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Androgen deprivation therapy is associated with decreased second primary lung cancer risk in the United States veterans with prostate cancer
Kyungsuk Jung, Jong Chul Park, Hyunseok Kang, Johann Christoph Brandes
Epidemiol Health. 2018;40:e2018040.   Published online August 11, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2018040
  • 11,803 View
  • 206 Download
  • 7 Web of Science
  • 6 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
We investigated whether androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) in prostate cancer patients was associated with a decreased risk for second primary lung cancer in US veterans.
METHODS
Prostate cancer diagnoses in the US Veterans Affairs Cancer Registry between 1999 and 2008 were identified. Use of hormonal therapy and diagnoses of second primary lung cancer were determined from the registry. Synchronous prostate and lung cancers, defined as 2 diagnoses made within 1 year, were excluded from the analysis. Cancer-free survival was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method and hazard ratios were estimated using Cox proportional hazard models.
RESULTS
Among the 63,141 identified patients with prostate cancer, 18,707 subjects were eligible for the study. Hormonal therapy was used in 38% of patients and the median follow-up period was 28 months. ADT use was associated with longer lung cancer-free survival in prostate cancer patients (log-rank p=0.01). After adjusting for age, race, smoking and prostate cancer stage, ADT use was associated with decreased lung cancer risk by 15, 21, and 24% after 1, 2, and 3 years, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS
ADT in prostate cancer patients may be associated with decreased second primary lung cancer risk among US veterans.
Summary
Korean summary
비소세포성 폐암이 호르몬 수용체에 의해 영향을 받을 수 있다는 기존의 연구 결과를 바탕으로, 이 연구는 미국 재향 군인 병원 암등록 자료를 분석하여 전립선암 환자 중, 안드로겐 박탈 요법으로 치료를 받은 경우와 그렇지 않은 경우의 비소세포성 폐암 발생율을 비교분석하였다. 분석 결과, 전립선암을 진단받은 미국 재향군인들 중 안드로겐 박탈 요법으로 치료를 받은 환자들이 그렇지 않은 환자들에 비해 비소세포성 폐암 발생율이 통계적으로 유의미하게 감소하는 것이 관찰되었다.

Citations

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  • Correlation between second and first primary cancer: systematic review and meta-analysis of 9 million cancer patients
    Xinyu Wang, Meiyuan Zeng, Xueming Ju, Anqi Lin, Chaozheng Zhou, Junyi Shen, Zaoqu Liu, Bufu Tang, Quan Cheng, Youyu Wang, Jian Zhang, Peng Luo
    British Journal of Surgery.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Cancers.2023; 15(14): 3620.     CrossRef
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    Vianey Rodriguez-Lara, Giovanny Soca-Chafre, Maria Rosa Avila-Costa, Juan Jose Juarez-Vignon Whaley, Jeronimo Rafael Rodriguez-Cid, José Luis Ordoñez-Librado, Emma Rodriguez-Maldonado, Nallely A. Heredia-Jara
    Frontiers in Oncology.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Endogenous sex hormones, aromatase activity and lung cancer risk in postmenopausal never‐smoking women
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    International Journal of Cancer.2022; 151(5): 699.     CrossRef
  • Racial and ethnic differences in risk of second primary cancers among prostate cancer survivors
    Diana R. Withrow, Sara J. Schonfeld, Rochelle E. Curtis, Lindsay M. Morton, Michael B. Cook, Eboneé N. Butler, Amy Berrington de González
    Cancer Causes & Control.2020; 31(11): 1011.     CrossRef
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Physician’s awareness of lung cancer screening and its related medical radiation exposure in Korea
Seri Hong, Suyeon Kim, Mina Suh, Boyoung Park, Kui Son Choi, Jae Kwan Jun
Epidemiol Health. 2018;40:e2018002.   Published online January 20, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2018002
  • 14,130 View
  • 263 Download
  • 3 Web of Science
  • 2 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
Through a survey on perception of lung cancer screening and accompanying medical radiation exposure in Korea, the present study was to investigate its current situations and evaluate various perception of physicians regarding it in order to propose measures for improvements.
METHODS
Medical specialists in national cancer screening institutions selected through stratified random sampling were subjected to face-to-face interview using a structured questionnaire. We investigated physicians’ perception on effectiveness of lung cancer screening depending on screening modality, selection criteria for subjects of screening, types of equipment used to screen, and perception for seriousness of adverse effects following the test. In addition, odds ratios to underestimate risk of radiation exposure from screening were calculated through logistic regression analysis.
RESULTS
Each response that chest X-ray is effective for lung cancer screening and that smoking history is not considered prior to screening recommendation accounted for more than 60% of respondents, suggesting the chance of unnecessary screening tests. Regarding adverse effects of lung cancer screening, about 85% of respondents replied that false positive, radiation exposure, and overdiagnosis could be ignored. About 70% of respondents underestimated radiation dose from lung cancer screening, and a low proportion of physicians informed patients of radiation exposure risk.
CONCLUSIONS
It was found that most physicians underestimated harms of lung cancer screening including radiation exposure and were lack of awareness regarding lung cancer screening. It should be noted that physicians need to have proper perceptions about screening recommendation and accompanying possible harms, for successful implementation of the screening program.
Summary
Korean summary
전국 100여개 국가암검진 기관을 대상으로 폐암검진 관련 설문을 수행한 결과, 효과적인 폐암검진의 수단이나 방법에 대한 이해 및 검사에 수반되는 각종 부작용에 대한 의사들의 인식이 확연히 부족한 것으로 조사되었다. 그 중에서도 특히 의료방사선 노출에 대한 낮은 인지도는, 촬영 시 피폭량에 대한 전반적인 과소평가 및 방사선 노출 위험과 관련한 환자 교육의 부재를 통해 확인할 수 있었다. 인구집단 대상 선별검사의 도입에 따른 잠재적인 위해 가능성과 그 결과에 대한 고민은 반드시 필요하며, 이와 관련된 의료제공자들의 인식 개선을 촉구하는 본 연구는 정책 도입에 앞서 선결되어야 할 과제로서 공중보건학적 측면에서 중요한 의의를 지닌다.

Citations

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    Charlotte Poon, Tim Wilsdon, Iqra Sarwar, Alexander Roediger, Megan Yuan
    Frontiers in Public Health.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
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Perspective
The effect of smoking on lung cancer: ethnic differences and the smoking paradox
Keum Ji Jung, Christina Jeon, Sun Ha Jee
Epidemiol Health. 2016;38:e2016060.   Published online December 20, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2016060
  • 25,659 View
  • 653 Download
  • 49 Web of Science
  • 38 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Abstract
The objectives of this review were to determine whether the smoking paradox still exists and to summarize possible explanations for the smoking paradox. Based on published data, we compared the risk of cigarette smoking for lung cancer in Western and Asian countries. We extracted data from the relevant studies about annual tobacco consumption, lung cancer mortality rates according to smoking status from each country, and possible explanations for the smoking paradox. A significantly greater risk of lung cancer death was found among current smokers in Asian countries than among nonsmokers, with relative risks (RRs) of 4.0 to 4.6 for Koreans, 3.7 to 5.1 for Japanese, and 2.4 to 6.5 for Chinese. Although a significantly greater risk of lung cancer was present among current smokers in Asian countries, the RRs in Asian countries were much lower than those reported in Western countries (range, 9.4 to 23.2). Possible explanations for the smoking paradox included epidemiologic characteristics, such as the smoking amount, age at smoking initiation, and the use of filtered or mild tobacco. The smoking paradox definitely exists, but may be explained by major epidemiologic characteristics. Therefore, the smoking paradox should not be interpreted as indicating that tobacco is safer or less harmful for Asians.
Summary
Korean summary
흡연이 폐암에 미치는 관련성의 인종 차이 흡연은 폐암의 가장 큰 원인으로 알려져 있다. 그러나 흡연이 폐암에 미치는 관련성의 크기는 영국, 미국 등 서양에서 발표된 연구결과에서 10-20배 정도로 보고되고 있으나 한국, 일본, 중국 등 동양에서 발표된 연구에서 3-5배 정도로 낮게 보고되고 있다. 이러한 차이는 흡연유행, 담배성분, 흡연자 특성, 그리고 유전적인 차이로 일부 설명되고 있으나 아직 완전히 이해되어진 상태는 아니다. 이는 공중보건학적으로 매우 중요한 의미를 가지므로 동서양의 직접적인 비교연구가 필요할 것으로 생각된다.

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Review
Human papillomavirus infection and risk of lung cancer in never-smokers and women: an ‘adaptive’ meta-analysis
Jong-Myon Bae, Eun Hee Kim
Epidemiol Health. 2015;37:e2015052.   Published online November 17, 2015
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih/e2015052
  • 16,875 View
  • 187 Download
  • 6 Web of Science
  • 13 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
The incidence of lung cancer in Koreans is increasing in women and in both men and women with a never-smoking history. Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection has been suggested as a modifiable risk factor of lung cancer in never-smokers and women (LCNSW). This systematic review (SR) aimed to evaluate an association between HPV infection and lung cancer risk in LCNSW.
METHODS
Based on a prior SR and some expert reviews, we identified refereed, cited, or related articles using the PubMed and Scopus databases. All case-control studies that reported the odds ratio of HPV infection in LCNSW were selected. An estimate of the summary odds ratio (SOR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) was calculated.
RESULTS
A total of four case-control studies were included. The fixed-effect model was applied because of homogeneity (I-squared=0.0%). The SORs in women and in never-smokers were 5.32 (95% CI, 1.75 to 16.17) and 4.78 (2.25 to 10.15) respectively.
CONCLUSIONS
These results showed a significant effect of HPV infection in LCNSW. It is evident that developing a preventive plan against LCNSW may be necessary.
Summary

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Hypothesis
Modifiable risk factors of lung cancer in “never-smoker” women
Jong-Myon Bae
Epidemiol Health. 2015;37:e2015047.   Published online October 29, 2015
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih/e2015047
  • 17,685 View
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
Korean women with a history of never smoking and with adenocarcinoma showed an increasing trend in lung cancer occurrence during 2002 to 2012. The two modifiable factors of never-smoker lung cancer in women are hormone and oncogenic virus infection. Based on previous studies, hormone replacement therapy (HRT) and human papillomavirus (HPV) infection might afford protection or be a risk factor, respectively. It is necessary to perform a pooled analysis of cohort studies to evaluate HRT and never-smoker lung cancer in women and a systematic review of case-control studies to determine the association between HPV infection and never-smoker lung cancer.
Summary
Korean summary
2002년에서 2012년간 폐암 통계를 살펴보면 비흡연 여성에서 선암종의 발생이 크게 증가하는 것으로 확인된다. 이렇게 여성에서 비흡연 폐암발생과 관련한 요인들로는 호르몬 대체요법 (HRT)과 인유두종바이러스 (HPV) 감염이 알려져 있다. 환자-대조군연구를 이용한 메타분석에 따르면 호르몬대체요법은 폐암발생을 억제하는 것으로 나왔다. HPV에 대한 메타분석은 아직 없는 가운데 위험요인으로 의심하고 있다. 따라서 HRT에 대하여는 코호트 연구 결과를 이용한 연합분석 (pooled analysis)이 필요하며, HPV에 대하여는 환자-대조군연구 결과를 이용한 메타분석이 수행될 필요가 있다.

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Editorial
Epidemiological evidence in law: a comment on Supreme Court Decision 2011Da22092, South Korea
Alex Broadbent
Epidemiol Health. 2015;37:e2015025.   Published online May 31, 2015
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih/e2015025
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  • 4 Web of Science
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Abstract
This paper offers a commentary on three aspects of the Supreme Court’s recent decision (2011Da22092). First, contrary to the Court’s finding, this paper argues that epidemiological evidence can be used to estimate the probability that a given risk factor caused a disease in an individual plaintiff. Second, the distinction between specific and non-specific diseases, upon which the Court relies, is shown to be without scientific basis. Third, this commentary points out that the Court’s finding concerning defect of expression effectively enables tobacco companies to profit from the efforts of epidemiologists and others involved in public health to raise awareness of the dangers of smoking.
Summary

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