Skip Navigation
Skip to contents

Epidemiol Health : Epidemiology and Health

OPEN ACCESS
SEARCH
Search

Search

Page Path
HOME > Search
14 "Epidemic"
Filter
Filter
Article category
Keywords
Publication year
Authors
Funded articles
COVID-19: Original Article
Evidence of the importance of contact tracing in fighting COVID-19
Okyu Kwon
Epidemiol Health. 2022;44:e2022006.   Published online January 3, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2022006
  • 9,375 View
  • 516 Download
  • 3 Web of Science
  • 3 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
We analyzed data to determine whether there are distinguishing characteristics depending on the success or failure of control for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) by country in the trend of the daily number of confirmed cases and the number of tests.
METHODS
We obtained the number of confirmed cases and tests per day for almost every country in the world from Our World in Data. The Pearson correlation between the two time series was calculated according to the time delay to analyze the relationship between the number of tests and the number of cases with a lag.
RESULTS
For each country, we obtained the time lag that makes the maximum correlation between the number of confirmed cases and the number of tests for COVID-19. It can be seen that countries whose time lag making maximum correlation lies in a special section between about 15 days and 20 days are generally been successful in controlling COVID-19. That section looks like a trench on the battlefield.
CONCLUSIONS
We have seen the possibility that the success in mitigating COVID-19 can be expressed as a simple indicator of the time lag of the correlation between confirmed cases and tests. This time lag indicator is presumably reflected by efforts to actively trace the infected persons.
Summary
Korean summary
일일 신규 확진자 수와 검사자 수 시계열의 상관관계에서의 시간지연 값은 방역의 성공을 평가할 수 있는 지표가 될 수 있음을 여러 국가의 실제 데이터로부터 확인할 수 있었다. 이 시간 지연은 역학 조사에 따른 감염자 발굴의 노력의 결과로 이해할 수 있을 것이다.
Key Message
It was confirmed from actual data from several countries that the time delay value in the correlation between the number of daily new confirmed cases and the number of tests can be an indicator to evaluate the success of quarantine. This time delay can be understood as a result of efforts to discover infected persons according to epidemiological investigations.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Looking under the lamp-post: quantifying the performance of contact tracing in the United States during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic
    Henry Bayly, Madison Stoddard, Debra Van Egeren, Eleanor J Murray, Julia Raifman, Arijit Chakravarty, Laura F White
    BMC Public Health.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • From Crisis to Control: Amidst and Postpandemic Data Protection Concerns in Singapore and Vietnam through the Lens of Techno-Solutionism and Efficient Violation of Privacy Rights
    Vy Ngo Nguyen Thao
    Law and Development Review.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Global transmission of COVID-19 — A gravity model approach
    Hyungsoo Woo, Okyu Kwon, Jae-Suk Yang
    International Journal of Modern Physics C.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
Perspective
Controlling the drug-resistant tuberculosis epidemic in India: challenges and implications
Aliabbas A. Husain, Andreas Kupz, Rajpal S. Kashyap
Epidemiol Health. 2021;43:e2021022.   Published online April 7, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2021022
  • 12,045 View
  • 423 Download
  • 3 Web of Science
  • 4 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Abstract
India has a higher tuberculosis (TB) burden than any other country, accounting for an estimated one-fourth of the global burden. Drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) presents a major public health problem in India. Patients with DR-TB often require profound changes in their drug regimens, which are invariably linked to poor treatment adherence and sub-optimal treatment outcomes compared to drug-sensitive TB. The challenge of addressing DR-TB is critical for India, as India contributes over 27% of global DR-TB cases. In recent decades, India has been proactive in its battle against TB, even implementing a revised National Strategic Plan to eliminate TB by 2025. However, to achieve this ambitious goal, the country will need to take a multifaceted approach with respect to its management of DR-TB. Despite concerted efforts made by the National TB Elimination Program, India faces substantial challenges with regard to DR-TB care, especially in peripheral and resource-limited endemic zones. This article describes some of the major challenges associated with mitigating the growing DR-TB epidemic in India and their implications.
Summary
Key Message
India is regarded as highest drug-resistant TB burden country accounting for estimated 27% of global cases. Challenge of addressing drug resistant TB is critical for India to achieve TB elimination targets of National TB program. Several heterogeneous factors have mediated the success of DR-TB management in India. In this article, we discuss, in brief, some of the major challenges and implications associated with reducing the growing DR-TB epidemic in India.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Rifampicin-resistant Tuberculosis: A Global Health Dilemma
    Rahnuma Ahmad, Susmita Sinha, Kona Chowdhury, Mainul Haque
    Advances in Human Biology.2024; 14(2): 87.     CrossRef
  • Whole-genome sequencing of clinical isolates from tuberculosis patients in India: real-world data indicates a high proportion of pre-XDR cases
    Aparna Bhanushali, Sachin Atre, Preethi Nair, Geethanjali Anilkumar Thandaseery, Sanchi Shah, Sanjana Kuruwa, Amrutraj Zade, Chaitali Nikam, Mangala Gomare, Anirvan Chatterjee, Arryn Craney
    Microbiology Spectrum.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Double trouble: compounding effects of COVID-19 pandemic and antimicrobial resistance on drug resistant TB epidemiology in India
    Aliabbas A. Husain, Rajpal Singh Kashyap
    Frontiers in Public Health.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Snapshot of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Phylogenetics from an Indian State of Arunachal Pradesh Bordering China
    Shiv kumar Rashmi Mudliar, Umay Kulsum, Syed Beenish Rufai, Mika Umpo, Moi Nyori, Sarman Singh
    Genes.2022; 13(2): 263.     CrossRef
COVID-19: Brief Communication
Time-variant reproductive number of COVID-19 in Seoul, Korea
Seong-Geun Moon, Yeon-Kyung Kim, Woo-Sik Son, Jong-Hoon Kim, Jungsoon Choi, Baeg-Ju Na, Boyoung Park, Bo Youl Choi
Epidemiol Health. 2020;42:e2020047.   Published online June 28, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2020047
  • 12,649 View
  • 337 Download
  • 2 Web of Science
  • 4 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
To estimate time-variant reproductive number (R<sub>t</sub>) of coronavirus disease 19 based on either number of daily confirmed cases or their onset date to monitor effectiveness of quarantine policies.
METHODS
Using number of daily confirmed cases from January 23, 2020 to March 22, 2020 and their symptom onset date from the official website of the Seoul Metropolitan Government and the district office, we calculated R<sub>t</sub> using program R’s package “EpiEstim”. For asymptomatic cases, their symptom onset date was considered as -2, -1, 0, +1, and +2 days of confirmed date.
RESULTS
Based on the information of 313 confirmed cases, the epidemic curve was shaped like ‘propagated epidemic curve’. The daily R<sub>t</sub> based on R<sub>t_c</sub> peaked to 2.6 on February 20, 2020, then showed decreased trend and became <1.0 from March 3, 2020. Comparing both R<sub>t</sub> from R<sub>t_c</sub> and from the number of daily onset cases, we found that the pattern of changes was similar, although the variation of R<sub>t</sub> was greater when using R<sub>t_c</sub>. When we changed assumed onset date for asymptotic cases (-2 days to +2 days of the confirmed date), the results were comparable.
CONCLUSIONS
R<sub>t</sub> can be estimated based on R<sub>t_c</sub> which is available from daily report of the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Estimation of R<sub>t</sub> would be useful to continuously monitor the effectiveness of the quarantine policy at the city and province levels.
Summary
Korean summary
우리나라 전체와 각 시도별 일별 증상 발현자 수 또는 확진자 수를 이용하여 추정한 Rt로 방역정책의 효과를 국가 및 시도 수준에서 지속적으로 모니터링 할 필요가 있다.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Reproduction Factor Based Latent Epidemic Model Inference: A Data-Driven Approach Using COVID-19 Datasets
    Sujin Ahn, Minhae Kwon
    IEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics.2023; 27(3): 1259.     CrossRef
  • 코로나19 핵심 지표 산출체계 국제 비교 및 활용도 제고 방안 연구
    나애 이, 연경 김, 승필 정, 우주 이, 주환 오, 승식 황
    Public Health Weekly Report.2023; 16(29): 973.     CrossRef
  • The Impacts of Compact City Characteristics on COVID-19 Spreading Force : Focused on the Seoul Metropolitan Area
    Haejun Hyun, Myungje Woo
    Journal of Korea Planning Association.2023; 58(7): 5.     CrossRef
  • COVID-19 early-alert signals using human behavior alternative data
    Anasse Bari, Aashish Khubchandani, Junzhang Wang, Matthias Heymann, Megan Coffee
    Social Network Analysis and Mining.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
Review
Rapid qualitative review of ethical issues surrounding healthcare for pregnant women or women of reproductive age in epidemic outbreaks
Patrik Hummel, Abha Saxena, Corinna Klingler
Epidemiol Health. 2018;40:e2018003.   Published online January 23, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2018003
  • 15,761 View
  • 244 Download
  • 2 Web of Science
  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
This article describes, categorizes, and discusses the results of a rapid literature review aiming to provide an overview of the ethical issues and corresponding solutions surrounding pregnancies in epidemic outbreaks. The review was commissioned by the World Health Organization to inform responses to the Zika outbreak that began in 2015. Due to the urgency of the response efforts that needed to be informed by the literature search, a rapid qualitative review of the literature published in PubMed was conducted. The search and analysis were based on the operationalization of 3 key concepts: ethics, pregnancy, and epidemic outbreak. Ethical issues and solutions were interpreted within a principlist framework. The data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. The search identified 259 publications, of which the full text of 23 papers was read. Of those, 20 papers contained a substantive part devoted to the topic of interest and were therefore analyzed further. We clustered the ethical issues and solutions around 4 themes: uncertainty, harms, autonomy/liberty, and effectiveness. Recognition of the identified ethical issues and corresponding solutions can inform and improve response efforts, public health planning, policies, and decision-making, as well as the activities of medical staff and counselors who practice before, during, or after an epidemic outbreak that affects pregnant women or those of reproductive age. The rapid review format proved to be useful despite its limited data basis and expedited review process.
Summary

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • How often is the placenta included in human pregnancy research? A rapid systematic review of the literature
    Leigh A. Taylor, Kelly Gallagher, Katherine A. Ott, Alison D. Gernand
    Gates Open Research.2021; 5: 38.     CrossRef
Epidemiologic Investigation
Vaccination history in elementary school children enrolled in the varicella epidemic investigations held in Jeju-si, Korea in the first half of 2017
Hyun-Suk Oh, Jong-Myon Bae
Epidemiol Health. 2017;39:e2017053.   Published online November 13, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2017053
  • 11,806 View
  • 203 Download
  • 4 Web of Science
  • 4 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
The reported incidence rate of varicella infection in Jeju-do is higher compared with the national average. This study aimed to examine varicella vaccination history and evaluate clinical manifestation of varicella cases in Jeju-do.
METHODS
Based on the guideline suggested by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (KCDC), two epidemic investigations for varicella infection were conducted in the first half of 2017. The history of varicella vaccination was confirmed using the Integrated Control System for Diseases and Health operated by the KCDC.
RESULTS
Out of a total of 60 elementary school children as the study subjects, all had been previously vaccinated against varicella. Twenty cases (33%) showed mild clinical manifestations and no complications.
CONCLUSIONS
As the government of Jeju-do has supplied a single-labeled vaccine since 2011, there is a need to evaluate the type of vaccination failure such as primary or secondary.
Summary
Korean summary
수두 발생 신고률에 있어 제주도는 전국에 비해 높은 수준을 보이고 있지만, 수둑접종률은 전국과 유사한 수준이다. 이에 2017년 상반기 수두 집단발생에 대응한 2건의 역학조사를 수행한 결과, 33%에서 돌발수두 임상 증상을 보였고 모두 백신 접종력이 있었다. 높은 발생 신고률은 지역사회 소아 개원의들의 높은 신고에 의한 것으로 유추할 수 있으며, 수두 백신 실패에 대한 추후 조사가 필요하다.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Seroprevalence and molecular characteristics of varicella-zoster virus infection in Chinese children
    Lin Luan, Xiaochen Shen, Jing Qiu, Yang Jing, Jingqi Zhang, Jie Wang, Jun Zhang, Chen Dong
    BMC Infectious Diseases.2019;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Cost-effectiveness analysis of universal varicella vaccination in Turkey using a dynamic transmission model
    Lara J. Wolfson, Vincent J. Daniels, Matthew Pillsbury, Zafer Kurugöl, Cuneyt Yardimci, Jeffrey Kyle, Ener Cagri Dinleyici, Georges M.G.M. Verjans
    PLOS ONE.2019; 14(8): e0220921.     CrossRef
  • Incidence of varicella in children in Jeju-do, Korea, 2005-2016: age-period-cohort analysis
    Jinhee Kim, Ji-Eun Kim, Jong-Myon Bae
    Epidemiology and Health.2018; 40: e2018054.     CrossRef
  • Analysis of sero-epidemiological characteristics of varicella in healthy children in Jiangsu Province, China
    Lei Zhang, Wang Ma, Yuanbao Liu, Yong Wang, Xiang Sun, Ying Hu, Xiuying Deng, Peishan Lu, Fenyang Tang, Zhiguo Wang, Minghao Zhou
    BMC Infectious Diseases.2018;[Epub]     CrossRef
MERS-Original Article
Preventive behaviors by the level of perceived infection sensitivity during the Korea outbreak of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome in 2015
Soon Young Lee, Hee Jeong Yang, Gawon Kim, Hae-Kwan Cheong, Bo Youl Choi
Epidemiol Health. 2016;38:e2016051.   Published online November 16, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2016051
  • 15,329 View
  • 247 Download
  • 16 Web of Science
  • 16 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
This study was performed to investigate the relationship between community residents’ infection sensitivity and their levels of preventive behaviors during the 2015 Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) outbreak in Korea.
METHODS
Seven thousands two hundreds eighty one participants from nine areas in Gyeonggi-do including Pyeongtaek, the origin of the outbreak in 2015 agreed to participate in the survey and the data from 6,739 participants were included in the final analysis. The data on the perceived infection sensitivity were subjected to cluster analysis. The levels of stress, reliability/practice of preventive behaviors, hand washing practice and policy credibility during the outbreak period were analyzed for each cluster.
RESULTS
Cluster analysis of infection sensitivity due to the MERS outbreak resulted in classification of participants into four groups: the non-sensitive group (14.5%), social concern group (17.4%), neutral group (29.1%), and overall sensitive group (39.0%). A logistic regression analysis found that the overall sensitive group with high sensitivity had higher stress levels (17.80; 95% confidence interval [CI], 13.77 to 23.00), higher reliability on preventive behaviors (5.81; 95% CI, 4.84 to 6.98), higher practice of preventive behaviors (4.53; 95% CI, 3.83 to 5.37) and higher practice of hand washing (2.71; 95% CI, 2.13 to 3.43) during the outbreak period, compared to the non-sensitive group.
CONCLUSIONS
Infection sensitivity of community residents during the MERS outbreak correlated with gender, age, occupation, and health behaviors. When there is an outbreak in the community, there is need to maintain a certain level of sensitivity while reducing excessive stress, as well as promote the practice of preventive behaviors among local residents. In particular, target groups need to be notified and policies need to be established with a consideration of the socio-demographic characteristics of the community.
Summary
Korean summary
2015년 한국에서 발생한 메르스 유행 시 지역 주민이 인식하는 민감도와 예방행위 수준을 파악하고 연관성을 밝히고자 2015년 경기도 9개 시의 지역사회건강조사 대상자 6,739명을 대상으로 감염 민감도와 예방행위 등을 조사 분석하였다. 감염 민감도는 성별, 연령, 직업, 건강행위와 연관성이 있었으며, 감염에 대한 민감도가 높을수록 스트레스를 많이 받는 한편, 예방행위 실천에 긍정적인 영향을 미침을 알 수 있었다. 따라서 감염병 유행 시 지나친 스트레스는 줄이되 공중보건 위기에 대한 적정 수준의 민감도를 유지하고, 인구사회학적 특성을 고려한 관리정책이 요구된다.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Social distancing behaviour: avoidance of physical contact and related determinants among South Africans: twelve days into the COVID-19 lockdown
    Ronel Sewpaul, Musawenkosi Mabaso, Allanise Cloete, Natisha Dukhi, Inbarani Naidoo, Adlai S Davids, Tholang Mokhele, Khangelani Zuma, Sasiragha Priscilla Reddy
    Psychology, Health & Medicine.2023; 28(1): 260.     CrossRef
  • Psychological Impacts of Coronavirus Outbreaks on Adults: A Rapid Evidence Review
    Emily Berger, Negar Jamshidi, Andrea Reupert
    International Journal of Mental Health Promotion.2022; 24(5): 619.     CrossRef
  • Temporal changes in psychobehavioural responses during the early phase of the COVID-19 pandemic in Malaysia
    Li Ping Wong, Haridah Alias
    Journal of Behavioral Medicine.2021; 44(1): 18.     CrossRef
  • The effect of risk communication on preventive and protective Behaviours during the COVID-19 outbreak: mediating role of risk perception
    Seyed Taghi Heydari, Leila Zarei, Ahmad Kalateh Sadati, Najmeh Moradi, Maryam Akbari, Gholamhossin Mehralian, Kamran Bagheri Lankarani
    BMC Public Health.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Effect of e-Health Literacy on COVID-19 Infection-Preventive Behaviors of Undergraduate Students Majoring in Healthcare
    Kyung Jin Hong, Noo Lee Park, Soo Yeon Heo, Seo Hyun Jung, Ye Been Lee, Ji Hoon Hwang
    Healthcare.2021; 9(5): 573.     CrossRef
  • Determinants of Social Distancing Among South Africans From 12 Days Into the COVID-19 Lockdown: A Cross Sectional Study
    Ronel Sewpaul, Musawenkosi Mabaso, Natisha Dukhi, Inbarani Naidoo, Noloyiso Vondo, Adlai Steven Davids, Tholang Mokhele, Sasiragha Priscilla Reddy
    Frontiers in Public Health.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) Virus—Pathophysiological Axis and the Current Treatment Strategies
    Abdullah M Alnuqaydan, Abdulmajeed G Almutary, Arulmalar Sukamaran, Brian Tay Wei Yang, Xiao Ting Lee, Wei Xuan Lim, Yee Min Ng, Rania Ibrahim, Thiviya Darmarajan, Satheeshkumar Nanjappan, Jestin Chellian, Mayuren Candasamy, Thiagarajan Madheswaran, Ankur
    AAPS PharmSciTech.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Comparison of the practice of personal hygiene prevention and social distance among Korean and Nepalese university students during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic
    Min Ah Chung, Hocheol Lee, Eun Woo Nam
    Korean Journal of Health Education and Promotion.2021; 38(2): 43.     CrossRef
  • Evaluation of Hospital Avoidance at Department of Hand Surgery in Tertiary Hospital after Infectious Disease Outbreaks
    Seung Hoo Lee, Hyun Dae Shin, Soo Min Cha, Eun Seok Choi
    Archives of Hand and Microsurgery.2021; 26(4): 218.     CrossRef
  • Factors associated with psychosocial problems in Korean nursing and non-nursing students during the COVID-19 pandemic
    Jeongmin Ha, Dahye Park
    PeerJ.2021; 9: e12541.     CrossRef
  • Influence of trust on two different risk perceptions as an affective and cognitive dimension during Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) outbreak in South Korea: serial cross-sectional surveys
    Won Mo Jang, Un-Na Kim, Deok Hyun Jang, Hyemin Jung, Sanghyun Cho, Sang Jun Eun, Jin Yong Lee
    BMJ Open.2020; 10(3): e033026.     CrossRef
  • Complementary and alternative medicine use among outpatients during the 2015 MERS outbreak in South Korea: a cross-sectional study
    Jung Hye Hwang, Hyun Jeong Cho, Hyea Bin Im, Young Sun Jung, Soo Jeung Choi, Dongwoon Han
    BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies.2020;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Social Distancing and Transmission-reducing Practices during the 2019 Coronavirus Disease and 2015 Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Outbreaks in Korea
    Won Mo Jang, Deok Hyun Jang, Jin Yong Lee
    Journal of Korean Medical Science.2020;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Hand Hygiene and Tuberculosis Risk in Korea: An Ecological Association
    Mi Ah Han
    Asia Pacific Journal of Public Health.2018; 30(1): 67.     CrossRef
  • Exploring the Determinants of Perceived Risk of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) in Korea
    Sunhee Kim, Seoyong Kim
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2018; 15(6): 1168.     CrossRef
  • Effective risk governance requires risk communication experts
    Hye-Jin Paek
    Epidemiology and Health.2016; 38: e2016055.     CrossRef
An Epidemiologic Study on the Leptospiral Infection in the Period of an Anticipated Epidemic
Bo Youl Choi, Dae Eun Chung, Soo Jin Lee, Hung-Bae Park, Jeoung Bae Park, Kyung Hee Lee, Jeong Soon Kim
Korean J Epidemiol. 1992;14(1):91-101.   Published online June 30, 1992
  • 5,039 View
  • 9 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Abstract
A large epidemic of leptospirosis was anticipated in September 1990 because flood has resulted the heavy rain for 4 consecutive days from the 8th of September, 1990, in the Yang-pyeung Gun (Country), a farm area of Central Korea. Actually, patients were already appearing sporadically soon after the flood. Soldiers of ROK Army units stationed in this area were under the higher risk since many of them participated in field works (such as tieing rice plant fallen by the flood) as a part of Civil Aid Plan. The objectives of this study were 1) to detect infected ones at early stage 2) to estimate the attack rates of infection and apparent infection through serologic examinations, 3) to estimate pathogenecity and case-fatality rate and 4) to compare the rates of infection by the type of work and the use of protective devices. All of those with febrile episode were interviewed and the leptospiral antibody was examined during the one month period after the field work. Serologic examinations (including the interview) were done twice with 1 week interval (first on 8th to 10th of October, about 4 weeks following the days of field work) for 446 soldiers belong to three companies stationed in the country area. The serologic test (Microscopic agglutination test) were performed with 4 strains. Icterohemorrhagiae lai and Canicola canicola Hond Utrecht IV as standard strains, and 6P-049-1 and YP-35-1 as strains isolated in Korea in 1986, in accordance with WHO guideline. The results are as follows. 1. Among 57 febrile, suspected cases, 37 had serological tests twice and, 20 of them (54.1%) were serologically confirmed to be infected whereas among other 20 subjects who had single serological test, only 2 persons (10.0%) were serologically positive. 2. The dates of onset of fever in confirmed cases were clustered in 10 to 20 days from late September to early October, which coincided well with the duration of exposure (Sep. 13-18). 3. The attack rate of infection and apparent infection were estimated to be 11.2% (95% C. I. ; 8.3-14.1%), 1.8% (95% C. I. ; 0.7-3.1%). Pathogenecity and case-fatality rate were estimated to be 16.0% (95% C. I. ; 6.0-26.0%) and 0%, respectively. 4. The attack rate of infection of persons who worked in rice paddy for 3-6 days, for 1-2 days and participated in other field work were 3.5, 2.7 and 2.1 time high respectively as high as that of persons who did not join in field work (p<0.05). 5. The effectiveness of protective devices shown in this study was rater poor; perhaps the preparation of the protective devices was not sufficient because the mobilization of army is usually a sudden order. For more satisfactory prevention in the future, a complete clothing (including glove and boots) and chemoprophyaxis (with doxycycline) are recommended.
Summary
Original Articles
Outbreak of Scabies at Geriatric Long-Term Care Facilities in Korea.
Mo Ran Ki, Hyun Jin Moon, Hyoun Cho
Korean J Epidemiol. 2006;28(1):100-111.
  • 65,535 View
  • 41 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
To investigate an outbreak of scabies that occurred in geriatricfacilities located in Kyounggi-province, Korea, between September 2004 and September 2005.
METHODS
We carried out an epidemiologic investigation on the scabies outbreak. All workers except two were interviewed and the charts of the patients were reviewed.
RESULTS
Among workers, the attack rate was 58.6% (17/29). The rate was 86.0%(37/43) in patients. Secondary cases also occurred among the family members of workers, with a secondary attack rate of 15.8%. The 95% confidence interval was 6%~31.3%. The transmission of scabies began from one index case who had scabies and moved from another facility. She was hospitalized on the 4th floor of this facilitywhere dependent patients resided. After the activities (picnic and yard sale) in May 2005, and the ward rotation of care givers between the 3rd and 4th floor in July 2005, the incidence of scabies increased. The last cases occurred in Sep. 2005.
CONCLUSIONS
This outbreak investigation has importance because it is the first report of ascabies outbreak in geriatric long-term care facilities in Korea. Recently, the reports on a scabies epidemic are increasing with the augmentation of geriatric long-term care facilities. It is important to educate and inform workers and staff in long-term care facilities about scabies and other contagious skin diseases. More facilities for senility and dementia will be opened and we need to lookinto contagious diseases in long-term care facilities.
Summary
Epidemic modeling and Table-top Exercise for Emerging Infectious Diseases in Korea.
Byung Chul Chun
Korean J Epidemiol. 2006;28(1):47-63.
  • 65,535 View
  • 49 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Abstract
Understanding the spread of infections is of vital importance in the control of epidemics and the development of proper policies toprevent infectious diseases. Theory and techniques have been developed for the study of both the evolution of diseases with individual people and the transmission of infections through populations. From broad theoretical issues to specific practical problems, the mathematical modeling studies of infectious diseases have provided great insight to solve the mechanisms of disease spread and to predict the course of epidemics. Emerging and reemerging infectious diseases have attracted widespread concern in Korea. While preparing the influenza pandemic plan in 2004, we developed a model of the new influenza pandemic to estimate the number of cases and deaths, the shortage of medical resources, and the effect of interventions such as isolation and vaccination. Based on this model, we constructed a possible pandemic scenario of the emerging virus, and designed a table-top exercise for public health officials and related administration staff. On March 30th, 2005, the exercise was performed and the results were evaluated as successful. In the case of bioterrorism, a model of small pox epidemic was developed in 2005 to examine the speed of the disease spread in the population and to evaluate the intervention effects in a Korean city. The simulation results were also helpful to form a guideline to prepare for a small pox epidemic. These two experiments confirmed the usefulness of epidemic modeling in Korea.
Summary
An Epidemic Survey for Salmonellosis Occurred on a Baby's First Birthday Banquet in Jeju Island.
Sang Yeop Shin, Jung Yun Hong, Jong Myon Bae
Korean J Epidemiol. 2004;26(1):27-38.
  • 5,314 View
  • 29 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
A field investigation was done to identify the level of epidemic and to evaluate the infection route of Salmonellosis occurred in a baby's first birthday banquet in Jeju Island.
METHODS
Among participants in the banquet given on a baby's first birthday, persons showing gastrointestinal symptoms were conducted by the structured questionnaire and stool culture. The symptomless persons were also surveyed by self-responded structured questionnaire. The causal relationship between food items and gastrointestinal symptoms was proved by odds ratio and Wilcoxon rank-sum test.
RESULTS
Salmonella london was identified in the stools of 12 subjects among 20 participants showing gastrointestinal symptoms, as well as in the boiled pork hock.
CONCLUSIONS
This outbreak event is thought to happen after participants took the boiled pork hock that contaminated with S almonella london during the storage process.
Summary
The Epidemiologic Characteristics of Measles for Two Years in a Metropolitan City: Based on the reported measles cases since 2000.
Hyun Kyun Ki, Young Hwa Jung, Jae Keun Chung, So Yeon Ryu, Ki Soon Kim
Korean J Epidemiol. 2002;24(1):63-75.
  • 5,908 View
  • 17 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Abstract
PURPOSE
There has been an epidemic of measles in Korea since 2000. Therefore, we analyze the epidemiologic haracteristics of measles in Gwangju Metropolitan City.
METHODS
We reviewed the epidemiologic investigation records and laboratory data of the measles patients reported in Gwangju Metropolitan City from January 1st 2000.
RESULTS
1) Demographic characteristics: Totally, 3,392 cases were surveyed and 3,300 cases were enrolled (3,300/3,392, 97.3%). Fifty-four percents of the patients were male (1,771/3,300) and forty-six percents of the patients were female (1,529/3,300). Average age of the patients was 8.20 years (8.20 5.56 years). Forty-seven percents of the patients were reported in the interval from November 2000 to December 2000 (1,582/3,298, 47.9%). 2) Clinical manifestations of the patients: Common symptoms of measles patients were fever (3,300/3,300, 100.0%), skin rash (3,068/3,300, 93.0%), cough (2,889/3,300, 87.5%), rhinorrhea (1,883/3,300, 57.1%), headache (1,445/3,300, 43.8%), conjunctival injection (1,182/3,300, 35.8%), and oral thrush (832/3,300, 25.2%). Among the patients, 250 patients had complications (250/3,300, 7.6%) and most of them were respiratory complications (220/250, 88.0%). 3) Vaccination: Eighty-six percent of the enrolled patients answered the question about vaccination (2,854/3,300, 86.4%); 808 patients were not taken a shot (808/2854, 28.3%), 1,762 patients received one dose (1,762/2,854, 61.7%), and 284 patients received additional dose (284/2,854, 9.9%). 4) Laboratory data: Laboratory confirmed cases were 780 patients (780/3,300, 23.6%); 603 cases were confirmed serologically, 185 cases were positive in PCR, and virus was isolated in 6 cases. Genetic sequencing of the isolated viruses was clade H1 and closely related to that of China.
CONCLUSION
Therefore, adequate surveillance and maintenance of high coverage rate of the vaccination would be the crucial factors to eradicate measles
Summary
A Forecasting Model for the Epidemic of Nationally Notifiable Communicable Diseases in Korea.
Yonggyu Park, Hyoung Ah Kim, Kyung Hwan Cho, Euichul Shin, Kwang Ho Meng
Korean J Epidemiol. 2000;22(2):108-115.
  • 5,560 View
  • 25 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Abstract
PURPOSE
S: The authors derived two forecasting models which can be used as objective tools for detecting epidemics and predicting the future frequencies of communicable diseases.
METHODS
In this study, regression analysis using trigonometric functions, Box and Jenkins's seasonal ARIMA model were applied to the monthly accumulated data of five nationally notifiable communicable diseases from January 1987 to December 1998 in Korea.
RESULTS
Between two forecasting models, seasonal ARIMA model gives more precise predicted frequencies than regression model in the neighborhood of the current time points and future time, but the regression model is better in overall agreement between the predicted and observed frequencies during 7 years(1992-1998).
CONCLUSIONS
These forecasting models can be usefully applied in deciding and carrying out a national policy in preventing epidemics in the future, and graphic program is much helpful to understand the present status of disease occurrence.
Summary
An Epidemiologic Investigation on the Mode of Transmission of the Lethal Salmonellosis Outbreak in Hamyang County.
Jang Rak Kim, Sang Won Lee, Hong Bin Kim, Jin Cha, Kwang Hyun Lee, Kang Woo Bae
Korean J Epidemiol. 1999;21(2):185-194.
  • 5,646 View
  • 10 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Abstract
An outbreak of Salmonella enteritidis epidemic involving about 200 inpatients of gastroenteritis and 1 death occurred among about 750 participants from Hamyang County who attended 4 wedding lunch parties at one buffet restaurant on April 25, 1999. There were also many patients including 1 death among about 500 participants outside Hamyang County who attended same parties. Person to person interviews made to 155 inpatients revealed that distribution of incubation periods was between 1 to 34 hours with median time, 13-14 hours. A retrospective cohort study was conducted to investigate the mode of transmission. Telephone interviews were made to party participants (except 61 inpatients who already had been interviewed personally) on symptoms and on which they had eaten among 40 served foods including water at the parties and data among 288 persons were available for the analyses. One hundred and ninety one interviewees had more than two symptoms among symptoms of diarrhea(more than 3 times), abdominal pain, and fever, which gave an attack rate of 66.3%(191/288). The relative short incubation period and high attack rate suggested the presence of higher infecting dose in this epidemic. Logistic regression analysis revealed that the probable infective foods were boiled cockle, gamju, boiled midodok, fried rices, eomook, and boiled pig's trotter. Salmonella enteritidis were identified in the specimens of boiled cockle, cooked beef, and uncooked beef. Only boiled cockle was both an epidemiological and microbiological infective food. There might be cross-contaminations between several served foods, which meant presence of many contaminated foods by Salmonella enteritidis with different stage of their multiplications. Efforts to inspect food service areas and educate foodhandlers in good personal hygiene and proper foodhandling practices should be strengthened to reduce the incidences of salmonellosis in Korea.
Summary
A Statistical Standard for Detecting Epidemic of Notifiable Acute Communicable Diseases in Korea.
Yong Gyu Park, Eui Chul Shin, Kwang Ho Meng
Korean J Epidemiol. 1997;19(1):73-80.
  • 5,631 View
  • 17 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Abstract
Many problems have been stated in the surveillance system of notifiable acute communicable diseases in Korea. Lack of objective tools for detecting epidemic is one of the most fundamental. We propose a statistical standard for detecting epidemic of those diseases that could be easily and promptly applicable to the existing data. Suggested standard measure is computed from the median and the spread of upper and lower hinge(spr(H)) which is robust to the assumption of normal distribution, so frequently used in exploratory data analysis as a measure of variation, and the results are compared with those of existing method using recent 3 years from January 1994 to December 1996 of monthly data of 8 notifiable acute communicable diseases in Korea. Monthly pattern of statistical epidemic between the proposed (median) and existing(mean) methods is similar. Therefore, we propose that the statistical epidemic should be defined when the current occurrence exeeds the standards of both methods. When the data collection is made weekly than monthly, the proposed method of determining the time of epidemic will be much helpful for the management of notifiable diseases.
Summary

Epidemiol Health : Epidemiology and Health