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COVID-19: Original Article
Physical and mental health characteristics related to trust in and intention to receive COVID-19 vaccination: results from a Korean community-based longitudinal study
Ye Jin Jeon, Youngrong Lee, Ji Su Yang, Young Su Park, Sun Jae Jung
Epidemiol Health. 2022;44:e2022064.   Published online August 3, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2022064
  • 1,765 View
  • 88 Download
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
The aim of this study was to explore factors affecting attitudes toward coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination, including socio-demographic characteristics and mental health status during the pandemic.
METHODS
This study analyzed responses from 1,768 participants who were originally included in a community cohort study and responded to 3 online surveys related to COVID-19 (March 2020 to March 2021). The k-means method was used to cluster trust in and intention to receive COVID-19 vaccination. Baseline (2013-2018) socio-demographic characteristics, physical health status, and depressive symptoms were analyzed as exposure variables, and current mental health status was included in the analyses.
RESULTS
Almost half of all participants were classified into the moderate trust and high intention cluster (n=838, 47.4%); those with high trust and high intention accounted only for 16.9%. They tended to be older, had high-income levels, and engaged in regular physical activity at baseline (p<0.05), and their sleep quality and psychological resilience were relatively high compared to other groups.
CONCLUSIONS
Our results suggest that more efforts are required to enhance the perceived need for and trust in COVID-19 vaccination.
Summary
Korean summary
•본 연구는 코로나19 관련 온라인, 모바일 설문조사에 응답한 1,768명을 대상으로 코로나19 유행 동안의 정신건강 상태와 백신 접종에 대한 태도 (백신에 대한 믿음, 백신에 대한 접종 의사) 사이의 관련성을 파악하고자 하였다. •연구결과 우울, 불안, 외로움, 회복탄력성 등과 같은 정신건강 상태가 나쁜 사람은 백신에 대한 접종 의사가 높을 오즈가 그렇지 않은 사람에 비해 높았으며, 이는 통계적으로 유의하였다.
Key Message
In this community-based study including 1,768 participants who responded online survey related to COVID-19, we investigate the relationship between mental health during the pandemic and attitude toward COVID-19 vaccine (trust and intention). Each of the mental symptoms, including depression, anxiety, and loneliness, was significantly associated with higher intention to COVID-19 vaccine. Our results suggest that more efforts are required to enhance the perceived need for and trust in COVID-19 vaccination.
COVID-19: Original Article
Predictors of COVID-19 booster vaccine hesitancy among fully vaccinated adults in Korea: a nationwide cross-sectional survey
Yunha Noh, Ju Hwan Kim, Dongwon Yoon, Young June Choe, Seung-Ah Choe, Jaehun Jung, Sang-Won Lee, Ju-Young Shin
Epidemiol Health. 2022;44:e2022061.   Published online July 22, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2022061
  • 2,743 View
  • 266 Download
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
This study explored predictors of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) booster hesitancy among fully vaccinated young adults and parental COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy for their children.
METHODS
This cross-sectional study administered an online survey from December 2 to December 20, 2021. We enrolled participants aged 18-49 years, for whom ≥2 weeks had passed after their initial COVID-19 vaccination. We estimated odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using multivariate logistic regression to evaluate factors associated with booster/vaccine hesitancy.
RESULTS
Among the 2,993 participants, 48.8% showed hesitancy (wait and see: 40.2%; definitely not: 8.7%). Booster hesitancy was more common among women (OR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.05 to 1.50), younger people (OR, 1.44; 95% CI, 1.17 to 1.77), those with a lower education level (OR, 2.05; 95% CI, 1.10 to 3.82), those who received the mRNA-1273 vaccine type (OR, 2.01; 95% CI, 1.65 to 2.45), and those who experienced serious adverse events following previous COVID-19 vaccination (OR, 2.03; 95% CI, 1.47 to 2.80). The main reasons for booster hesitancy were concerns about safety (54.1%) and doubts about efficacy (29.8%). Among the 1,020 respondents with children aged <18 years, 65.8% were hesitant to vaccinate their children against COVID-19; hesitancy was associated with younger parental age, education level, the type of vaccine the parent received, and a history of COVID-19 infection.
CONCLUSIONS
Concerns about the efficacy and safety of COVID-19 vaccines were the major barrier to booster acceptance. The initial COVID-19 vaccine type (mRNA-1273), young age, gender (women), a low education level, and adverse events after the first COVID-19 vaccine were key predictors of booster hesitancy.
Summary
Korean summary
본 연구는 국내 19-49세 성인을 대상으로, 코로나19 3차접종 의향과 그들의 18세 미만 자녀에 대한 코로나19 기초접종 의향을 조사하고, 코로나19 백신접종 기피와 관련된 요인을 파악하고자 하였다. 2021년 12월 2일부터 20일까지 온라인 설문조사를 통하여 자료를 수집하였으며, 연구대상자는 코로나19 기초접종을 완료한 후 2주 경과한 19-49세 성인으로, 전국 대표성을 확보하기 위해 성별, 연령, 지역별로 층화하여 모집하였다. 코로나19 3차접종 기피율은 약 48.8%로 나타났으며, 접종 기피 관련 영향요인으로는 젊은 연령층, 여성, 낮은 교육수준, 기초접종 백신 종류, 기초접종 후 중증 이상반응 경험이 포함되었으며, 18세 미만 자녀에 대한 코로나19 기초접종 기피율은 65.8%로, 관련 영향요인으로는 젊은 부모 연령, 교육수준, 부모의 기초접종 백신 종류, 코로나19 감염 과거력이 포함되었다.
Key Message
Concerns about the safety and efficacy of COVID-19 vaccines were the major barrier to booster acceptance; the initial COVID-19 vaccine type (mRNA-1273), younger age, gender (women), a low education level, and adverse events after the first COVID-19 vaccine were key predictors of booster hesitancy.
Original Articles
Secular trends and related factors in leisure-time sedentary behavior among Koreans: an analysis of data from the 2011-2017 Korea Community Health Survey
Hyun-Ju Seo, Min-Jung Choi, Soon-Ki Ahn
Epidemiol Health. 2022;44:e2022023.   Published online February 14, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2022023
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
Sedentary behavior has gradually increased and has become a public health problem. Therefore, this study investigated trends in weekday leisure-time sedentary behaviors, as well as characteristic socio-demographic and lifestyle correlates in Korean adults.
METHODS
We analyzed data from 914,946 adults aged ≥19 years who participated in the Korea Community Health Survey (2011, 2013, 2015, and 2017). Leisure-time sedentary behavior was categorized as a binary variable (<4 and ≥4 hr/day). Multivariable regression analysis was used to model the prevalence of sedentary behavior and estimate odds ratios.
RESULTS
The prevalence of leisure-time sedentary behavior decreased from 15.2% to 14.4% in men and from 16.6% to 16.0% in women between 2011 and 2017, respectively. However, a significant increase was observed in subjects with an education lower than high school in both genders (β coefficient=0.12 for men and 0.08 for women, p for trend <0.001). Women in the lowest household income level (β coefficient=0.08, p for trend=0.001) and with poor subjective health status (β coefficient=0.05, p for trend=0.013) showed an increasing trend. Other factors associated with sedentary behavior were age, education level, body mass index, household income, walking activity, perceived stress level, and subjective health status in both genders.
CONCLUSIONS
Identifying the secular trends and correlates of sedentary behavior by gender and associated factors will provide empirical evidence for developing public health campaigns and promotion programs to reduce sedentary behavior in Koreans.
Summary
Korean summary
본 연구는 지역사회건강조사에서 2011년부터 2017년까지 격년으로 수집된 성인의 좌식행동에 대한 시간적 추세와 관련 요인에 대해 분석한 시계열 단면연구이다. 분석결과, 주중 여가시간에 4시간 이상 앉아 있는 경우는 남성의 경우 15.2%에서 14.4%로, 여성의 경우 16.6%에서 16.0%로 감소되었다. 그러나, 남녀 모두에서 노인인 경우, 중졸 이하의 학력을 가진 경우, 소득수준이 월 100만원 미만인 경우, 주관적 건강상태가 부정적인 경우 좌식행동이 증가하였다. 따라서, 본 연구에서 나타난 좌식행동 관련 요인을 가진 대상자를 목표집단으로 한 건강증진 및 공중보건 캠페인이 개발 및 실행될 필요가 있다.
Key Message
This study is a serial cross-sectional study analyzing the temporal trend and related factors of sedentary behavior of adults using KCHS collected biennially from 2011 to 2017. The prevalence of leisure-time sedentary behavior decreased from 15.2% to 14.4% in men and from 16.6% to 16.0% in women, respectively. However, elderly, subjects with an education lower than high school, with the lowest household income level, and with poor subjective health status showed an increasing sedentary behavior trend. These findings suggest that health promotion and public health campaigns are need to reduce the prevalence of sedentary behavior in population with related factors.
Local-level spatiotemporal dynamics of COVID-19 transmission in the Greater Seoul Area, Korea: a view from a Bayesian perspective
Youngbin Lym, Hyobin Lym, Ki-Jung Kim
Epidemiol Health. 2022;44:e2022016.   Published online January 13, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2022016
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
The purpose of this study was to enhance the understanding of the local-level spatiotemporal dynamics of COVID-19 transmission in the Greater Seoul Area (GSA), Korea, after its initial outbreak in January 2020.
METHODS
Using the weekly aggregates of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases of 77 municipalities in the GSA, we examined the relative risks of COVID-19 infection across local districts over 50 consecutive weeks in 2020. To this end, we employed a spatiotemporal generalized linear mixed model under the hierarchical Bayesian framework. This allowed us to empirically examine the random effects of spatial alignments, temporal autocorrelation, and spatiotemporal interaction, along with fixed effects. Specifically, we utilized the conditional autoregressive and the weakly informative penalized complexity priors for hyperparameters of the random effects.
RESULTS
Spatiotemporal interaction dominated the overall variability of random influences, followed by spatial correlation, whereas the temporal correlation appeared to be small. Considering these findings, we present dynamic changes in the spread of COVID-19 across local municipalities in the GSA as well as regions at elevated risk for further policy intervention.
CONCLUSIONS
The outcomes of this study can contribute to advancing our understanding of the local-level COVID-19 spread dynamics within densely populated regions in Korea throughout 2020 from a different perspective, and will contribute to the development of regional safety planning against infectious diseases.
Summary
Korean summary
본 논문은 수도권 지역에서 코로나바이러스가 처음 발생한 2020년 1월 이후 12월 말까지 총 50주 동안 수도권 내 지자체 수준에서의 코로나 19 전염병에 대한 시공간적 확산 역동성을 파악하기 위한 연구이다. 데이터 기반의 실증분석을 위한 계층적 베이지언 기법 기반의 시공간 일반화 선형 혼합모형의 결과에 따르면, 확률효과 중 시공간적 상호작용의 영향성이 가장 크게 나타났고, 다음으로는 공간자기상관에 의한 영향 순으로 나타난 반면, 시간에 의한 확률효과는 상대적으로 적게 도출되었다. 연구의 결과를 종합하여, 본 연구에서는 지도 기반의 코로나 19 위험 및 그 위험의 시공간적 변화를 제시하고, 향후 전염병에 대한 정책대응에 활용될 수 있도록 하였다.
Key Message
This study investigates the local-level spatiotemporal dynamics of COVID-19 transmission in the Greater Seoul Area, Korea, after its initial outbreak in January 2020. We adopt a flexible hierarchical Bayesian method so as to account for latent influences of space and time along with the fixed effects by covariates. The results suggest that spatiotemporal interaction dominates the overall variability of random influences, followed by spatial correlation, while the temporal effect appears to be small. Based on these findings, we present maps that depict dynamic changes of COVID-19 infection as well as regions of elevated risks for further policy consideration.
Socioeconomic inequality in compliance with precautions and health behavior changes during the COVID-19 outbreak: an analysis of the Korean Community Health Survey 2020
Ga Bin Lee, Sun Jae Jung, Yang Yiyi, Jea Won Yang, Hoang Manh Thang, Hyeon Chang Kim
Epidemiol Health. 2022;44:e2022013.   Published online January 9, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2022013
  • 7,869 View
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  • 2 Citations
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
This study examined socioeconomic inequalities in compliance with precautions and health behavior changes during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak using a representative Korean sample.
METHODS
This exploratory study utilized around 210,000 participants aged ≥25 years in the Korean Community Health Survey 2020. Socioeconomic status was measured with educational attainment and household income. Outcomes included non-compliance with 8 precaution measures and deterioration in 6 health behaviors. The relative inequality index (RII) was calculated to quantify the degree of inequality by education and income level. RII values >1.0 indicate that deprived people have a higher frequency of health problems, and RII values <1.0 conversely indicate a higher frequency of health problems in more advantaged groups.
RESULTS
People with lower education or income levels tended to have higher rates of non-compliance with COVID-19 safety precautions (RII range, 1.20 to 3.05). Lower education and income levels were associated with an increased smoking amount (RII=2.10 and 1.67, respectively) and sleep duration changes (RII=1.21 and 1.36, respectively). On the contrary, higher education and income levels were associated with decreased physical activity (RII=0.59 and 0.77, respectively) and increased delivery food consumption (RII=0.27 and 0.37, respectively). However, increased alcohol drinking was associated with lower education and income levels in younger men (RII=1.73 and 1.31, respectively), but with higher levels in younger women (RII=0.73 and 0.68, respectively).
CONCLUSIONS
Our findings suggest the need to develop customized strategies, considering the characteristics of the target population, to decrease the burden and impact of the COVID-19 outbreak.
Summary
Korean summary
코로나19 유행기간 동안 예방지침 준수율과 건강관련 생활습관이 나빠지는 정도는 사회경제적 수준에 따라 차이가 있다. 전반적으로 코로나19 예방지침 준수율은 높았지만, 사회경제수준이 낮을수록 예방지침 준수율도 낮아지는 경향을 보였다. 하지만, 사회경제수준과 생활습관 악화의 관계는 성, 연령, 생활습관의 종류에 따라 달랐다.
Key Message
This study of a representative Korean sample found that socioeconomic inequalities existed in compliance with COVID-19 precautions and in health behavior deterioration. There is a need to develop target group-specific strategies to reduce health inequalities and the long-term health burden of the COVID-19 outbreak.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Factors associating to the increased smoking time among South Korean male workers during COVID-19 pandemic
    Mi Young Kwon, Myong Sun Cho
    Korean Journal of Health Education and Promotion.2022; 39(2): 53.     CrossRef
  • Trust and compliance: Milieu-specific differences in social cohesion during the COVID-19 pandemic in Germany
    Tim Schröder, Anne Speer, Patrick Sachweh, Olaf Groh-Samberg
    Frontiers in Sociology.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
Words are not just words: how the use of media language in the COVID-19 era affects public health
Georgios P. Georgiou
Epidemiol Health. 2021;43:e2021072.   Published online September 23, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2021072
  • 4,461 View
  • 129 Download
  • 2 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
Language can shape the way we perceive the world. In this paper, we investigated how exposure to media texts containing alarming and militaristic language affects peoples’ notions regarding coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and the consequences of this effect for public health.
METHODS
After reading a passage including either alarming and militaristic or neutral terminology on COVID-19, participants completed a questionnaire in which they answered 4 questions on a 7-point Likert scale. The questions assessed participants’ notions on the end of the pandemic, vaccine effectiveness, and the consequences of COVID-19 for economies and mental health. Ordinal regression models in R were used for the analysis.
RESULTS
Individuals who were exposed to alarming and militaristic language expressed more pessimistic notions regarding COVID-19 than those who were exposed to more neutral language. However, both groups of individuals had similar notions regarding vaccine effectiveness.
CONCLUSIONS
The media should redefine the language they use for the description of the pandemic, considering that the extensive use of alarming and militaristic terminology may have a negative impact on public health.
Summary
Korean summary
Key Message
This study shows that exposure to alarming and militaristic terminology creates pessimistic notions about COVID-19. The media should avoid the extensive use of such terminology for the description of the pandemic, as this can negatively affect public health.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Examining the association between the COVID-19 pandemic and self-harm death counts in four Canadian provinces
    Shelly Isnar, Mark Oremus
    Psychiatry Research.2022; 310: 114433.     CrossRef
  • How Has COVID-19 Impacted Our Language Use?
    Francesca Pisano, Alessio Manfredini, Daniela Brachi, Luana Landi, Lucia Sorrentino, Marianna Bottone, Chiara Incoccia, Paola Marangolo
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2022; 19(21): 13836.     CrossRef
Gender role stereotypes, patriarchal attitudes, and cognitive function in the elderly rural Korean population: a cross-sectional study
Hye Rin Choi, Byeonggwan Ha, Ye Jin Jeon, Yoosik Youm, Hyeon Chang Kim, Sun Jae Jung
Epidemiol Health. 2021;43:e2021023.   Published online April 7, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2021023
  • 6,877 View
  • 299 Download
  • 1 Citations
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
We analyzed whether gender role stereotypes (GRS) and patriarchal attitudes are associated with cognitive function in an elderly community.
METHODS
We analyzed data from 580 people enrolled in the Korean Social Life, Health, and Aging Project. The degrees to which respondents held stereotypical beliefs about gender roles and had patriarchal mindsets were measured using a questionnaire. Based on participants’ responses, we divided respondents into 2 groups—those with conservative mindsets and those with open mindsets—according to the median score for each of the 2 variables. Cognitive function was assessed using the Mini-Mental State Examination, Korean version (MMSE-K). Cognitive impairment was defined as an MMSE-K score ≤21 points. Multivariable logistic regression was performed, adjusting for gender, age, socio-demographic and lifestyle factors, and social network size. Age and lifestyle factors were stratified.
RESULTS
Compared to those with open mindsets, those with conservative mindsets regarding gender roles and patriarchal norms had adjusted odds ratios of 1.88 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.11 to 3.19) and 1.67 (95% CI, 1.00 to 2.79) for cognitive impairment, respectively. In the stratified analysis, subgroups with younger age and a good lifestyle maintained a protective association with cognitive impairment.
CONCLUSIONS
GRS and a patriarchal mindset were marginally significantly associated with cognitive impairment among women later in life.
Summary
Korean summary
농촌지역에 거주하는 노년기 인구 580명 대상으로 성 역할 고정관념 또는 가부장적 사고가 인지기능과 연관성이 있는지 로지스틱 회귀분석을 통해 알아보았다. 분석결과, 보수적인 성 역할 고정관념과 가부장적 사고를 가진 여성에서 개방적인 사고를 가진 여성보다 인지기능이 통계적으로 유의하게 저하된 결과를 얻었다.
Key Message
We investigated whether gender role stereotypes and patriarchal attitudes are associated with cognitive function in the elderly rural Korean population. Compared to women with open attitudes, those with conservative attitudes regarding gender roles and patriarchal norms had marginally significant higher odds ratios for cognitive impairment. Thus, gender role stereotypes and a patriarchal mindset were marginally significantly associated with cognitive impairment among women later in life.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Examining the gender equity outlook and patriarchal beliefs of police constables in Allahabad, India: A machine learning approach
    Saumya Tripathi
    Policing: A Journal of Policy and Practice.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
COVID-19: Perspective
Atypical modes of COVID-19 transmission: how likely are they?
Viroj Wiwanitkit
Epidemiol Health. 2020;42:e2020059.   Published online August 11, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2020059
  • 29,464 View
  • 297 Download
  • 6 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Abstract
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a new emerging pandemic, which has so far infected more than 20 million people throughout the world. Typically, this infection is transmitted from humans to humans via respiratory contact. However, the possibility that COVID-19 might be transmitted via atypical modes of transmission is an important public health consideration. In this short review article, the author summarizes and discusses the data on atypical modes of COVID-19 transmission. Based on the available data, it seems that there is still no evidence that COVID-19 can be transmitted via atypical modes of transmission.
Summary
Korean summary
Key Message

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Adopting World Health Organization Multimodal Infection Prevention and Control Strategies to Respond to COVID-19, Kenya
    Daniel Kimani, Linus Ndegwa, Mercy Njeru, Eveline Wesangula, Frankline Mboya, Catherine Macharia, Julius Oliech, Herman Weyenga, George Owiso, Kamau Irungu, Ulzii-Orshikh Luvsansharav, Amy Herman-Roloff
    Emerging Infectious Diseases.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Food contamination, food safety and COVID-19 outbreak
    Saitin Sim, Viroj Wiwanitkit
    Journal of Health Research.2021; 35(5): 463.     CrossRef
  • Self-Perceived Impact of COVID-19 Pandemic by Dental Students in Bucharest
    Laura Iosif, Ana Maria Cristina Ţâncu, Andreea Cristiana Didilescu, Marina Imre, Bogdan Mihai Gălbinașu, Radu Ilinca
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2021; 18(10): 5249.     CrossRef
  • Model-free volume and pressure cycled control of automatic bag valve mask ventilator
    Cong Toai Truong, Kim Hieu Huynh, Van Tu Duong, Huy Hung Nguyen, Le An Pham, Tan Tien Nguyen
    AIMS Bioengineering.2021; 8(3): 192.     CrossRef
  • SARS-CoV-2 variant: Its clinical importance and molecular epidemiology
    Viroj Wiwanitkit
    Journal of Medical Society.2020; 34(1): 1.     CrossRef
  • SARS-CoV-2 in Semen
    Viroj Wiwanitkit
    Urologia Internationalis.2020; 104(11-12): 1000.     CrossRef
COVID-19: Editorial
WHO International Health Regulations Emergency Committee for the COVID-19 outbreak
Youngmee Jee
Epidemiol Health. 2020;42:e2020013.   Published online March 19, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2020013
  • 18,420 View
  • 794 Download
  • 131 Citations
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
To discuss whether the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak constitutes a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC), World Health Organization (WHO) organized the 15-member International Health Regulations Emergency Committee (EC). On January 22-23 and January 30, 2020, EC convened and discussed whether the situation in China and other countries would constitute PHEIC and issued recommendations for WHO, China and the international community. Based on the recommendations of EC, WHO declared the COVID-19 outbreak a PHEIC. One of the purposes of the declaration of PHEIC was to alarm countries with weak public health infrastructures to prepare promptly for emerging infectious diseases (EID) and provide WHO with a framework for proactively supporting those countries. On February 3, 2020, WHO proposed the 2019 COVID-19 Strategic Preparedness and Response Plan, which includes accelerating research and development (R&D) processes as one of three major strategies. On February 11-12, 2020, WHO held the Global Research and Innovation Forum: Towards a Research Roadmap for COVID-19. The fact that a COVID-19 R&D forum was the first meeting convened after the PHEIC declaration testifies to the importance of R&D in response to EID. Korea has demonstrated a remarkable capacity in its laboratory response by conducting high-throughput COVID-19 testing and utilizing innovative drive-through samplings. These measures for early detection and screening of cases should be followed by full efforts to produce research-based evidence by thoroughly analyzing epidemiological, clinical and immunological data, which will facilitate the development of vaccines and therapeutics for COVID-19. It is expected that Korea plays a global partner for COVID-19 research by actively participating in immediate and mid/long-term priorities jointly led by WHO and global partners.
Summary
Korean summary
WHO는 COVID-19 유행이 국제보건규약(IHR)이 규정하는 국제공중보건위기상황(PHEIC)임을 선포했다. PHEIC의 선포는 신종감염병 연구개발을 가속화하는 기회가 되며, 대한민국도 COVID-19 연구개발을 위한 글로벌 노력에 더욱 적극적으로 참여하여야 한다.
Key Message

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COVID-19: Brief Communication
An interim review of the epidemiological characteristics of 2019 novel coronavirus
Sukhyun Ryu, Byung Chul Chun
Epidemiol Health. 2020;42:e2020006.   Published online February 6, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2020006
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
The 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) from Wuhan, China is currently recognized as a public health emergency of global concern.
METHODS
We reviewed the currently available literature to provide up-to-date guidance on control measures to be implemented by public health authorities.
RESULTS
Some of the epidemiological characteristics of 2019-nCoV have been identified. However, there remain considerable uncertainties, which should be considered when providing guidance to public health authorities on control measures.
CONCLUSIONS
Additional studies incorporating more detailed information from confirmed cases would be valuable.
Summary
Korean summary
여러 국외 연구를 통해 2019 신종 코로나바이러스에 대한 역학적 특성이 보고되고 있다. 아직까지 지역사회 전파 예방 및 관리방안을 제시하기 위한 역학적 근거가 아직까지 밝혀지지 않은 부분이 많아 지속적인 추가 연구가 필요하다.
Key Message

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Special Article
Causes and countermeasures for repeated outbreaks of hepatitis A among adults in Korea
Moran Ki, Hyunjin Son, Bo Youl Choi
Epidemiol Health. 2019;41:e2019038.   Published online September 22, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2019038
  • 8,471 View
  • 219 Download
  • 7 Citations
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
The 2019 hepatitis A outbreak has become increasingly prevalent among adults in Korea and is the largest outbreak since that in 2009-2010. The incidence in the current outbreak is highest among adults aged 35-44 years, corresponding to the peak incidence among those aged 25-34 years 10 years ago. This may indicate a cohort effect in the corresponding age group. Causes of these repeated outbreaks of hepatitis A in Korea are low level of immunity among adults, Korean food culture that consumes raw seafood such as salted clam and inadequate public health system. Among countermeasures, along with general infectious disease control measures including control of the infectious agent, infection spread, and host, urgent actions are needed to review the vaccination policy and establish an adequate public health system.
Summary
Korean summary
2019년 한국 성인의 A형 간염 유행은 10년전 대규모 유행 이후 가장 큰 규모로발생하고 있다. 주 발생 연령이 10년전 유행보다 10세가 증가한 35-44세로 나타나 연령 코호트 효과라 볼 수 있다. 우리나라의 A형 간염 반복 유행의 원인은 성인의 낮은 집단면역수준, 어패류 생식문화, 공중보건의료체계 미비 등으로 보인다. 이에 대한 대책은 일반적인 감염관리대책인 감염원관리, 전파관리, 숙주관리와 함께 효율적인 백신접종정책, 공고한 공중보건관리체계 마련 등의 근본적 대책이 시급하다.
Key Message

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Brief Communication
Emergence of Neisseria meningitidis W135 in Cote d’Ivoire: laboratory based-surveillance
Man-Koumba Soumahoro, Clarisse Kouamé-Elogne, Jean-Claude Anné, Soualihou Noufé, Kouakou Christophe N’Guessan, Adèle Kacou-N’Douba, Thomas Hanslik, Mireille Dosso
Epidemiol Health. 2018;40:e2018058.   Published online November 28, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2018058
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  • 3 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
To describe the emergence of Neisseria meningitidis (Nm) W135 in Côte d’Ivoire and its characteristics compared to NmA.
METHODS
Data on Nm samples isolated at the National Reference Center for meningitis in Côte d’Ivoire between 2007 and 2012 were analyzed. Socio-demographic data and biological information on the samples were extracted from the database. Categorical variables, such as sex and the serotype of the bacteria, were compared using the Fisher exact test, while the distribution of continuous variables, such as age, was compared using the Wilcoxon test.
RESULTS
Among the 175 Nm samples, 57 were NmA, 4 were NmB, 13 were NmC, and 99 were NmW135. The geographical distribution of NmA and NmW135 did not show a significant difference according to age or sex. NmW135 was more common than NmA in the northern health districts of Cote d’Ivoire (85.9 vs. 45.5%; p<0.001). No sample of NmA has been isolated since 2009, while 95% of the type W135 samples were isolated between 2010 and 2012.
CONCLUSIONS
This study highlighted the emergence of NmW135 in Côte d’Ivoire, as well as the simultaneous disappearance of NmA. It is important to improve laboratory-based surveillance of meningitis to assess trends in the circulation of bacteria and to detect the emergence of new serogroups earlier.
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Original Article
Community-based surveillance of Cryptosporidium in the indigenous community of Boliwong, Philippines: from April to December 2017
Ryan V. Labana, Julieta Z. Dungca, Veeranoot Nissapatorn
Epidemiol Health. 2018;40:e2018047.   Published online September 28, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2018047
  • 9,154 View
  • 269 Download
  • 3 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
For the first time, Boliwong, an indigenous community in the Philippines, was surveyed for the prevalence of Cryptosporidium from April to December 2017.
METHODS
Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected in samples from the river, creek, and water pumps via immunomagnetic separation techniques, and from human and animal concentrated faecal samples using the modified Ziehl-Neelsen technique.
RESULTS
Seven of the 24 water samples (29.2%) were positive for Cryptosporidium, with the highest concentration (0.8 oocyst/L) detected in the creek. Of 35 fecal samples from different animal groups, 8 (21.6%) were positive for Cryptosporidium oocysts. The highest intensity of oocyst shedding was detected in dogs (χ2 =8.00). Of the 137 human fecal samples, 39 (28.5%) were infected with Cryptosporidium. In this study, 3 risk factors were found to be associated with infection: (1) location (crude odds ratio [cOR], 16.39; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.11 to 127.41; p=0.008), (2) drinking water from the natural spring (cOR, 0.29; 95% CI, 0.11 to 0.82; p<0.05), and (3) using an open pit as a sanitary toilet facility (cOR, 2.44; 95% CI, 1.14 to 5.20; p<0.05). When the cOR was adjusted, using an open pit as a sanitary toilet facility remained a significant risk factor of infection (adjusted OR, 0.41; 95% CI, 0.19 to 0.90; p<0.05).
CONCLUSIONS
There is a potentially emerging Cryptosporidium zoonosis in Boliwong, Lagawe, Philippines. It is recommended that the toilet facilities and the water system in the community be rehabilitated to avoid any possible disease outbreak. Health education is also needed in the community to maintain proper hygiene and sanitation practices.
Summary
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    Xin Yang, Yaqiong Guo, Lihua Xiao, Yaoyu Feng
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MERS-Epidemiologic Investigation
Surveillance operation for the 141st confirmed case of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus in response to the patient’s prior travel to Jeju Island
Jong-Myon Bae
Epidemiol Health. 2015;37:e2015035.   Published online August 7, 2015
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih/e2015035
  • 14,626 View
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  • 2 Citations
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
The provincial government of Jeju, South Korea, was notified that a 42-year-old man infected with the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) coronavirus had gone sightseeing in Jeju Island. Although the visiting period might be interpreted as the incubation period of MERS, the province decided to conduct active surveillance to prevent a worst-case scenario. Based on the channel of movement of the patient, healthy isolation and active monitoring were conducted for persons who came in contact with the patient. During the active surveillance, none of the 56 persons in self-isolation and 123 persons under active monitoring became infected. This fact supports that MERS is not contagious during the incubation period.
Summary
Korean summary
141번 MERS 양성확진자에 대한 역학조사를 통해 잠복기간에 제주도를 여행한 것이 확인되었다. 이에 제주도 MERS 방역본부는 최악의 경우를 염두에 두고, 밀접접촉자 56명과 일상접촉자 123명을 각각 자택격리와 능동모니터링 대상자로 조치하였다. 잠복기 14일을 기준으로 감시체계를 운영하였지만, 양성감염자는 전무하였다. 이는 MERS의 잠복기 동안에는 감염력이 없다는 근거가 된다.
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  • Sources of Infection Among Confirmed Cases of COVID-19 in Jeju Province, Korea
    Moonkyong Hwang, Jong-Myon Bae
    Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health.2021; 54(4): 245.     CrossRef
  • A database of geopositioned Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus occurrences
    Rebecca E. Ramshaw, Ian D. Letourneau, Amy Y. Hong, Julia Hon, Julia D. Morgan, Joshua C. P. Osborne, Shreya Shirude, Maria D. Van Kerkhove, Simon I. Hay, David M. Pigott
    Scientific Data.2019;[Epub]     CrossRef
Original Article
A Population Health Surveillance Theory
Farouk El Allaki, Michel Bigras-Poulin, Pascal Michel, André Ravel
Epidemiol Health. 2012;34:e2012007.   Published online November 30, 2012
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih/e2012007
  • 14,041 View
  • 160 Download
  • 9 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Abstract
OBJECTIVES

Despite its extensive use, the term "Surveillance" often takes on various meanings in the scientific literature pertinent to public health and animal health. A critical appraisal of this literature also reveals ambiguities relating to the scope and necessary structural components underpinning the surveillance process. The authors hypothesized that these inconsistencies translate to real or perceived deficiencies in the conceptual framework of population health surveillance. This paper presents a population health surveillance theory framed upon an explicit conceptual system relative to health surveillance performed in human and animal populations.

METHODS

The population health surveillance theory reflects the authors' system of thinking and was based on a creative process.

RESULTS

Population health surveillance includes two broad components: one relating to the human organization (which includes expertise and the administrative program), and one relating to the system per se (which includes elements of design and method) and which can be viewed as a process. The population health surveillance process is made of five sequential interrelated steps: 1) a trigger or need, 2) problem formulation, 3) surveillance planning, 4) surveillance implementation, and 5) information communication and audit.

CONCLUSIONS

The population health surveillance theory provides a systematic way of understanding, organizing and evaluating the population health surveillance process.

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Epidemiol Health : Epidemiology and Health