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COVID-19: Original Article
Socioeconomic inequality in compliance with precautions and health behavior changes during the COVID-19 outbreak: an analysis of the Korean Community Health Survey 2020
Ga Bin Lee, Sun Jae Jung, Yang Yiyi, Jea Won Yang, Hoang Manh Thang, Hyeon Chang Kim
Epidemiol Health. 2022;44:e2022013.   Published online January 9, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2022013
  • 12,736 View
  • 636 Download
  • 9 Web of Science
  • 9 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
This study examined socioeconomic inequalities in compliance with precautions and health behavior changes during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak using a representative Korean sample.
METHODS
This exploratory study utilized around 210,000 participants aged ≥25 years in the Korean Community Health Survey 2020. Socioeconomic status was measured with educational attainment and household income. Outcomes included non-compliance with 8 precaution measures and deterioration in 6 health behaviors. The relative inequality index (RII) was calculated to quantify the degree of inequality by education and income level. RII values >1.0 indicate that deprived people have a higher frequency of health problems, and RII values <1.0 conversely indicate a higher frequency of health problems in more advantaged groups.
RESULTS
People with lower education or income levels tended to have higher rates of non-compliance with COVID-19 safety precautions (RII range, 1.20 to 3.05). Lower education and income levels were associated with an increased smoking amount (RII=2.10 and 1.67, respectively) and sleep duration changes (RII=1.21 and 1.36, respectively). On the contrary, higher education and income levels were associated with decreased physical activity (RII=0.59 and 0.77, respectively) and increased delivery food consumption (RII=0.27 and 0.37, respectively). However, increased alcohol drinking was associated with lower education and income levels in younger men (RII=1.73 and 1.31, respectively), but with higher levels in younger women (RII=0.73 and 0.68, respectively).
CONCLUSIONS
Our findings suggest the need to develop customized strategies, considering the characteristics of the target population, to decrease the burden and impact of the COVID-19 outbreak.
Summary
Korean summary
코로나19 유행기간 동안 예방지침 준수율과 건강관련 생활습관이 나빠지는 정도는 사회경제적 수준에 따라 차이가 있다. 전반적으로 코로나19 예방지침 준수율은 높았지만, 사회경제수준이 낮을수록 예방지침 준수율도 낮아지는 경향을 보였다. 하지만, 사회경제수준과 생활습관 악화의 관계는 성, 연령, 생활습관의 종류에 따라 달랐다.
Key Message
This study of a representative Korean sample found that socioeconomic inequalities existed in compliance with COVID-19 precautions and in health behavior deterioration. There is a need to develop target group-specific strategies to reduce health inequalities and the long-term health burden of the COVID-19 outbreak.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Association of Depression With Precautionary Behavior Compliance, COVID-19 Fear, and Health Behaviors in South Korea: National Cross-sectional Study
    Hyerine Shin, Ji-Su Kim, HyunHae Lee
    JMIR Public Health and Surveillance.2023; 9: e42677.     CrossRef
  • Trends in socioeconomic inequalities in obesity among Korean adolescents: the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (KYRBS) 2006 to 2020
    Eunji Kim, Ga Bin Lee, Dong Keon Yon, Hyeon Chang Kim
    Epidemiology and Health.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Communication inequalities in the COVID-19 pandemic: socioeconomic differences and preventive behaviors in the United States and South Korea
    Woohyun Yoo, Yangsun Hong, Sang-Hwa Oh
    BMC Public Health.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Compliance Trajectory and Patterns of COVID-19 Preventive Measures, Japan, 2020–2022
    Taro Kusama, Kenji Takeuchi, Yudai Tamada, Sakura Kiuchi, Ken Osaka, Takahiro Tabuchi
    Emerging Infectious Diseases.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • COVID-19 in Baghdad, Iraq: adaptive and emotional findings in a household cluster survey
    Riyadh Lafta, Sahar Al-Shatari, Meighan Mary, Gilbert Burnham
    Frontiers in Public Health.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Predicting Support for COVID-19 Policies with Partisan Media Use and Negative Emotion: Evidence from the U.S. and South Korea
    Dam Hee Kim, Tae Hyun Lim, Yu Jeong Hwang, Seongcheol Kim
    Journal of Health Communication.2023; 28(sup2): 32.     CrossRef
  • Factors associating to the increased smoking time among South Korean male workers during COVID-19 pandemic
    Mi Young Kwon, Myong Sun Cho
    Korean Journal of Health Education and Promotion.2022; 39(2): 53.     CrossRef
  • Trust and compliance: Milieu-specific differences in social cohesion during the COVID-19 pandemic in Germany
    Tim Schröder, Anne Speer, Patrick Sachweh, Olaf Groh-Samberg
    Frontiers in Sociology.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Effect of socioeconomic disparities on the risk of COVID-19 in 8 metropolitan cities in the Korea: a community-based study
    Myung-Jae Hwang, Shin Young Park, Tae-Ho Yoon, Jinhwa Jang, Seon-Young Lee, Myeongsu Yoo, Yoo-Yeon Kim, Hae-Kwan Cheong, Donghyok Kwon, Jong-Hun Kim
    Epidemiology and Health.2022; 44: e2022107.     CrossRef
Original Article
Misconceptions and stigma against people living with HIV/AIDS: a cross-sectional study from the 2017 Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey
Desi Suantari
Epidemiol Health. 2021;43:e2021094.   Published online November 6, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2021094
  • 8,002 View
  • 162 Download
  • 5 Web of Science
  • 6 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
Data are not available in Indonesia to measure the main indicators of zero new infections, zero acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related deaths and zero discrimination. This study aimed to determine factors related to misconceptions about human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission and the stigma against people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in Indonesia
METHODS
This cross-sectional study used secondary data from the 2017 Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey (IDHS). The sample was women and men aged 17-45 years and married (n=3,023).
RESULTS
Education and wealth index quintile were significantly related to misconceptions about HIV transmission. Respondents with low levels of education were more likely to have misconceptions about HIV transmission. Respondents who were in the poorest, poorer, middle, and richer quintiles of the wealth index were more likely to have misconceptions about HIV transmission than those in the richest quintile. Educational level, employment status, and wealth index quintile were predictors of stigma against PLWHA.
CONCLUSIONS
There are still many Indonesian people with misconceptions about HIV transmission and stigma against PLWHA. Future studies should focus on educational programs or interventions aimed at increasing public knowledge and awareness, promoting compassion towards PLWHA, and emphasizing respect for the rights of PLWHA. These interventions are particularly important for populations who are uneducated and living in poverty.
Summary
Key Message
Many Indonesians still experience misconceptions about HIV transmission and stigmatize PLWHA. Educational programs or interventions are needed to increase public knowledge and awareness, promoting compassion towards PLWHA, and emphasizing respect for the rights of PLWHA, particularly among the poor and uneducated.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Prevalence and sociodemographic determinants of public stigma towards people with HIV and its impact on HIV testing uptake: A cross‐sectional study in 64 low‐ and middle‐income countries
    Ana Mendez‐Lopez, Trenton M. White, María José Fuster‐RuizdeApodaca, Jeffrey V. Lazarus
    HIV Medicine.2024; 25(1): 83.     CrossRef
  • The Pandemics of Mass Destruction: A Comparative Analysis of HIV/AIDS and Coronavirus (COVID-19)
    Robert Kajiita, Simon Kang'ethe
    Journal of Multidisciplinary Healthcare.2024; Volume 17: 889.     CrossRef
  • The Unheard Stories: Experiences of Young People Living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus in Dealing with Discrimination in the Philippines
    Donna Sombrea, Sofia Liane Santarin, Trixie Gayle Verde, Andrea Tidalgo, Coleen Tolosa
    HIV/AIDS - Research and Palliative Care.2024; Volume 16: 33.     CrossRef
  • Stigmatizing and discriminatory attitudes toward people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) among general adult population: the results from the 6th Thai National Health Examination Survey (NHES VI)
    Sineenart Chautrakarn, Parichat Ong-Artborirak, Warangkana Naksen, Aksara Thongprachum, Jukkrit Wungrath, Suwat Chariyalertsak, Scott Stonington, Surasak Taneepanichskul, Sawitri Assanangkornchai, Pattapong Kessomboon, Nareemarn Neelapaichit, Wichai Aekpl
    Journal of Global Health.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Factor Associated with HIV/AIDS knowledge among males: Findings from 2017-18 Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey
    Jamal Abdul Nasir, Muhammad Danish Khan, Syed Arif Ahmed Zaidi
    Journal of Biosocial Science.2023; 55(6): 1169.     CrossRef
  • Knowledge of HIV/AIDS and its determinants in India: Findings from the National Family Health Survey-5 (2019– 2021)
    Mansi Malik, Siaa Girotra, Debolina Roy, Saurav Basu
    Population Medicine.2023; 5(May): 1.     CrossRef
Perspective
Neglected paths of transmission of milkborne brucellosis and tuberculosis in developing countries: novel control opportunities
Arockiasamy Arun Prince Milton, Samir Das, Sandeep Ghatak
Epidemiol Health. 2020;42:e2020073.   Published online December 4, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2020073
  • 9,073 View
  • 151 Download
  • 3 Web of Science
  • 2 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Abstract
Brucellosis and tuberculosis are lingering zoonotic infections that are endemic in many developing parts of the world, with considerable economic and health costs. Although guidelines for the control of these diseases exist, we highlight neglected transmission routes of these diseases. We show that informal, door-to-door marketing of unpasteurized milk provides an important route for disease transmission through kitchen cross-contamination. Furthermore, the practice of discarding the first strippings of milk at farms needs adjustment to avoid floor and environmental contamination. Herein, we propose handling guidelines and a design for a milk stripping collection vessel. We believe that taking action to block these hitherto unrecognized transmission routes will complement existing efforts and guidelines.
Summary

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • A review of three decades of use of the cattle brucellosis rough vaccine Brucella abortus RB51: myths and facts
    J. M. Blasco, E. Moreno, P. M. Muñoz, R. Conde-Álvarez, I. Moriyón
    BMC Veterinary Research.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Editorial: Taking a Fresh Look at Old Zoonoses, What Have We Been Missing in One Health Research and Education?
    Alessandra Scagliarini, Olli Peltoniemi, Anita Luise Michel
    Frontiers in Public Health.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
Original Article
Effects of a cancer prevention education program on elementary school students’ knowledge, attitude, self-efficacy, and intentions in South Korea
Su Yeon Kye, Soon-Yong Hwang, Kyung Hee Oh, Jae Kwan Jun
Epidemiol Health. 2019;41:e2019027.   Published online June 16, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2019027
  • 10,731 View
  • 247 Download
  • 10 Web of Science
  • 8 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
Most children and adolescents have low levels of cancer knowledge and awareness, and infrequently engage in preventive behaviors. This study examined the effects of a short classroom-based intervention for cancer prevention on knowledge, attitude toward cancer preventability, self-efficacy, and behavioral intentions of fifth-grade elementary school students.
METHODS
The study was based on a pre-post-follow-up, 2-group, quasi-experimental design. Participants in the intervention group attended two 40-minute sessions on cancer prevention education and watched a music video about cancer prevention, while participants in the control group were only exposed to the music video. Self-reported knowledge, attitude toward cancer preventability, self-efficacy, and behavioral intentions were assessed 1 week pre-intervention and post-intervention, as well as 3 months post-intervention.
RESULTS
The 3-month post-intervention results revealed partial effects, indicating that the education intervention improved knowledge and attitudes toward cancer preventability; however, no effects were observed on self-efficacy and behavioral intentions 3 months after the intervention.
CONCLUSIONS
Long-term regular booster sessions are required to improve not only social-cognitive factors, but also behavioral intentions, which could result in behavior changes promoting cancer prevention.
Summary
Korean summary
대부분의 아동과 청소년들은 암예방행동 실천을 잘 하지 못하고 있을뿐만 아니라 낮은 암지식 수준을 보인다. 본 연구는 초등학교 5학년 학생들을 대상으로 단기간의 교실 중심의 암예방중재가 지식, 암예방가능성에 대한 태도, 자기효능감, 행동의도에 미치는 영향을 살펴보았다. 사전-사후-3개월이후 추후조사의 형태로 두 집단 유사실험설계로 구성되었다. 중재집단의 참여자들은 2회의 40분으로 구성된 암예방교육에 참여하였고 암예방뮤직비디오를 시청하였다. 대조집단의 참여자들은 암예방뮤직비디오만 시청하였다. 지식, 암예방가능성에 대한 태도, 자기효능감, 행동의도가 중재전, 중재직후, 중재3개월후에 자가보고형식으로 측정되었다. 3개월 이후 추후조사에서 지식과 암예방가능성에 대한 태도가 향상되었으나, 자기효능감과 행동의도에서는 통계적으로 유의한 차이가 나타나지 않았다. 인지적 요소뿐만 아니라 행동적 요소를 변화하기 위해서는 장기간의 추가교육이 필요할 것으로 판단된다.

Citations

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  • Effectiveness of an Educational Program on Awareness of Breast Cancer Risk Factors, Symptoms, and Barriers to Seeking Medical Help among Adolescent Omani School Students—An Interventional Study
    Khadija Al-Hosni, Moon Fai Chan, Mohammed Al-Azri
    Current Oncology.2023; 30(4): 4126.     CrossRef
  • Assessing the effectiveness of a school educational video on cancer and radiotherapy
    Masanari Minamitani, Atsuto Katano, Keiichi Nakagawa
    Health Education Journal.2023; 82(7): 820.     CrossRef
  • Cognition of the warning symptoms and risk factors for cancer among Chinese college students: a cross-sectional study based on a summer social practice activity
    Lin-sen Feng, Qing-li Li, Qing Yang, Yu-lu Zhu, Fu-lin Yin, Qi-yao Wang, Wen-jue Zhong, Xiao-qian Wu, Ruo-yu Yan, Zheng-jiao Dong
    Annals of Medicine.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • What Children and Adolescents Know and Need to Learn about Cancer
    Carol Sigelman, Imani Jami, Eleanor D’Andria
    The Journal of Genetic Psychology.2022; 183(4): 294.     CrossRef
  • The impact of a breast cancer educational intervention in Ghanaian high schools
    Josephine Nsaful, Florence Dedey, Edmund Nartey, Juliana Labi, Nii Armah Adu-Aryee, Joe Nat Clegg-Lamptey
    BMC Cancer.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Human genetics education as part of the Japanese Cancer Education Comprehensive Support Project
    Fumi Yamada-Kurebayashi, Motoko Sasaki, Asami Kuga, Risa Kojima, Hidehiko Miyake
    Journal of Community Genetics.2022; 14(2): 163.     CrossRef
  • The Effectiveness of Interventional Cancer Education Programs for School Students Aged 8–19 Years: a Systematic Review
    Khadija Al-Hosni, Moon Fai Chan, Mohammed Al-Azri
    Journal of Cancer Education.2021; 36(2): 229.     CrossRef
  • Adolescents’ Perceptions About Cancer and Preferences for Cancer Education
    Olufunmilola Abraham, Claire A. Rosenberger, Sarah M. LeMay, Sarah J. Bittner
    Cancer Control.2021; 28: 107327482110360.     CrossRef
Perspective
The direction of restructuring of a Korea field epidemiology training program through questionnaire survey among communicable disease response staff in Korea
Moo Sik Lee, Kwan Lee, Jee-Hyuk Park, Jee-Young Hong, Min-Young Jang, Byoung-Hak Jeon, Sang-Yun Cho, Sun-Ja Choi, JeongIk Hong
Epidemiol Health. 2017;39:e2017032.   Published online July 24, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2017032
  • 13,026 View
  • 179 Download
  • 1 Web of Science
  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
We used a survey about the need for an educational training of infectious disease response staff in Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (KCDC) and officer in metropolitan cities and provincial government to conduct field epidemiological investigation. The survey was conducted from January 25 to March 15, 2016. A total of 173 participants were selected from four different groups as follows: 27 clinical specialists, 22 Epidemic Intelligence Service (EIS) officers, 82 KCDC staff, and 42 local health department officials. Results revealed that 83% of KCDC staff and 95% of local health department officials agreed on the need for educational training to strengthen capability of personnel to conduct epidemic research and investigation. The level of their need for training was relatively high, while self-confidence levels of individuals to conduct epidemic research and investigation was low. It was concluded that there was a need to develop training programs to enhance the ability of public health officials, EIS officers, KCDC staff, and local health department personnel to conduct epidemic research and investigation.
Summary
Korean summary
2015년 한국의 메르스 유행후 한국의 감염병 대응인력을 대상으로 한 조사분석을 통하여 역학조사관 교육 개편의 필요성을 확인하고, 세부 교육과정, 방법 및 내용 등 포괄적인 교육강화 및 개선방안을 모색하여 향후 역학조사관 신규 교육프로그램의 개발과 역량강화 방안을 제시하였다.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Perceived sources of occupational burn-out and embitterment among front-line health workers for COVID-19 control in Gyeonggi province, South Korea: a qualitative study
    Bee-Ah Kang, Sijoung Kwon, Myoungsoon You, Heeyoung Lee
    Occupational and Environmental Medicine.2022; 79(4): 245.     CrossRef
Review
The criteria for metabolic syndrome and the national health screening and education system in Japan
Kazumasa Yamagishi, Hiroyasu Iso
Epidemiol Health. 2017;39:e2017003.   Published online January 6, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2017003
  • 19,592 View
  • 573 Download
  • 92 Web of Science
  • 85 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Abstract
Two major definitions of metabolic syndrome have been proposed. One focuses on the accumulation of risk factors, a measure used by the American Heart Association (AHA) and the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI); the other focuses on abdominal obesity, a measure used by the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and the Japanese government. The latter definition takes waist circumference (WC) into consideration as an obligatory component, whereas the former does not. In 2009, the IDF, NHLBI, AHA, and other organizations attempted to unify these criteria; as a result, WC is no longer an obligatory component of those systems, while it remains obligatory in the Japanese criteria. In 2008, a new Japanese cardiovascular screening and education system focused on metabolic syndrome was launched. People undergoing screening are classified into three groups according to the presence of abdominal obesity and the number of metabolic risk factors, and receive health educational support from insurers. This system has yielded several beneficial outcomes: the visibility of metabolic syndrome at the population level has drastically improved; preventive measures have been directed toward metabolic syndrome, which is expected to become more prevalent in future generations; and a post-screening education system has been established. However, several problems with the current system have been identified and are under debate. In this review, we discuss topics related to metabolic syndrome, including (1) the Japanese criteria for metabolic syndrome; (2) metabolic syndrome and the universal health screening and education system; and (3) recent debates about Japanese criteria for metabolic syndrome.
Summary

Citations

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    João Carlos Pinto, Ruth Silva Lima Da Costa
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Original Articles
Effect of An Education Program on the Pregnant Women to Improve the Correct Recognition and Choice among the BCG Vaccination Methods.
Seung Hee Lee, Chae Min Chun, Jin Ho Chun
Korean J Epidemiol. 2008;30(2):263-271.   Published online December 31, 2008
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/kje.2008.30.2.263
  • 6,815 View
  • 21 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Abstract
PURPOSE
The most effective and basic Tb preventive measure is BCG vaccination. Even though the Intradermal vaccination method in BCG vaccination is known to be the most accurate method in preventing the advanced Tb, nowdays most of the Korean civilian hospitals utilize multipuncture BCG vaccination method ,which is quite contrary to the national standard intradermal vaccination method. Therefore I decided to inform and educate the pregnant women who would be in a position to choose the BCG vaccination method. This will help them understand the BCG vaccination methods properly. We should urge the intradermal method which is acknowledged as the national standard vaccination method.
METHODS
The questionnaire was mailed twice to 214 pregnant women requring the antenatal care who visited any of the 9 health centers in Busan from the period of Aug to Oct. 2007. The 1st questionnaire was done in 214 pregnant women prior to education concerning the BCG vaccination methods and Tb, and the 2nd questionnaire was done after education. Contents of the questionnaire were general knowledges for BCG vaccination method, intention of selection for BCG vaccination, knowledges for the adverse effect, etc. Data analysis was performed utilizing SPSS (ver12) and the pregnant women's change in concept was comparatively analyzed with percentage, chi-square -test .
RESULTS
Considering the general characteristics of the pregnant women who participated in the study, the highest percentage was noticed in their 15-28 gestational weeks (60.8%), Age over 30 (70.1%), Education level-college graduate (76.6%). Recognition to the presence of two types BCG vaccination method was 27.6% before education and 95.3% after education which showed a marked improvement (p=0.0001). After education, 82.2% of pregnant women decided to choose intradermal BCG vaccination method at birth which was 23.4% before education (p=0.0003). Despite the fact that intradermal BCG method is the national standard vaccination method, some of them prefer multipuncture BCG vaccination method, because most of the scars (41.3%), the civilian hospitals do it (35.7%), because of the lack of the education and information from the health centers and public institutions (17.4%). The future selection of BCG vaccination methods as follows: before education, intradermal BCG vaccination 31.0%, multipuncture BCG vaccination 14.6%, uncertain 54.4%, and after education, intradermal BCG vaccination 72.4%, multipuncture BCG vaccination 2.8%, uncertain 24.8% (p<0.0001).
CONCLUSIONS
The pregnant women were not fully aware of intradermal and multipuncture BCG vaccination methods. Through education and information, it was possible for them to thoroughly recognize the BCG vaccination methods. In order to urge the intradermal BCG vaccination method, the health centers and public institutions need to educate and inform the pregnant women regarding the intradermal BCG vaccination method which is the standard vaccination method in Korea.
Summary
Knowledges and Attitudes of College Student to Aquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome.
Jin Ho Chun, Seong Hoon Lee, Hae Sook Sohn, Jong Tae Lee
Korean J Epidemiol. 2002;24(1):37-53.
  • 5,305 View
  • 9 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
Though AIDS is one of the most serious and world-wide health problem, there have been developed no effective control measure but individually oriented prevention. This study was performed to help preparing the efficient control program for college student who are sexually active, considered as a risk group for HIV infection.
METHODS
Subjects were 852 college students of one university in Gyungsangnam-do. From September to October 2001, questionnaire survey on the students' knowledge and attitude, and status of health education about AIDS (HEAIDS) was done. Collected data was analyzed using SAS (ver 6.21) program.
RESULTS
The subjects were freshman (52.1%) and enrollment (47.9%), with department of medicine (19.1%), nursing (25.8%), health administration (9.1%), business (11.4%), chemical (16.2%), food (8.8%), gymnastics (9.5%). Though about 90% of them agreed with the necessity of HEAIDS, half of them (54.7%) had no experience of HEAIDS and most (88.1%) of them considered it had been insufficient. The informations about AIDS was acquired mainly from TV newspaper (73.0%), but partly from specified health education (16.1%). They have no experience of unsafe sexual contact (96.1%), however, they considered that they can have accidental sexual contact (22.7%) in the future. Response for intention to use of preventative condom use was certainly (66.7%) and questionable (33.3%). About the knowledges on HIV infection and transmission, most of them knew relatively well about no curative medicine (94.8%), infected by sexual contact (85.7%), common use of needle (96.4%), transfusion (95.2%), transplantation (89.8%), longitudinal infection (88.7%). However, the correct answer rate was relatively low in clinical spectrum; can maintain normal life with medical care (31.0%), and some transmission route; kiss (46.9%), cough sneezing (45.8%), common use of bowl towl (49.1%) and bath (43.4%), insect like mosquitos (49.1%), razor (35.4%). The mean level of the knowledges on HIV infection and transmission was 67.5 and 71.6 out of a possible 100, respectively. The knowledge level (p=0.003) and certainty to use of preventable condom use (p=0.001) was higher in HEAIDS experienced group. Experiences to HEAIDS was more in enrollment (50.5%) than freshman (40.5%) (p=0.004), medicine (51.4%) than health (32.1%) and general (41.9%) by department group (p=0.001). With regard to the attitudes on HIV infection, they didn't agreed with 'had intention to check themselves for HIV infection (94.2%)', 'case or suspected case can attend to same school with my children (71.8%)', 'had intention to join in clinical trial of new regimen for AIDS (74.4%)'.
CONCLUSIONS
This result showed that present status of HEAIDS for college students is still insufficient. Because the knowledges and attitudes about AIDS are influenced by HEAIDS, professional and efficient education program would be emphasized on the practical level for health protection, eg, preventative condom use. This study has also another meanings to reveal the positive effect and to recall the motive for individual-based prevention
Summary
A Comparison of Occupation, Education, and Cause of Death from National Death Certificates and Deaths Data Due to Workplace Injuries from WELCO in Korea.
Mia Son
Korean J Epidemiol. 2001;23(2):44-51.
  • 38,579 View
  • 19 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Abstract
PURPOSE
The variables (occupation, education, cause of death, age, and sex) on death certificates can be used for health related studies, however, there has been little research on health related studies using death certificates in Korea. Also, the validity of the values of these variables on death certificates is questionable in Korea. Therefore, we compared occupation, data obtained from WELCO(Korea Labour Welfare Corporation) between 1995 and 1997.
METHODS
WELCO data on deaths due to workplace injury between 1995-1997 were merged with data from NSO on deaths occurring during the same period, using social security numbers. Out of a total of 7,698 deaths due to workplace injury reported to WELCO between 1995 and 1997, final study population are linked to 6,513 deaths among aged 20-64 between 1995 and 1997. On linking the data sets, two different sources of data are cross-tabulated to determine the percentage of agreement. Expected agreement and Kappa index are also calculated.
RESULTS
The results are as follows : Some manual workers are promoted into the non-manual group in the national death data from the National Statistics Office. Educational groups are promoted or demoted between NSO and WELCO death data. The Kappa index for occupational group is 0.49 when the occupational groups are categorised as manual and non-manual workers. The Kappa index is 0.50 in the two-category classification for education : beyond and below university levels; 0.32 in the three-category classification : university, high-school and less than middle-school; 0.25 in the four category classification : university, high-school, middle-school and less than elementary school. The Kappa index is 0.69 for the three-category disease classification : injury, poisoning and certain other consequences of external causes (S00-T98, ICD10), disease of the circulatory system(I00-I99, ICD10) and other disease categories except the two-category classification. The Kappa index for the 5-year age band is 0.99. There is no disagreement for the sex.
CONCLUSIONS
The comparison between national workplace injury data and national death data and tells us that occupational and educational variables are not in the range of 'excellent agreement' suggested by Koch(1997). Our comparison study suggests strong prediction of random errors as well as systemic errors. As for the cause of death, injury and cardiovascular disease from the NSO data are well-matched with those from the WELCO workplace injury death data. However, this comparison may have a limitation as the present study is confined to comparing only the categories of infury and cardiovascular disease. This study suggests that national death data as well as workplace injury data need to be improved for use as health indicators in studies relating socio-economic factors and working conditions to mortality in Korea.
Summary

Epidemiol Health : Epidemiology and Health