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Folate, vitamin B12, and homocysteine status in the Korean population: data from the 2013-2015 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
Sihan Song, Bo Mi Song, Hyun-Young Park
Epidemiol Health. 2024;46:e2024007.   Published online December 11, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2024007
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
We aimed to assess the serum folate, vitamin B12, and homocysteine status in Korean adolescents and adults using national data.
METHODS
Blood samples were collected from participants aged ≥10 years in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2013-2015. The stored serum samples were used to measure folate, vitamin B12, and homocysteine concentrations. A total of 8,016 participants were included in this analysis. Unweighted descriptive statistics and adjusted geometric means of the B vitamins and homocysteine concentrations were estimated.
RESULTS
Females had higher serum folate and vitamin B12 concentrations and lower serum homocysteine concentrations than males. Folate deficiency (<6.8 nmol/L) and hyperhomocysteinemia (>15 μmol/L) were found in 8.6% and 11.8% of males, respectively. Approximately 3% of males had low or marginally low vitamin B12 status (≤221 pmol/L). Folate and vitamin B12 deficiencies and hyperhomocysteinemia were found in <2% of females. Suboptimal folate status was prevalent among adolescents and young adults, while suboptimal vitamin B12 status and hyperhomocysteinemia were relatively higher in older adults. Adjusted mean homocysteine concentrations were sharply decreased from the first to second decile of serum folate in males.
CONCLUSIONS
In the Korean population, the proportion of males who achieved desirable folate and homocysteine concentrations were lower than those of females. Although most Koreans have adequate vitamin B12, a suboptimal folate status is common, particularly among adolescents and young adults. These findings could establish a foundation for public health initiatives aimed at improving folate levels in the Korean population.
Summary
Korean summary
엽산과 비타민B12는 전 생애에 걸쳐 건강에 영향을 미치는 필수 비타민이다. 그러나 해당 비타민 상태에 대한 국내 자료는 부족한 실정이다. 본 연구는 국민건강영양조사 참여자로부터 수집된 혈청으로부터 엽산, 비타민B12, 그리고 이들의 기능성 지표인 호모시스테인 농도를 측정하였고 성별과 연령별 분포와 적합 상태를 평가하였다. 엽산 결핍과 고호모시스테인혈증은 남성에서 높은 유병률을 가졌다. 적정 엽산 상태를 충족하지 못하는 비율은 청소년과 젊은 성인에서 흔하게 관찰되었다. 대부분의 한국인은 충분한 비타민B12 수준을 가졌으나, 노인의 경우 정기적인 평가가 필요하다. 본 연구는 한국인이 최적의 엽산과 비타민B12 상태를 유지하기 위한 기반적 근거를 제공한다.
Key Message
Folate and vitamin B12 have significant health impacts throughout the life cycle. However, national-level data on B vitamins in Korea are limited. Serum folate, vitamin B12, and homocysteine concentrations were measured from samples stored during the national survey. In our study, the proportions of folate deficiency and hyperhomocysteinemia were higher in men than in women.Suboptimal folate status was common among adolescents and young adults. Most Koreans had adequate levels of vitamin B12; however, regular monitoring is warranted, especially in the older population. The current data provide a future direction for achieving optimal B vitamin status in the Korean population.
Comparison of self-reported and accelerometer-assessed measurements of physical activity according to socio-demographic characteristics in Korean adults
Seung Won Lee, Jee-Seon Shim, Bo Mi Song, Ho Jae Lee, Hye Yoon Bae, Ji Hye Park, Hye Rin Choi, Jae Won Yang, Ji Eun Heo, So Mi Jemma Cho, Ga Bin Lee, Diana Huanan Hidalgo, Tae-Hoon Kim, Kyung Soo Chung, Hyeon Chang Kim
Epidemiol Health. 2018;40:e2018060.   Published online November 29, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2018060
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  • 6 Web of Science
  • 6 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
Previous studies have shown relatively low correlations between self-reported and accelerometer-assessed physical activity (PA). However, this association differs by socio-demographic factors, and this relationship has not been fully investigated in the general population. Thus, we investigated the correlation between self-reported and accelerometer-assessed PA and whether it differed by demographic and socioeconomic factors among the Korean general population.
METHODS
This cross-sectional study included 623 participants (203 men and 420 women) aged 30 to 64 years, who completed a PA questionnaire and wore a wrist-worn accelerometer on the non-dominant wrist for 7 days. We examined the agreement for metabolic equivalent task minutes per week (MET-min/wk) between the 2 measures and calculated Spearman correlation coefficients according to demographic and socioeconomic factors.
RESULTS
The kappa coefficient between tertiles of self-reported and accelerometer-assessed total MET-min/wk was 0.16 in the total population, suggesting overall poor agreement. The correlation coefficient between the 2 measurements was 0.26 (p<0.001) in the total population, and the correlation tended to decrease with increasing age (p for trend <0.001) and depression scores (p for trend <0.001).
CONCLUSIONS
We found a low correlation between self-reported and accelerometer-assessed PA among healthy Korean adults, and the correlation decreased with age and depression score. When studying PA using accelerometers and/or questionnaires, age and depression need to be considered, as should differences between self-reported and accelerometer-assessed PA.
Summary
Korean summary
역학연구에서 신체활동량 측정에 가장 많이 사용되는 설문조사와 가속도계 착용법인데, 두 가지 방법으로 측정한 신체활동량은 상관성이 그리 높지 않으며, 대상자 특성에 따라서도 일치도가 다른 것으로 보고되고 있다. 따라서, 비교적 건강한 중년의 한국 성인을 대상으로 자가설문과 가속도계 조사를 사용해 측정한 신체활동량의 관련성을 조사해보았다. 이 연구는 전향적 코호트 연구의 기반조사 결과를 이용한 단면연구로, 지역사회 거주하는 30-64세 성인 623명(남성203명, 여성 420명)을 대상으로 하였으며, 신체활동을 자가보고 설문조사와 3축 가속도계를 7일간 손목에 연속착용하여 측정하고 두 방법으로 측정한 신체활동량을 비교하였다. 전체 대상자에서 두 방법으로 측정한 신체활동량 삼분위(tertile) 값의 일치도를 조사했을 때 Kappa 통계량은 0.16 이었으며 Spearman 상관계수는 0.26 (p<0.001)이었다. 나이가 많을수록 우울증상이 많을수록 두 방법 간 일치도와 상관성이 낮아지는 경향을 보였다.

Citations

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  • Historical development of accelerometry measures and methods for physical activity and sedentary behavior research worldwide: A scoping review of observational studies of adults
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Association of appendicular skeletal muscle mass with carotid intima-media thickness according to body mass index in Korean adults
Ji Eun Heo, Hyeon Chang Kim, Jee-Seon Shim, Bo Mi Song, Hye Yoon Bae, Ho Jae Lee, Il Suh
Epidemiol Health. 2018;40:e2018049.   Published online October 7, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2018049
  • 12,348 View
  • 203 Download
  • 14 Web of Science
  • 13 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
The combined effects of obesity and appendicular skeletal muscle (ASM) on atherosclerosis, especially in middleaged populations, remain poorly understood. This cross-sectional study investigated the effects of ASM on carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) according to body mass index (BMI) in middle-aged Korean adults.
METHODS
Herein, 595 men and 1,274 women aged 30-64 years completed questionnaires and underwent health examinations as part of the Cardiovascular and Metabolic Disease Etiology Research Center cohort. ASM was measured via bioelectrical impedance analysis and adjusted for weight (ASM/Wt). IMT was assessed using B-mode ultrasonography; highest quartile of IMT was defined as gender-specific top quartile of the IMT values. Higher BMIs was defined as a BMI over 25.0 kg/m2 .
RESULTS
Compared to the highest ASM/Wt quartile, the lowest ASM/Wt quartile was significantly associated with highest quartile of IMT in men with lower BMIs (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 2.78; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.09 to 7.13), but not in those with higher BMIs (aOR, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.24 to 1.91). In women, there was no significant association of low skeletal muscle mass with highest quartile of IMT, regardless of BMI.
CONCLUSIONS
Low appendicular skeletal muscle mass is associated with carotid arterial wall thickening in men with lower BMIs, but not in men with higher BMIs. Our findings suggest that the risk of atherosclerosis may be low in middle-aged Korean men with appropriate body weight and skeletal muscle mass maintenance.
Summary
Korean summary
한국 중년 성인을 대상으로 사지근육양과 죽상경화증(경동맥 내중막 두께≥75 percentile)의 관련성을 체질량지수(≥25, <25 kg/m2)로 층화하여 평가하였다. 체질량지수 25 kg/m2 미만인 남자에서는, 사지근육양이 낮으면 죽상경화증의 위험이 유의하게 높았으나, 체질량지수 25 kg/m2 이상인 남자에서는 관련성이 없었다. 반면 여자에서는 체질량지수에 상관없이 사지근육양과 죽상경화증의 독립적인 관련성이 관찰되지 않았다.

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Cohort Profile
Cardiovascular and Metabolic Diseases Etiology Research Center (CMERC) cohort: study protocol and results of the first 3 years of enrollment
Jee-Seon Shim, Bo Mi Song, Jung Hyun Lee, Seung Won Lee, Ji Hye Park, Dong Phil Choi, Myung Ha Lee, Kyoung Hwa Ha, Dae Jung Kim, Sungha Park, Won-Woo Lee, Hyeon Chang Kim
Epidemiol Health. 2017;39:e2017016.   Published online April 1, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2017016
  • 16,961 View
  • 327 Download
  • 35 Web of Science
  • 36 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Abstract
Although the etiologies of cardiovascular disease (CVD) are widely understood, the goal of finding a globally effective solution for preventing CVD is unrealistic. Therefore, we aimed to conduct a community-based prospective study on the prevention and management of CVD in Korean adults. This study was designed to recruit 8,000 healthy adults over the course of 5 years. The baseline assessment includes a wide range of established CVD risk factors, including demographic characteristics, medical history, health behaviors, psychological conditions, body size and composition, blood pressure, the augmentation index, carotid ultrasonography, an electrocardiogram, and biochemical indicators, as well as some novel factors, such as social network characteristics, exposure to environmental pollutants, inflammatory markers, hemostatic markers, and immunosenescence markers. Annual telephone interviews and follow-up health examinations at 5-year intervals after the baseline assessment are planned to collect information on changes in health status and its determinants. Additionally, indirect follow-up using secondary data sources will be conducted to obtain information on health services utilization and death. So far, more than 6,000 adults have been enrolled during the first three and a half years, and almost all participants have been tracked by annual telephone follow-up surveys. The data have been uploaded to iCReaT, the clinical research information management system of the Korea National Institute of Health.
Summary
Korean summary
심뇌혈관 및 대사질환 원인연구센터(Cardiovascular and Metabolic Diseases Etiology Research Center)에서는 심뇌혈관질환 및 대사질환의 새로운 발병 원인을 찾고 효율적인 예방 전략을 개발하고자 코호트(CMERC cohort와 CMERC-HI cohort)를 구축하였다. 지역사회에 거주하는 만 30-64세 건강한 성인을 대상으로 하는 CMERC cohort는 2013년부터 2018년 까지 총 5년 동안 8000명 등록을 목표로 기반조사를 진행 중이며(2016년 12월 현재 6000여명 등록), 이미 알려진 다양한 위험요인 이외에 사회연결망 정보와 면역노화 관련 바이오마커 등 새로운 위험 요인에 관한 광범위한 정보가 수집되고 있다. CMERC cohort는 심뇌혈관 및 대사질환 예방연구의 기초자료로 활용되어 과학적 데이터에 근거한 예방 전략 수립에 기여하게 될 것이다.

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  • Association between the Thigh Muscle and Insulin Resistance According to Body Mass Index in Middle-Aged Korean Adults
    Ji Eun Heo, Jee-Seon Shim, Hokyou Lee, Hyeon Chang Kim
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2020; 44(3): 446.     CrossRef
  • Depressive symptoms, its sub-factors, and augmentation index: the modifying effects according to inflammatory markers
    Ye Jin Jeon, So Mi Jemma Cho, Yu Jin Lee, Hyeon Chang Kim, Sun Jae Jung
    Journal of Affective Disorders.2020; 272: 380.     CrossRef
  • Ambulatory blood pressure variability and risk of cardiovascular events, all-cause mortality, and progression of kidney disease
    Jong Hyun Jhee, Jiwon Seo, Chan Joo Lee, Jung Tak Park, Seung Hyeok Han, Shin-Wook Kang, Sungha Park, Tae-Hyun Yoo
    Journal of Hypertension.2020; 38(9): 1712.     CrossRef
  • Comparison of Computed Tomography-based Abdominal Adiposity Indexes as Predictors of Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Among Middle-aged Korean Men and Women
    Jongmin Baek, Sun Jae Jung, Jee-Seon Shim, Yong Woo Jeon, Eunsun Seo, Hyeon Chang Kim
    Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health.2020; 53(4): 256.     CrossRef
  • Effect of Smartphone-Based Lifestyle Coaching App on Community-Dwelling Population With Moderate Metabolic Abnormalities: Randomized Controlled Trial
    So Mi Jemma Cho, Jung Hyun Lee, Jee-Seon Shim, Hyungseon Yeom, Su Jin Lee, Yong Woo Jeon, Hyeon Chang Kim
    Journal of Medical Internet Research.2020; 22(10): e17435.     CrossRef
  • The Association of Adiponectin and Visceral Fat with Insulin Resistance and β-Cell Dysfunction
    Hyun Uk Moon, Kyoung Hwa Ha, Seung Jin Han, Hae Jin Kim, Dae Jung Kim
    Journal of Korean Medical Science.2019;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Presence of Metabolic Syndrome Components Is Associated with Tooth Loss in Middle-Aged Adults
    Min-Jeong Cho, Youn-Hee Choi, Hyeon Chang Kim, Jee-Seon Shim, Atsuo Amano, Ji-Young Kim, Keun-Bae Song
    Yonsei Medical Journal.2019; 60(6): 554.     CrossRef
  • Cohort Profile: The Cardiovascular and Metabolic Diseases Etiology Research Center Cohort in Korea
    Jee-Seon Shim, Bo Mi Song, Jung Hyun Lee, Seung Won Lee, Ji Hye Park, Dong Phil Choi, Myung Ha Lee, Kyoung Hwa Ha, Dae Jung Kim, Sungha Park, Won-Woo Lee, Yoosik Youm, Eui-Cheol Shin, Hyeon Chang Kim
    Yonsei Medical Journal.2019; 60(8): 804.     CrossRef
  • Can persistent organic pollutants distinguish between two opposite metabolic phenotypes in lean Koreans?
    K.H. Ha, S.A. Kim, Y.M. Lee, D.J. Kim, D.H. Lee
    Diabetes & Metabolism.2018; 44(2): 168.     CrossRef
  • Association between appendicular skeletal muscle mass and depressive symptoms: Review of the cardiovascular and metabolic diseases etiology research center cohort
    Ji Eun Heo, Jee-Seon Shim, Bo Mi Song, Hye Yoon Bae, Ho Jae Lee, Eun Lee, Hyeon Chang Kim
    Journal of Affective Disorders.2018; 238: 8.     CrossRef
  • Association of Insulin Resistance with Lower Bone Volume and Strength Index of the Proximal Femur in Nondiabetic Postmenopausal Women
    Jaewon Yang, Namki Hong, Jee-Seon Shim, Yumie Rhee, Hyeon Chang Kim
    Journal of Bone Metabolism.2018; 25(2): 123.     CrossRef
  • Association of appendicular skeletal muscle mass with carotid intima-media thickness according to body mass index in Korean adults
    Ji Eun Heo, Hyeon Chang Kim, Jee-Seon Shim, Bo Mi Song, Hye Yoon Bae, Ho Jae Lee, Il Suh
    Epidemiology and Health.2018; 40: e2018049.     CrossRef
  • Comparison of self-reported and accelerometer-assessed measurements of physical activity according to socio-demographic characteristics in Korean adults
    Seung Won Lee, Jee-Seon Shim, Bo Mi Song, Ho Jae Lee, Hye Yoon Bae, Ji Hye Park, Hye Rin Choi, Jae Won Yang, Ji Eun Heo, So Mi Jemma Cho, Ga Bin Lee, Diana Huanan Hidalgo, Tae-Hoon Kim, Kyung Soo Chung, Hyeon Chang Kim
    Epidemiology and Health.2018; 40: e2018060.     CrossRef
  • Are Serum Vitamin D Levels Associated With Dry Eye Disease? Results From the Study Group for Environmental Eye Disease
    Da-Hye Jeon, Hyungseon Yeom, Jaewon Yang, Jong Suk Song, Hyung Keun Lee, Hyeon Chang Kim
    Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health.2017; 50(6): 369.     CrossRef

Epidemiol Health : Epidemiology and Health