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Measles susceptibility of marriage migrant women in Korea
Sooyeon Kim, Sun A Kim, Hanbich Hong, Seong Ryeong Choi, Hae-Young Na, Sung Un Shin, Kyung-Hwa Park, Sook In Jung, Min-Ho Shin, Sun-Seog Kweon, Seung Ji Kang
Epidemiol Health. 2022;44:e2022031.   Published online March 12, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2022031
  • 6,700 View
  • 361 Download
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Abstract
International migrants could be considered a risk group susceptible to vaccine-preventable diseases. We conducted a measles seroprevalence study among 419 marriage migrant women living in Sinan-gun and Wando-gun, South Jeolla Province, located in the southwestern part of Korea. The overall seroimmunity was 92.8%. The seroimmunity varied considerably according to the country of origin and increased with age. Our current analysis could be valuable in the context of discussions concerning vaccination policies for immigrants in Korea.
Summary
Korean summary
전라남도 신안군과 완도군에 거주하는 결혼이주여성 419명을 대상으로 홍역항체 양성률을 조사하였다. 전체적 항체양성률은 92.8% 로 높았으나, 나이로 나누어 분석하였을 때, 30세 미만에서는 83.1% 로 30세 이상의 95.5% 에 비해 통계적으로 유의미하게 낮았다. 출신국가에 따른 분석에서는 캄보디아 출신의 경우 30세 미만에서 항체 양성률이 40.0 % 에 불과하여, 타국가 들에 비해 통계적으로 유의미하게 낮았다.
Key Message
To prevent measles resurgence, continuous monitoring of immunity in communities, including foreign-born populations who may have different serostatus, is essential.
Neglecting the neglected during the COVID-19 pandemic: the case of leptospirosis in Sri Lanka
Janith Warnasekara, Suneth Agampodi
Epidemiol Health. 2022;44:e2022015.   Published online January 10, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2022015
  • 11,653 View
  • 495 Download
  • 6 Web of Science
  • 6 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Abstract
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has disrupted global health systems and affected the transmission dynamics as well as the surveillance of other infectious diseases. This study described the probable effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on the surveillance and control of leptospirosis in Sri Lanka. With 8,579 reported cases and more than 800 estimated deaths, the Sri Lankan public health surveillance system documented the largest outbreak of leptospirosis in Sri Lankan history in 2020. This was the worst infectious disease outbreak Sri Lanka experienced in 2020, but it was neglected, primarily due to the COVID-19 pandemic.
Summary
Key Message
The largest reported outbreak of leptospirosis in Sri Lankan history was not given proper attention; probably due to COVID pandemic.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Evaluating the long-term impact of COVID-19-associated public health interventions on zoonotic and vector-borne diseases in China: an interrupted time series analysis
    Yongbin Wang, Siyu Qing, Xianxiang Lan, Lun Li, Peiping Zhou, Yue Xi, Ziyue Liang, Chenguang Zhang, Chunjie Xu
    Journal of Translational Medicine.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Molecular Diagnosis as an Alternative for Public Health Surveillance of Leptospirosis in Colombia
    Margarita Arboleda, Mariana Mejía-Torres, Maritza Posada, Nicaela Restrepo, Paola Ríos-Tapias, Luis Alberto Rivera-Pedroza, David Calle, Miryan M. Sánchez-Jiménez, Katerine Marín, Piedad Agudelo-Flórez
    Microorganisms.2023; 11(11): 2759.     CrossRef
  • Coinfection of leptospirosis and coronavirus disease 2019: A retrospective case series from a coastal region in South India
    Nitin Gupta, William Wilson, Prithvishree Ravindra, Roshini Raghu, Kavitha Saravu
    Journal of Medical Virology.2022; 94(9): 4508.     CrossRef
  • A global one health perspective on leptospirosis in humans and animals
    Jane E. Sykes, David A. Haake, Chandika D. Gamage, W. Zach Mills, Jarlath E. Nally
    Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association.2022; 260(13): 1589.     CrossRef
  • Ocular leptospirosis: lack of awareness among ophthalmologists and challenges in diagnosis
    Rathinam R. Sivakumar
    Current Opinion in Ophthalmology.2022; 33(6): 532.     CrossRef
  • SARIMA and ARDL models for predicting leptospirosis in Anuradhapura district Sri Lanka
    Janith Warnasekara, Suneth Agampodi, Abeynayake NR, Manjula Manoji Weerasekera
    PLOS ONE.2022; 17(10): e0275447.     CrossRef
Magnifying the importance of collecting race, ethnicity, industry, and occupation data during the COVID-19 pandemic
Sai Krishna Gudi, Sophia M. George, Komal Krishna Tiwari
Epidemiol Health. 2021;43:e2021095.   Published online November 6, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2021095
  • 8,239 View
  • 73 Download
  • 1 Web of Science
  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Abstract
The contagiousness of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) led to the imposition of historical lockdowns in various countries. No scientific mind could have made accurate projections of the tremendous impact that COVID-19 would have on nations, communities, and the global-wide economy. Meanwhile, millions of workers have lost their jobs, while healthcare workers are overwhelmed and are reaching a state of mental and physical exhaustion. With the uncontrollable spread, researchers have been working to identify factors associated with COVID-19. In this regard, race, ethnicity, industry, and occupation have been found to be predominant factors of interest. However, unfortunately, the unavailability of such information has been a difficult reality. Since race, ethnicity, and employment are essential social determinants of health and could serve as potential risk-factors for COVID-19, collecting such information may offer important context for prioritising vulnerable groups. Thus, this perspective aims to highlight the importance and need for collecting race, ethnicity, and occupation-related data to track and treat the racial/ethnic groups that have been most strongly affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. Collecting such data will provide valuable insights and help public health officials recognise workplace-related outbreaks and evaluate the odds of various ethnic groups and professions contracting COVID-19.
Summary
Key Message
As essential social determinants of health, collecting and recording the race/ethnicity, occupation and industry information will provide valuable insights and help public health officials identify workplace-related outbreaks and evaluate the odds of various ethnic groups and professions contracting COVID-19.

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  • Evaluating COVID-19 Risk to Essential Workers by Occupational Group: A Case Study in Massachusetts
    Beth M. Haley, Prasad Patil, Jonathan I. Levy, Keith R. Spangler, Koen F. Tieskens, Fei Carnes, Xiaojing Peng, R. Monina Klevens, T. Scott Troppy, M. Patricia Fabian, Kevin J. Lane, Jessica H. Leibler
    Journal of Community Health.2024; 49(1): 91.     CrossRef
Enhancing COVID-19 vaccination coverage using financial incentives: arguments to help health providers counterbalance erroneous claims
Jelena Dotlic, Vida Jeremic Stojkovic, Paul Cummins, Marija Milic, Tatjana Gazibara
Epidemiol Health. 2021;43:e2021081.   Published online October 6, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2021081
  • 7,670 View
  • 131 Download
  • 5 Web of Science
  • 5 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Abstract
Financial reimbursements after receiving the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine have been criticized in the literature. This strategy has been described as payment to receive the vaccines, undue inducement, and unethical. We are aware that healthcare workers who work in primary healthcare, prevention, and public health may encounter similar reasons from people who refuse vaccination against COVID-19. For this reason, we are compelled to clarify these claims and provide arguments for all healthcare workers who might be challenged by such reasoning. In this critical review, we discuss why the claims against financial incentives that have been presented in the literature are erroneous.
Summary
Key Message
When assessing the ethics of financial incentives to receive the COVID-19 vaccine, we must not confuse matters by invoking ethical concepts that are not relevant to this public health issue; calling a financial incentive an "undue inducement" is a mistake because it assumes that it would distort a potential recipient’s judgment to take on unacceptable risk, when these vaccines have already been tested and authorized by regulatory agencies, which suggests the risk is not substantial, but quite the opposite - they benefit the recipients.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • The effectiveness of financial incentives for COVID-19 vaccination: A systematic review
    Gabriela K. Khazanov, Rebecca Stewart, Matteo F. Pieri, Candice Huang, Christopher T. Robertson, K. Aleks Schaefer, Hansoo Ko, Jessica Fishman
    Preventive Medicine.2023; 172: 107538.     CrossRef
  • Mandatory and seasonal vaccination against COVID-19: Attitudes of the vaccinated people in Serbia
    Verica Jovanovic, Marija Milic, Jelena Dotlic, Smiljana Cvjetkovic, Vida Jeremic Stojkovic, Natasa Maksimovic, Maja Sekulic, Tatjana Gazibara
    Epidemiology and Infection.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Letter to the Editor: Financial incentives for COVID-19 vaccination
    Hyuncheol Bryant Kim
    Epidemiology and Health.2021; 43: e2021088.     CrossRef
  • Letter to the Editor: Enhancing COVID-19 vaccination coverage using financial incentives: arguments to help health providers counterbalance erroneous claims
    Yong-jun Choi
    Epidemiology and Health.2021; 43: e2021087.     CrossRef
  • Authors’ Reply: Vaccination, payment, and COVID-19
    Jelena Dotlic, Vida Jeremic Stojkovic, Paul Cummins, Marija Milic, Tatjana Gazibara
    Epidemiology and Health.2021; 43: e2021100.     CrossRef
Conceptual frameworks regarding waterborne diseases in sub-Saharan Africa and the need of for a new approach to urban exposomes
Alexandre Zerbo, Rafael Castro Delgado, Pedro Arcos González
Epidemiol Health. 2021;43:e2021079.   Published online October 6, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2021079
  • 6,910 View
  • 135 Download
  • 2 Web of Science
  • 2 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Abstract
Sub-Saharan African countries, like many other low-income countries, have experienced urban socioeconomic inequalities due to rapid and unplanned urbanization. These processes have resulted in the creation of poor urban areas lacking basic sanitation, water, and hygiene facilities, and subjacent public health issues such as the spread of waterborne diseases. A system for the demarcation of disease transmission areas already exists, but the traditional framework is less appropriate in sub-Saharan Africa, making it necessary to divide these urban areas more adequately. In addition, the construction of frameworks and tools more specific to waterborne disease-related issues is essential. We propose restructuring sub-Saharan urban areas into more specific areas of exposure to waterborne diseases and associated exposomes, and then use this restructuring of urban areas of exposure to waterborne diseases in a conceptual framework that takes into account causes of exposure, impacts, and interventions. The division of urban areas into public, domestic, and individual exposure areas facilitates a more straightforward understanding of the dynamics of waterborne exposomes. Moreover, the inclusion of this division in the driving force–pressure–state–exposure–effect–action framework allows an effective stratified implementation of urban public health policies.
Summary
Key Message
Public, domestic and individual as sub-sections of urban transmission domain of waterborne diseases in sub-Saharan Africa may constitute a relevant approach for public health interventions.

Citations

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  • Recent advances and issues in the application of activated carbon for water treatment in Africa: A systematic review (2007–2022)
    Joel B. Njewa, Victor O. Shikuku
    Applied Surface Science Advances.2023; 18: 100501.     CrossRef
  • Conceptualization of the Transmission Dynamic of Faecal-Orally Transmitted Diseases in Urban Exposome of Sub-Saharan Africa
    Alexandre Zerbo, Rafael Castro Delgado, Pedro Arcos González
    Risk Management and Healthcare Policy.2022; Volume 15: 1959.     CrossRef
Maternal mental health in Africa during the COVID-19 pandemic: a neglected global health issue
Kobi V. Ajayi, Elizabeth Wachira, Obasanjo Afolabi Bolarinwa, Beulah D. Suleman
Epidemiol Health. 2021;43:e2021078.   Published online October 6, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2021078
  • 8,980 View
  • 156 Download
  • 4 Web of Science
  • 3 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Abstract
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has profoundly impacted mental health and well-being around the globe. Public health measures to control the virus’s rapid spread, such as physical distancing, social isolation, lockdown, restricted movements, and quarantine, caused fear and panic in the general population. Although pandemic-related stressors have been reported, changes that occur during the perinatal period compounded by those made to obstetric care guidelines may put pregnant and postpartum mothers at an increased risk of poor mental health. While an abundance of research has examined the impact of the pandemic on maternal mental health in developed nations such as Europe and America, very few studies have done so in the African continent. Considering that Africa has prominently weak health systems, poor mental health policies and infrastructure, high poverty rates, and unreliable maternal care, the pandemic is expected to have dire consequences on maternal mental health in the region. As such, multipronged mental health interventions and strategies that consider the heterogeneity within and between African regions must be developed. Doing so will close existing and widening global health disparities to achieve the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals by 2030.
Summary
Key Message
Despite the adverse psychological impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on maternal mental health globally, little is known about its effect in Africa. As of the time of this study, only four research studies have been conducted in Nigeria, Ethiopia, and Ghana, investigating the psychological sequelae of the pandemic among pregnant and postpartum women in Africa. This study calls for urgent multipronged maternal mental health interventions and psychosocial support that consider the heterogeneity within and between African regions.

Citations

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  • Poor sleep quality and suicidal ideation among pregnant women during COVID-19 in Ethiopia: systematic review and meta-analysis
    Aragaw Asfaw Hasen, Abubeker Alebachew Seid, Ahmed Adem Mohammed
    PeerJ.2023; 11: e16038.     CrossRef
  • Experiences of Perinatal Mental Health Care among Minority Ethnic Women during the COVID-19 Pandemic in London: A Qualitative Study
    Sabrina Pilav, Abigail Easter, Sergio A. Silverio, Kaat De Backer, Sushma Sundaresh, Sara Roberts, Louise M. Howard
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2022; 19(4): 1975.     CrossRef
  • Generalized Anxiety Disorder and Its Associated Factors Among Pregnant Women During COVID-19 at Public Health Facilities of East Gojjam Zone, 2020: A Multi-Center Cross-Sectional Study
    Keralem Anteneh Bishaw, Addisu Andalem, Haile Amha, Tirusew wondie
    Frontiers in Global Women's Health.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
COVID-19 outbreak, herd immunity formation, and future public health strategies
Youngtaek Kim, Yoon Hyung Park
Epidemiol Health. 2021;43:e2021071.   Published online September 16, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2021071
  • 7,097 View
  • 202 Download
  • 1 Web of Science
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
In Korea, where the successful control of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic have been implemented by the follow-up survey management (containment) of COVID-19-infected persons, the number of infected persons has increased rapidly, and a re-epidemic trend is emerging. The Korean government is strengthening epidemic prevention activities, such as increasing the social distance in the metropolitan area to four levels and increasing the vaccination rate. The public has been complaining of dissatisfaction with the atrophy of socioeconomic activities and of distrust of epidemic prevention policies. Australia started with an incidence similar to that of Korea, but its social activities are more flexible than those of Korea, where the incidence is maintained at approximately 0.1 per 100,000 people. In comparing the differences between both countries in terms of the Oxford COVID-19 Government Response Tracker Stringency Index, it was found that Australia effectively regulates the number of infected cases by high-intensity intermittent mitigation and the subsequent allowance of social activities. Korea has also recommended a high-intensity intermittent mitigation policy as in Australia until community herd immunity via vaccination is formed.
Summary
Korean summary
COVID-19 효과적으로 관리하는 방안으로 4-7일 정도의 강력한 통제(mitigation, Lock down)를 하여 감염량을 대폭 감소 시킨 후 2-3개월간 대폭 완화된 사회적 거리 두기를 시행하는 방안을 제안한다 완화된 사회적 거리 두기에는 마스크만 착용하고, 학생들의 등교, 음식점 등 모임, 예식 모임 등에 제한을 두지 않는 방안이다. 호주의 사례를 밴치마킹한 모형이다. 이와 함께 단기간에 많은 사람을 예방 접종하여 지역사회 면역력을 올려야 한다. 이를 위해 접종 시기를 늦추더라도 백신을 충분히 확보한 후 접종일 시작할 것을 권고한다.
Key Message
The public has been complaining of dissatisfaction with the atrophy of socio-economic activities and of distrust of epidemic prevention policies. South Korea would change the COVID-19 prevention and control policies from November, 2021. Authors recommended a high-intensity intermittent mitigation and the subsequent allowance of social activities policy as in Australia until community herd immunity via vaccination is formed.
Dengue and COVID-19 infections in the ASEAN region: a concurrent outbreak of viral diseases
Lowilius Wiyono, Ian Christoper N. Rocha, Trisha Denise D. Cedeño, Adriana Viola Miranda, Don Eliseo Lucero-Prisno III
Epidemiol Health. 2021;43:e2021070.   Published online September 16, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2021070
  • 10,587 View
  • 278 Download
  • 16 Web of Science
  • 15 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Abstract
Member countries of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) have faced dengue outbreaks for decades, and the region has one of the highest rates of dengue globally. Outbreaks continue to occur concurrently with the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in the 10 ASEAN countries. Both infectious diseases pose a tremendous burden in these countries related to both infection control and the economy. Increases in the number of dengue cases occurred in part due to disruptions in the pathogen-host-vector relationship caused by changes in human behaviour in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. The spread of dengue was further aggravated by the implementation of lockdowns and social distancing policies. These measures limited the coverage of dengue preventive programs and delayed the medical management of both diseases due to co-infection and misdiagnosis. It is of the utmost importance for the population to remain aware of both diseases, and dengue vector control strategies must be devised to properly address outbreaks using digitalization and remote surveillance. Similarly, critical triage algorithms and further research are also needed to combat co-infection and misdiagnosis. Controlling the spread of COVID-19 though vaccination should also be undertaken to reduce the impact of the pandemic.
Summary
Key Message
The rising dengue infection amidst the COVID-19 pandemic has indicated the need of response to mitigate the dangers of both dengue and COVID-19. Appropriate measurement from all ASEAN countries are needed to lower the number of cases and ease the burden of both dengue and COVID-19 management."

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Dengue Dynamics: A Global Update
    Rabeya Yousuf, Md Wasek Salam, Shaima Akter, Susmita Sinha, Mainul Haque
    Advances in Human Biology.2024; 14(1): 5.     CrossRef
  • Health System Preparedness, Response, and Incidence of Dengue in District Mianwali
    Fatima Naseem, Muhammad Iftikhar Khattak, Faisal Rashid, Samia Nasim, Mustafa Khalid Waheed, Javaria Mustafa
    Pakistan Journal of Health Sciences.2024; : 55.     CrossRef
  • Potential inhibitors isolated from Curcuma aeruginosa against dengue virus type 2 (DENV-2) NS2B-NS3 protease activity
    Siti Sarah Fazalul Rahiman, Mohammad Al-Amin, Noratiqah Mohtar, Iffah Izzati Zakaria, Ummirul Mukminin Kahar, Melati Khairuddean, Salizawati Muhamad Salhimi
    Journal of Biologically Active Products from Nature.2024; 14(1): 64.     CrossRef
  • Genomic Characterization of Dengue Virus Outbreak in 2022 from Pakistan
    Massab Umair, Syed Adnan Haider, Zaira Rehman, Zunera Jamal, Qasim Ali, Rabia Hakim, Shaheen Bibi, Aamer Ikram, Muhammad Salman
    Vaccines.2023; 11(1): 163.     CrossRef
  • Rapid Appraisals of the Transformation Strategy Required to Sustain Dengue Vector Control During and After the COVID-19 Pandemic in Indonesia
    Sulistyawati Sulistyawati, Herman Yuliansyah, Tri Wahyuni Sukesi, Arfiani Nur Khusna, Surahma Asti Mulasari, Fatwa Tentama, Bambang Sudarsono, Fanani Arief Ghozali
    Risk Management and Healthcare Policy.2023; Volume 16: 93.     CrossRef
  • Singapore’s Dengue Outbreak Amidst the COVID-19 Pandemic: Challenges, Responses, and Lessons
    Huzaifa Ahmad Cheema, Rustam Shariq Mujtaba, Amna Siddiqui, Laiba Imran Vohra, Abia Shahid, Jaffer Shah, Abdulqadir J Nashwan, Natasha Howard
    Infection and Drug Resistance.2023; Volume 16: 1081.     CrossRef
  • The Diagnostic Potential of RNA Aptamers against the NS1 Protein of Dengue Virus Serotype 2
    Ramesh Thevendran, Sivalingam Rogini, Glenn Leighton, Atherton Mutombwera, Sarah Shigdar, Thean-Hock Tang, Marimuthu Citartan
    Biology.2023; 12(5): 722.     CrossRef
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    Qiao Liu, Wenxin Yan, Chenyuan Qin, Min Du, Yaping Wang, Min Liu, Jue Liu
    Global Health Research and Policy.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Dengue in Pregnancy: A Southeast Asian Perspective
    Vanessa Chong, Jennifer Zi Ling Tan, Valliammai Jayanthi Thirunavuk Arasoo
    Tropical Medicine and Infectious Disease.2023; 8(2): 86.     CrossRef
  • The effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on dengue cases in Malaysia
    Nuur Hafizah Md Iderus, Sarbhan Singh Lakha Singh, Sumarni Mohd Ghazali, Asrul Anuar Zulkifli, Nur Ain Mohd Ghazali, Mei Cheng Lim, Lonny Chen Rong Qi Ahmad, Mohamad Nadzmi Md Nadzri, Cia Vei Tan, Ahmed Syahmi Syafiq Md Zamri, Chee Herng Lai, Nur Shuhada
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    Govinda Khatri, Mohammad Mehedi Hasan, Somina Shaikh, Syeda Lamiya Mir, Abdul Moiz Sahito, Priya, Ian Christopher N. Rocha, Osman Kamal Osman Elmahi
    Tropical Medicine and Health.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Hemlata Sharma, Ashal Ilyas, Abhiroop Chowdhury, Nitesh Kumar Poddar, Anis Ahmad Chaudhary, Sireen Abdul Rahim Shilbayeh, Alnada Abdalla Ibrahim, Shahanavaj Khan
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    Basu Dev Pandey, Mya Myat Ngwe Tun, Kishor Pandey, Shyam Prakash Dumre, Pramananda Bhandari, Uttam Raj Pyakurel, Nayanum Pokhrel, Meghanath Dhimal, Pardip Gyanwali, Richard Culleton, Yuki Takamatsu, Anthony Costello, Kouichi Morita
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Herd immunity: challenges and the way forward in Korea
Jiyoung Oh, Sohyun Kim, Boyeong Ryu, Minjoung Shin, Bryan Inho Kim
Epidemiol Health. 2021;43:e2021054.   Published online August 18, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2021054
  • 9,090 View
  • 245 Download
  • 3 Web of Science
  • 3 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Abstract
Vaccination is considered to be the most effective measure for preventing the spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Many countries, including of Korea, are focusing on achieving herd immunity with the goal of reaching a vaccination rate of 70-80%. However, achieving herd immunity does not mean eradicating COVID-19, and the following challenges can occur in the process of achieving herd immunity. First, as the vaccination rate is likely to slow down over time, it is necessary to promote the benefits of vaccination through risk communication strategies and provide incentives for those who have been vaccinated. Second, a booster dose may be required depending on future studies on vaccine-induced immunity. Third, since variants capable of evading immunity and with higher transmissibility can emerge, rapid contract tracing and regular community genomic surveillance could help mitigate the impact of new variants. When the impact of COVID-19 is controlled to the level of seasonal influenza, the current public health measures that have been strictly imposed on society since the beginning of the pandemic will no longer be needed. The overall response strategy to COVID-19 will need to change accordingly, based on evaluations of the level of population immunity. These changes will include more efficient and targeted contact tracing and eased quarantine measures for vaccinated close contacts and travelers. Mask wearing and a minimum of social distancing will still be required in the journey towards the end of the pandemic. The COVID-19 pandemic will end, but the virus will not disappear.
Summary
Korean summary
한국을 포함한 많은 국가에서 예방접종률 70~80% 달성을 목표로 집단면역을 달성하는데 집중하고 있으나, 집단면역 달성은 코로나19 퇴치를 의미하지 않으며, 집단면역을 달성해 나가는 과정에서 여러 어려움이 발생할 수 있다. 코로나19의 전반적인 영향력이 계절성 인플루엔자와 같은 관리가능한 수준으로 낮아진다면 현재의 코로나19 대응조치들은 인구집단의 면역 수준을 고려하여 점차 완화될 것이지만 마스크 착용과 최소한의 사회적 거리두기는 당분간 지속될 것이며, 코로나19 대유행이 끝나더라도 바이러스는 사라지지 않을 것이다.
Key Message
Achieving herd immunity does not mean eradicating COVID-19, and some challenges can occur in the process of achieving herd immunity. When the impact of COVID-19 is controlled to the level of seasonal influenza, the current public health measures that have been strictly imposed on society since the beginning of the pandemic will no longer be needed. The overall response strategy to COVID-19 will need to change accordingly, based on evaluations of the level of population immunity. However, mask wearing and a minimum of social distancing will still be required in the journey towards the end of the pandemic. The COVID-19 pandemic will end, but the virus will not disappear.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Towards a sustainable integrated management approach to uncertainty surrounding COVID‐19
    Tiep Nguyen, Leonie Hallo, Nicholas Chileshe, Nghia Hoai Nguyen
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Controlling the drug-resistant tuberculosis epidemic in India: challenges and implications
Aliabbas A. Husain, Andreas Kupz, Rajpal S. Kashyap
Epidemiol Health. 2021;43:e2021022.   Published online April 7, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2021022
  • 11,895 View
  • 422 Download
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Abstract
India has a higher tuberculosis (TB) burden than any other country, accounting for an estimated one-fourth of the global burden. Drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) presents a major public health problem in India. Patients with DR-TB often require profound changes in their drug regimens, which are invariably linked to poor treatment adherence and sub-optimal treatment outcomes compared to drug-sensitive TB. The challenge of addressing DR-TB is critical for India, as India contributes over 27% of global DR-TB cases. In recent decades, India has been proactive in its battle against TB, even implementing a revised National Strategic Plan to eliminate TB by 2025. However, to achieve this ambitious goal, the country will need to take a multifaceted approach with respect to its management of DR-TB. Despite concerted efforts made by the National TB Elimination Program, India faces substantial challenges with regard to DR-TB care, especially in peripheral and resource-limited endemic zones. This article describes some of the major challenges associated with mitigating the growing DR-TB epidemic in India and their implications.
Summary
Key Message
India is regarded as highest drug-resistant TB burden country accounting for estimated 27% of global cases. Challenge of addressing drug resistant TB is critical for India to achieve TB elimination targets of National TB program. Several heterogeneous factors have mediated the success of DR-TB management in India. In this article, we discuss, in brief, some of the major challenges and implications associated with reducing the growing DR-TB epidemic in India.

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    Rahnuma Ahmad, Susmita Sinha, Kona Chowdhury, Mainul Haque
    Advances in Human Biology.2024; 14(2): 87.     CrossRef
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    Aliabbas A. Husain, Rajpal Singh Kashyap
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    Shiv kumar Rashmi Mudliar, Umay Kulsum, Syed Beenish Rufai, Mika Umpo, Moi Nyori, Sarman Singh
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COVID-19 herd immunity in the absence of a vaccine: an irresponsible approach
Jade Khalife, Derrick VanGennep
Epidemiol Health. 2021;43:e2021012.   Published online February 3, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2021012
  • 11,215 View
  • 373 Download
  • 8 Web of Science
  • 7 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Abstract
As severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) continues to spread rapidly throughout the human population, the concept of “herd immunity” has attracted the attention of both decision-makers and the general public. In the absence of a vaccine, this entails that a large proportion of the population will be infected to develop immunity that would limit the severity and/or extent of subsequent outbreaks. We argue that adopting such an approach should be avoided for several reasons. There are significant uncertainties about whether achieving herd immunity is possible. If possible, achieving herd immunity would impose a large burden on society. There are gaps in protection, making it difficult to shield the vulnerable. It would defeat the purpose of avoiding harm caused by the virus. Lastly, dozens of countries are showing that containment is possible.
Summary
Key Message
Pursuing herd immunity without a vaccine involves numerous uncertainties, is costly in terms of lives and disease, is ineffective, and - being unethical and uncompassionate - is not compatible with human dignity and development.

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Neglected paths of transmission of milkborne brucellosis and tuberculosis in developing countries: novel control opportunities
Arockiasamy Arun Prince Milton, Samir Das, Sandeep Ghatak
Epidemiol Health. 2020;42:e2020073.   Published online December 4, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2020073
  • 9,082 View
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Abstract
Brucellosis and tuberculosis are lingering zoonotic infections that are endemic in many developing parts of the world, with considerable economic and health costs. Although guidelines for the control of these diseases exist, we highlight neglected transmission routes of these diseases. We show that informal, door-to-door marketing of unpasteurized milk provides an important route for disease transmission through kitchen cross-contamination. Furthermore, the practice of discarding the first strippings of milk at farms needs adjustment to avoid floor and environmental contamination. Herein, we propose handling guidelines and a design for a milk stripping collection vessel. We believe that taking action to block these hitherto unrecognized transmission routes will complement existing efforts and guidelines.
Summary

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Atypical modes of COVID-19 transmission: how likely are they?
Viroj Wiwanitkit
Epidemiol Health. 2020;42:e2020059.   Published online August 11, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2020059
  • 32,287 View
  • 310 Download
  • 13 Web of Science
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Abstract
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a new emerging pandemic, which has so far infected more than 20 million people throughout the world. Typically, this infection is transmitted from humans to humans via respiratory contact. However, the possibility that COVID-19 might be transmitted via atypical modes of transmission is an important public health consideration. In this short review article, the author summarizes and discusses the data on atypical modes of COVID-19 transmission. Based on the available data, it seems that there is still no evidence that COVID-19 can be transmitted via atypical modes of transmission.
Summary

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Air filtration and SARS-CoV-2
Yevgen Nazarenko
Epidemiol Health. 2020;42:e2020049.   Published online July 4, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2020049
  • 16,223 View
  • 823 Download
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Abstract
Air filtration in various implementations has become a critical intervention in managing the spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, the proper deployment of air filtration has been hampered by an insufficient understanding of its principles. These misconceptions have led to uncertainty about the effectiveness of air filtration at arresting potentially infectious aerosol particles. A correct understanding of how air filtration works is critical for further decision-making regarding its use in managing the spread of COVID-19. The issue is significant because recent evidence has shown that severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) can remain airborne longer and travel farther than anticipated earlier in the COVID-19 pandemic, albeit with diminishing concentrations and viability. While SARS-CoV-2 virions are around 60-140 nm in diameter, larger respiratory droplets and air pollution particles (>1 µm) have been found to harbor the virions. Removing particles that could carry SARS-CoV-2 from the air is possible using air filtration, which relies on the natural or mechanical movement of air. Among various types of air filters, high-efficiency particle arrestance (HEPA) filters have been recommended. Other types of filters are less or more effective and, correspondingly, are easier or harder to move air through. The use of masks, respirators, air filtration modules, and other dedicated equipment is an essential intervention in the management of COVID-19 spread. It is critical to consider the mechanisms of air filtration and to understand how aerosol particles containing SARS-CoV-2 virions interact with filter materials to determine the best practices for the use of air filtration to reduce the spread of COVID-19.
Summary

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Prevention of exposure to and spread of COVID-19 using air purifiers: challenges and concerns
Seunghon Ham
Epidemiol Health. 2020;42:e2020027.   Published online April 17, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2020027
  • 23,819 View
  • 1,366 Download
  • 28 Web of Science
  • 24 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Abstract
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is now a pandemic. The Korean government has declared a red alert, which is the highest level of the national infectious disease alert system, and the World Health Organization has similarly declared its highest-level pandemic alert (phase 6). The spread of COVID-19 is an unprecedented worldwide public health problem that governments and individuals must work to overcome. Recently, an infection cluster arose in a call center in Seoul. To support call center companies, the Korean Ministry of Employment and Labor has proposed covering the costs of installing partitions and air purifiers, providing hand sanitizers, and supplying masks to prevent droplet and aerosol infections. Air purifiers are expected to be installed on the floor with the exhaust outlets at a higher level, such as the level of the desks or breathing zones of workers. When a worker coughs or releases droplets near a colleague’s respiratory system, the droplets may spread throughout the call center via air flow from air purifier. In this fashion, a single infected person can give rise to an infection cluster. Attempts to prevent infection must not lead to new infections, and the installation of air purifiers may cause new problems. Therefore, using air purifiers to control the spread of COVID-19 should be approached with caution.
Summary

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