and 91.0% in Group III respectively. 2. The positive culture rate 100 ml in 1:100 dilution millipore filtration on Endo broth for coliform bacteria in hand washing were 0% in Group I, 15% (10-20%) in Group II and 38.3% (33.3-56.7%) in Group III respectively. 3. The detection of Enterobias eggs in hand washing and under-nail chit was 0% in Group I, 2.5% (0-10%) in Group II and 15% (6.7-20%) in Groups. The mean number of eggs detected in each positive case was 1.2 in Groups II & III. From the above results, it was concluded that the coliform - bacterial and Enterobias egg contamination of hand was in good correlation with the degree of anal swab positive rates, and that digital contamination itself, in turn, may play the role in later Enterobias infection.
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Studies on cancer patients of cancer research hospital
J.Y Kim, Y.K Shim, T.K Yun, Y.K Kim, T.W. Kang, K.B Park
Korean J Epidemiol. 1982;4(1):113-132.
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Abstract
All cancer cases were analysed from medical record registered in Cancer Research Hospital (CRH) for the period of 1963-1969, in order to obtain useful data for future studies. The ICD-O (WHO, 1976) was used for classification of histological type and anatomical site of cancer. The results were as follows: 1. Among all the new patients (12105), patients with malignant neoplasms were 48.9%, and with benign neoplasms were 4.0%. There were 1.8% patients who were diagnosed as having neoplasms, but unable to specify its nature. 2. Among all cancer patients, the age group of 45-54 was the most frequent comprising, 29.8% in male and 31.2% in female. The male: female was 1:1.6. 3. A 75.4 percent of all the cases was confirmed by microscopic examination, but the percentage varied a lot by anatomical sites. 4. Among all the cases, 33.7 percent was diagnosed in other institutions but not treated, 38.7 percent was diagnosed and treated in other institutions, and only 27.1 percent was the patients who visited CRH for the first time. 5. Stomach, larynx, lung, lymphnode, nasal cavity and liver for male, and cervix uteri, breast, stomach, thyroid gland, nasal cavity, and ovary for female were the most frequently involved sites. 6. According to histological types, adenocarinoma in stomach cancer (81.6%) and squamous cell carcinoma in cervix uteri (94.4%) were most frequent. 7. Among the cases initially diagnosed and/or treated in CRH, in-situ cases were only 0.4 percent. 8. The most frequently used initial treatment in CRH was radiation method alone (58.2%). Among all the cases confirmed malignant neoplasms in CRH, 32.9 percent of the patients never come back to the institute. 9. The cases traced to death were 146 or 4.1 percent of all patients initially diagnosed and/or CRH.
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A study on the risk of tuberculosis infection in Korea
Chong Dal Park, Sung Chin Kim
Korean J Epidemiol. 1982;4(1):105-112.
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Abstract
The annual risk of tuberculous infection (hereinafter the risk of infection) has some advantages over the other indices used in tuberculosis epidemiology. The authors estimated the risk of infection in Korea from the infection rates of 5-9 years old children examined during the National Tuberculosis Prevalence Surveys which were carried out at 5 year intervals since 1965. The method developed by the Tuberculosis Surveillance Research Unit was used in estimating the risk of infection. 1. Overall risk of infection was 4.16% in 1965 and 1.31% in 1980, decreasing at an annual rate of 7.7%. The risk of infection will be 0.97% in 1984 if the same decreasing trend continues. 2. There was little difference in the risks of infection and their annual reduction rates between the male and the female. 3. The risk of infection among the urban population was 5.19% in 1965 and 1.21% in 1980, decreasing at an annual rate of 9.7%. On the other hand, the risk of infection among the rural population was 3.75% in 1965 and 1.39% in 1980 with the annual reduction rate of 6.6%. The difference in the annual reduction rates between the urban and rural areas was statistically significant (p<0.005). 4. Further exploration is required to establish the cause(s) for the slower decrease in the risk of infection among the rural population.
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A study on the research contents and application of epidemiologic concepts in the research papers entitled as "An epidemiologic study" published in Korea
Joung Soon Kim, Ju Bok Ko
Korean J Epidemiol. 1982;4(1):90-104.
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Abstract
This study was carried out to identify the scope of epidemiologic studies and appropriate application of epidemiologic concepts in Korea by reviewing papers entitled as epidemiological study, which have been published in academic and professional journals from 1960 to the present. Even with the limitation of this study due to exclusion of all epidemiological studies that did not have the subject title and to the crude classification of epidemiologic concepts examined, the result may be valuable for the institutes of educating health personnel in further planning of epidemiology teaching/training. The results obtained are summarized as followings: 1. Total research papers with subject title as epidemiological study reviewed were 168 among which 55 papers were study of hospital data and 113 papers were community data. The distribution of the papers by the scope of the study showed that 18 percent of 168 papers was simple numerator analysis without control group, not belonging to epidemiologic study; about 20% out of 168, 25 papers from hospital data and 8 papers from epidemic study which were also the numerator analysis only, had some contents of natural history; in 113 community studies including 17 epidemic studies and 96 cross-sectional studies only 9 papers were incidence study and all 96 papers were prevalence study of decriptive nature. There was no single paper that dealt with more sophisticated research methods such as cohort study, case control study, intervention study, and even clinical trials. 2. The research papers based on hospital data expressed and interpreted relative frequency by various variables as incidence rate in 78% of 55 papers, explaining the variables as contributing or risk factors with probability concepts even without control group. Furthermore, the papers that the interpretation and conclusion derived from the data were justifiable were less than 40%.
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Epidemiol Health : Epidemiology and Health