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Daehee Kang 6 Articles
The age-standardized incidence, mortality, and case fatality rates of COVID-19 in 79 countries: a cross-sectional comparison and their correlations with associated factors
Dongui Hong, Sohyae Lee, Yoon-Jung Choi, Sungji Moon, Yoonyoung Jang, Yoon-Min Cho, Hyojung Lee, Sukhong Min, Hyeree Park, Seokyung Hahn, Ji-Yeob Choi, Aesun Shin, Daehee Kang
Epidemiol Health. 2021;43:e2021061.   Published online September 8, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2021061
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, crude incidence and mortality rates have been widely reported; however, age-standardized rates are more suitable for comparisons. In this study, we estimated and compared the age-standardized incidence, mortality, and case fatality rates (CFRs) among countries and investigated the relationship between these rates and factors associated with healthcare resources: gross domestic product per capita, number of hospital beds per population, and number of doctors per population.
METHODS
The incidence, mortality, and CFRs of 79 countries were age-standardized using the World Health Organization standard population. The rates for persons 60 years or older were also calculated. The relationships among the rates were analysed using trend lines and coefficients of determination (R2). Pearson correlation coefficients between the rates and the healthcare resource-related factors were calculated.
RESULTS
The countries with the highest age-standardized incidence, mortality, and CFRs were Czechia (14,253 cases/100,000), Mexico (182 deaths/100,000), and Mexico (6.7%), respectively. The R2 between the incidence and mortality rates was 0.852 for all ages and 0.945 for those 60 years or older. The healthcare resources-related factors were associated positively with incidence rates and negatively with CFRs, with weaker correlations among the elderly.
CONCLUSIONS
Compared to age-standardized rates, crude rates showed greater variation among countries. Medical resources may be important in preventing COVID-19-related deaths; however, considering the small variation in fatality among the elderly, preventive measures such as vaccination are more important, especially for the elderly population, to minimize the mortality rates.
Summary
Korean summary
국가별 발생률, 사망률, 치명률을 WHO 표준 인구로 연령표준화하였고, 의료자원과 관계된 지표와의 상관관계를 파악하였다. 2021년 4월 6일 기준, 연령표준화 발생률, 사망률, 치명률이 가장 높은 나라는 각각 체코 (10만명당 14,253명), 멕시코 (10만명당 182명), 멕시코 (6.7%)이며, 60세 이상 노인은 사망률과 치명률이 더 높은 것으로 나타났다. 1인당GDP, 인구당 의사 수, 인구당 병상 수는 발생률과 양의 상관관계가, 치명률과는 음의 상관관계가 있었고 노인에게서는 상관관계가 약하게 나타났다. 코로나바이러스감염증-19로 인한 피해를 최소화하기 위해서 의료자원의 투입과 더불어 노인의 감염예방이 중요할 것이다.
Key Message
The incidence, mortality, and case fatality rates of 79 countries were age-standardized using the WHO standard population. The correlations between the rates and the healthcare resource-related factors were investigated. As of April 6, 2021, the countries with the highest age-standardized incidence, mortality, and case fatality rates were Czechia (14,253 cases/100,000), Mexico (182 deaths/100,000), and Mexico (6.7%), respectively; the mortality and case fatality rates were higher among the elderly. GDP per capita, number of hospital beds per population, and number of doctors per population were associated positively with incidence rate, and negatively with case fatality rates: the correlations were weaker among the elderly. To minimize the burden caused by COVID-19, preventing the elderly from infection is important as well as supply of medical resources.

Citations

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    BMC Infectious Diseases.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
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The Role of Genetic Polymorphism of Cytochrome P450 2E1 in Bladder Cancer in Korea.
Jiyeob Choi, Seungjoon Lee, Kyoungmu Lee, Inmi Choi, Youngju Lee, Hyungjune Im, Sang Yun Lee, Kijung Yoon, Sooung Kim, Moonsoo Park, Hanyong Choi, Whang Choi, Keunyoung Yoo, Soohun Cho, Daehee Kang
Korean J Epidemiol. 2000;22(1):59-67.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Abstract
Although the association of genetic polymorphisms in glutathione S-transferase(GST) and N-acetyltransferase(NAT) with bladder cancer has been reported, limited numbers of studies have been indicated the association of CYP2E1 with bladder cancer, particularly in Asian population. A hospital based case-control study was conducted in South Korean, consisting of 232 histologically confirmed prevalent bladder cancer cases and 165 controls to evaluate the association between genetic polymorphisms of CYP2E1(RsaI) and development of bladder cancer. The frequency of CYP2E1(RsaI) c1/c1 genotype in bladder cancer cases was higher than in controls; 114 of 201(56.7%) vs. 62 of 146(42.5%). Men with CYP2E1(RsaI) c1/c1 genotype had increased risk of development of bladder cancer compared to men with at least one c2 allele(OR=1.7, 95% CI=1.1-2.7). The bladder cancer risk increased as the number of c1 allele increased(p for trend=0.005). The risk increased as the amount of smoking increased(p for trend=0.009). When data were analyzed for the interaction between smoking and CYP2E1 genetic polymorphisms, smokers with c1/c1 genotype have 2.5 greater risk in development of bladder cancer(95% CI=1.0-6.2) compared to nonsmokers with c2 allele(p for interaction=0.008). Our findings suggest that the interaction between genetic polymorphisms of CYP 2E1 (RsaI, c1/c1) and smoking may play an important role for development of bladder cancer among Koreans.
Summary
Korean summary
Key Message
Glutathione S-transferase(GST) M1 and T1 Genetic Polymorphism in Benign Breast Disorders of Korean Women.
Sue Kyung Park, Mina Ha, Sook Un Kim, Daehee Kang, Keun Young Yoo
Korean J Epidemiol. 2000;22(1):52-58.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Abstract
PURPOSE
A hospital-based case-control study was conducted to evaluate the role of glutathione-S-transferase(GST)M1 and GSTT1 genetic polymorphism for developing benign breast disorders(fibrocystic diseases and fibroadenoma) in Korea. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Histologically confirmed incident cases of benign breast disorder(n=56) were selected from inpatients at the Department of General Surgery, Seoul National University Hospital since 1994. Women with free of self-reporting past history of any malignancies were regarded as controls who were selected from the inpatients at the same department at three hospitals during 1994 to 1998(n=180). Information on life-styles including reproductive factors were obtained by direct interview using questionnaire. Age and menopausal status were matched and 51 cases and 102 controls were finally selected. Odds ratio and 95% confidence interval were estimated by multiple logistic regression after adjusting for age, education, body mass index, smoking history, drinking history, menstrual regularity, age at menarch, age at first pregnancy, frequency of fullterm pregnancy, breast feeding history, duration of breast feeding, and family history of breast cancer.
RESULTS
GSTM1-null type showed no significance related to the risk of benign breast disorder(adjusted OR=0.8, 95% CI=0.38-1.83) and GSTT1-null type was also not significant(adjusted OR=1.4, 95% CI=0.63-3.29). Increasing tendency of disease risk by the number of GSTs null type was not observed (ptrend>0.1) after adjusting for all other variables.
DISCUSSIONS
Further investigation with larger sample size should be needed to provide more concrete information on the role of GST genetic polymorphism in benign breast cancer and a lots of studies relation in normal level of GST genetic polymorphism in general population should be performed.
Summary
Korean summary
Key Message
A Case-Control Study on Risk Factors of Benign Breast Disorders in Korea.
Sue Kyung Park, Keun Young Yoo, Daehee Kang, Sook Un Kim, Sang Yun Lee, Hyung June Im, Hee Jun Kang, Dong Young Noh, Kuk Jin Choe
Korean J Epidemiol. 2000;22(1):11-19.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Abstract
PURPOSE
A hospital-based case-control study was conducted to figure out the risk factors for benign breast disorders in Korea. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Histologically confirmed incident cases of benign breast disorders(n=54) were selected from inpatients with life-style information at the Department of General Surgery, Seoul National University Hospital during 1994 to 1997. Women with free of self-reporting past history of any malignancies were regarded as controls who were selected from the inpatients at the same department of the same hospital(n=180). Information on life-styles including reproductive factors were obtained by direct interview using questionnaire. Adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated by multivariate logistic regression model with matching variables.
RESULTS
Overall, higher educational level, family history of breast cancer, alcohol drinking, and older age at first fullterm pregnancy related to the risk of benign breast disorders. For premenopausal women, older age, higher educational level, and family history of breast cancer increased the risk of benign breast disorders. For postmenopausal women, alcohol drinking, older age at first fullterm pregnancy, and more frequent experiences of fullterm pregnancy increased the risk. Elder age in postmenopausal women and the experience of breast feeding had, however, protective effect against benign breast disorders.
CONCLUSIONS
Although the risk factors for benign breast disease may differ from those for breast cancer, these findings are consistent with the hypothesis of excessive circulating estrogen. The present data indicate some risk factors of benign breast disorders are confirmed as risk factors for breast cancer though a substantial agreement between the risk factors for (pathologically confirmed) benign and malignant breast disease.
Summary
Korean summary
Key Message
Occupational Cancer Surveillance System Using Data Linkage Analysis in Korea.
Sang Yun Lee, Jaiyong Kim, Seongwoo Choi, Hyungjun Im, Kijung Yoon, Ho Jang Kwon, Soo Hun Cho, Daehee Kang
Korean J Epidemiol. 1999;21(2):276-282.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Abstract
To develop the occupational cancer surveillance system in Korea, data linkage analysis was performed on the subjects of Health-monitoring-pocketbook (the list of subjects who were exposed to selected occupational carcinogens) and the retired workers of a cokes manufacturing factory using the Korean medical insurance data, Korean death certificate data and Korean cancer registry data. Study subjects comprised the 822 retired subjects and the 3101 present-post subjects of Health-monitoring-pocketbook and the 182 retired workers of a cokes manufacturing factory. The incidence of cancer of these study subjects was ascertained by linkage of Korean medical insurance data of year 1995-6, Korean death certificate data of year 1992-8 and Korean cancer registry data of year 1993-5. In the study subjects, Eighty seven percent were males and mean age was 39.3+/-8.9 year-old, Average work duration was 8.0+/-5.5 years. Chrome, asbestos and cokes were the most frequent exposed agents. In the study subjects, total 13 cancer cases were ascertained by data linkage analysis. In the ascertained cancer cases, 8 cases were male and 5 cases were female, and 7 cases were aged 40-49 yr, 5 cases were aged 50-59 yr and 1 cases were aged 30-39 yr. The commonest exposure agent in the ascertained cancer cases was asbestos and cokes. By the site of cancer, 3 stomach cancer cases, 2 hematopoietic cancer cases and 2 biliary tract cancer cases were ascertained. The occupational cancer surveillance system using data linkage analysis on the workers exposed to hazardous agents was the most feasible and efficient method in Korea. And to do this, establishment of occupational history information in several disease registry database is needed with the effort of estimating the proper size of workers exposed hazardous agents.
Summary
Korean summary
Key Message
The Usefulness of the Secondary Database for Occupational Asthma Surveillance System in Korea.
Hyungjune Im, Sungwoo Choi, Jaiyong Kim, Sang Yun Lee, Kijung Yoon, Youngju Lee, Ho Jang Kwon, Daehee Kang, Soo Hun Cho
Korean J Epidemiol. 1999;21(2):266-275.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Abstract
Occupational asthma is defined as a disease that is characterized by airway narrowing and bronchial hyperresponsiveness caused by specific working environment. It is estimated that occupational asthma cases in Korea have been underreported. This study, using Korean Medical Insurance Data(KMID), examined the distribution of asthma patients' occupations and the frequency of high risk occupations for occupational asthma in Seoul, Korea to evaluate the usefulness of the KMID data as a database for active occupational asthma surveillance system. Six hundreds and forty two(30.7%) of 2093 patients who were finally chosen as a study population by using 1995-year KMID, were contacted by telephone. 296 persons(47.4%) of 642 patients replied that they were diagnosed as asthma. The occupations of 296 asthma patients were classified by Korean standardized industrial classfication (KSIC). The most common occupations included Wholesale and Retail trade(19.5%), Real estate, Renting and Business activities(14.9%), Construction(14.9%), Manufacturing(12.3%). Forty(13.5%) of 296 patients who could be classified by KSIC were working at high risk jobs for occupational asthma. KMID could be used as a useful data for occupational asthma surveillance system if the limitations of KMID, which is the accuracy of diagnosis, data accessibility, difficulty of following up study subjects, would be solved. The prevalence of occupational asthma could be estimated if the follow-up study diagnosing occupational asthma for asthma patients working in high risk jobs would be held.
Summary
Korean summary
Key Message

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