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Mi-Sook Kim 1 Article
Risk of lymphadenopathy from SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in Korea: a self-controlled case series analysis
Mi-Sook Kim, Bongyoung Kim, Jeong Pil Choi, Nam-Kyong Choi, Jung Yeon Heo, Jun Yong Choi, Joongyub Lee, Sang Il Kim
Epidemiol Health. 2023;45:e2023090.   Published online October 13, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2023090
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Abstract
OBJECTIVES
To assess the risk of lymphadenopathy following severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccination.
METHODS
A self-controlled case series design was used to determine whether the risk of lymphadenopathy was higher in the 1-day to 42-day risk interval after coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination compared to the control period. In addition, subgroup analyses were conducted according to baseline characteristics, time since vaccination, and sensitivity analyses adjusted for the length of the risk interval.
RESULTS
The risk of developing lymphadenopathy in the risk interval (1-42 days) after COVID-19 vaccination compared to the control period was significantly increased, with a relative incidence (RI) of 1.17 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.17 to 1.18) when the first, second, and third doses were combined. The RI was greater on the day of vaccination (1.47; 95% CI, 1.44 to 1.50). In subgroup analyses by baseline characteristics, a significantly increased risk or trend toward increased risk was observed in most subgroups except for those aged 70 years and older, with a significant increase in risk in younger individuals, those with a Charlson’s comorbidity index <5, and those who received mRNA vaccines (mRNA-1273>BNT162b2). Within the 1-day to 42-day post-dose risk period, the relative risk was highest during the 1-day to 7-day post-dose period (1.59; 95% CI, 1.57 to 1.60) compared to the control period, and then the risk declined. In the sensitivity analysis, we found that the longer the risk window, the smaller the RI.
CONCLUSIONS
SARS-CoV-2 vaccination is associated with a statistically significant increase in the risk of lymphadenopathy, and this risk was observed only with mRNA vaccines.
Summary
Korean summary
질병관리청의 코로나19 예방접종자료와 국민건강보험공단 자료를 이용하여 수행한 본 자기대조환자군 연구에서 코로나19 백신접종은 42일 내 림프절병증 발생위험을 1.17배 (95% 신뢰구간, 1.17-1.18) 증가시키는 것으로 나타났다. 이러한 위험의 증가는 mRNA 백신에 국한하여 관찰되었으며 연령이 낮을수록, 여성일수록 상대위험도가 높은 것으로 나타났다.
Key Message
This self-controlled case series study, using the Korea Disease Control and Prevention Agency COVID-19 vaccination database and the National Health Insurance Service database, showed an increased risk of developing lymphadenopathy following vaccination (RR 1.17; 95% CI, 1.17 to 1.18). The elevated risk of lymphadenopathy is specifically associated with mRNA platform vaccines, not viral vector vaccines, and is more pronounced in younger individuals and females.

Epidemiol Health : Epidemiology and Health