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Original article Age-specific findings on lifestyle and trajectories of cognitive function from the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging
Seungju lim2orcid , Eunyoung Yoo1orcid , Ickpyo Hong1orcid , Ji-Hyuk Park1orcid
Epidemiol Health 2023;e2023098
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2023098 [Accepted]
Published online: November 2, 2023
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1Department of Occupational Therapy, College of Software and Digital Healthcare Convergence, Yonsei University, Wonju, Korea
2Department of Occupational Therapy, Graduate School, Yonsei University, Wonju, Korea
Corresponding author:  Ji-Hyuk Park,
Email: otscientist@yonsei.ac.kr
Received: 16 May 2023   • Revised: 13 August 2023   • Accepted: 15 October 2023

Few longitudinal studies have explored age-related differences in the relationship between lifestyle factors and cognitive decline. This study investigated lifestyle factors at baseline that slow the longitudinal rate of cognitive decline in young-old (55–64 years), middle-old (65–74 years), and old-old (75+ years) individuals.
We conducted an 11-year follow-up that included 6189 older adults from the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging, which is a cohort study of community-dwelling older Koreans. Lifestyle factors, including physical activity (PA), social activity (SA), smoking, and alcohol consumption were assessed at baseline. Cognitive function was measured at 2-year intervals over 11 years. Latent growth curve modeling (LGM) and multi-group analysis (MGA) were performed.
The influence of lifestyle factors on the rate of cognitive decline differed by age. Smoking at baseline (−0.05; 95% confidence interval [CI], −0.11 to −0.001, per study wave) accelerated cognitive decline in young-old individuals, whereas frequent participation in SA at baseline (0.02; 95% CI, 0.01 to 0.03, per study wave) decelerated cognitive decline in middle-old individuals. None of the lifestyle factors in this study decelerated cognitive decline in old-old individuals.
Cognitive strategies based on modifiable lifestyle factors such as smoking cessation in young-old individuals and frequent SA participation in middle-old age individuals may have great potential for preventing cognitive decline. Because the influence of lifestyle factors varied by age group, age-specific approaches are recommended to promote cognitive health.

Epidemiol Health : Epidemiology and Health