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Paulo Frazão 2 Articles
Impact of water fluoridation on dental caries decline across racial and income subgroups of Brazilian adolescents
Rafael Aiello Bomfim, Paulo Frazão
Epidemiol Health. 2022;44:e2022007.   Published online January 3, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2022007
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
The aim of this study was to assess the impact of community water fluoridation (CWF) on differences in dental caries decline across racial and socioeconomic subgroups of Brazilian adolescents.
METHODS
Two nationwide Brazilian population-based oral health surveys were used (Brazilian Oral Health Survey 2003 and 2010). In total, 7,198 adolescents from 15 years to 19 years old living in 50 cities investigated in both surveys were included. The mean numbers of untreated decayed teeth (DT) according to racial (Whites vs. Browns/Blacks) and socioeconomic subgroups (at or above the minimum wage per capita vs. under) were analysed. Difference-in-differences negative binomial regressions were adjusted by schooling, age, and sex. Decayed, missing, and filled teeth and DT prevalence, calculated as a categorical variable, were used in sensitivity analyses.
RESULTS
The adjusted difference of reduction in DT was similar across socioeconomic subgroups (β=-0.05; 95% confidence interval [CI], -0.45 to 0.35) and favoured, but not to a significant degree, Whites (β=-0.34; 95% CI, -0.74 to 0.04) compared to Brown/Blacks in fluoridated areas. In non-fluoridated areas, significant differences were observed in the mean number of DT, favouring the higher socioeconomic subgroup (β=-0.26; 95% CI, -0.53 to -0.01) and Whites (β=-0.40; 95% CI, -0.69 to -0.11) in relation to their counterparts. The sensitivity analyses confirmed the findings.
CONCLUSIONS
The similar reduction in DT across income subgroups suggests that CWF has had a beneficial effect on tackling income inequalities in dental caries within a 7-year timeframe.
Summary
Korean summary
Key Message
Community Water Fluoridation tackled income and racial inequalities in dental caries in adolescents aged 15-19 years between 2003 and 2010 in Brazil.
Deprived areas and community water fluoridation in Brazil: a multilevel approach for refocusing public policy
Franklin Barbosa da Silva, José Leopoldo Ferreira Antunes, Paulo Frazão
Epidemiol Health. 2021;43:e2021031.   Published online May 1, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2021031
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
The aim of this study was to determine whether geographic location, socioeconomic status, infant mortality, and mortality from diarrheal disease in health regions are associated with the provision of community water fluoridation (CWF) in Brazilian municipalities.
METHODS
A multilevel ecological study was conducted based on data from the National Survey of Basic Sanitation and Human Development Atlas. A multilevel analysis was carried out considering Brazilian municipalities as the first level and health regions as the second level, comprising sanitation, demographic, socioeconomic, and health characteristics.
RESULTS
The observation units comprised 5,565 municipalities clustered in 438 health regions in Brazil. The lack of CWF provision was positively associated with the following municipal characteristics: a below-median proportion of inhabitants covered by the sewage network, medium to very low human development index, below-median per capita gross domestic product, and an above-median percentage of expenditures on sanitation. In relation to the health regions, the likelihood of a lack of CWF provision was greater in the municipalities belonging to the health regions located in the Northern and Northeastern areas of Brazil and in those where child mortality due to acute diarrheal disease and the proportion of people with low income were higher when adjusted by municipal indicators.
CONCLUSIONS
Information on the characteristics associated with CWF provision constitutes important input for refocusing public policy to reduce inequalities among Brazilian municipalities and health regions. These findings may help policy-makers to understand the challenges facing CWF expansion in low-, middle-, and high-income countries.
Summary
Korean summary
Key Message
Just as the challenges for CWF's expansion in Brazil's most vulnerable areas require firm leadership for refocusing public policy, expansion in low- and middle-income countries demands a continued global collaborative effort.

Epidemiol Health : Epidemiology and Health