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Nirmal Kumar Mohakud 1 Article
Major enteropathogens in humans, domestic animals, and environmental soil samples from the same locality: prevalence and transmission considerations in coastal Odisha, India
Arpit Kumar Shrivastava, Nirmal Kumar Mohakud, Swagatika Panda, Saumya Darshana Patra, Subrat Kumar, Priyadarshi Soumyaranjan Sahu
Epidemiol Health. 2020;42:e2020034.   Published online May 26, 2020
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Regions with limited sanitation facilities have higher rates of infections with various enteric pathogens. It is therefore important to identify different hosts and their relative contribution to pathogen shedding into the environment, and to assess the subsequent health risks to humans.
In this study, human faecal (n=310), animal faecal (n=150), and environmental (soil) samples (n=40) were collected from the same locality and screened for selected enteric pathogens by immunochromatography and/or polymerase chain reaction.
At least 1 microbial agent was detected in 49.0%, 44.7%, and 40.0% of the samples from human, animals, and soil, respectively. Among humans, rotavirus was predominantly detected (17.4%) followed by enteropathogenic <i>Escherichia coli</i> (EPEC) (15.4%), Shigella (13.8), and Shiga toxin-producing <i>E. coli</i> (STEC) (9.7%). Among animals, STEC was detected most frequently (28.0%), and EPEC was the major enteric pathogen detected in soil (30.0%). The detection rate of rotavirus was higher among younger children (≤2 years) than among older children. Single infections were more commonly detected than multiple infections in humans (p<0.01), unlike the observations in animal and soil samples. For diarrhoeagenic <i>E. coli</i> and <i>Shigella</i>, most of the human and animal isolates showed close relatedness, suggesting possible cross-infection between humans and domesticated animals in the area studied.
The present study provides an improved understanding of the distribution of major enteric pathogens coexisting in humans and animals in the region, thereby suggesting a high potential for possible transmission among livestock and communities residing in the studied locality.


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