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Original article Clinical trait and systemic risk of familial diabetes mellitus according to its onset timing and number: A community-based KoGES cohort study
Ju-Yeun Lee1,3orcid , Kyungsik Kim1,5orcid , Sangjun Lee1,5, Woo Ju An1,5, Sue K Park1,4orcid
Epidemiol Health 2022;e2023029
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2023029 [Accepted]
Published online: February 23, 2023
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1Department of Preventive Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
2Integrated Major in Innovative Medical Science, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
3Department of Ophthalmology, Myongji Hospital, Hanyang University College of Medicine, Goyang, Korea
4Cancer Research Institute, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
5Department of Biomedical Sciences, Seoul National University Graduate School , Seoul, Korea
Corresponding author:  Sue K Park,
Email: suepark@snu.ac.kr
Received: 24 November 2022   • Revised: 7 February 2023   • Accepted: 8 February 2023

Objectives
The aim of this study was to clarify the clinical trait of familial diabetes mellitus (DM) by analyzing participants’ risk of DM according to the age of DM onset in parents and siblings, and to evaluate individuals’ risk of DM-associated cardiometabolic diseases.
Methods
Altogether, 211,173 participants aged ≥40 years from the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study were included in this study. The participants were divided into groups based on the number (1 or 2 relatives) and age of onset (no DM and early, common, or late onset) of familial DM. Participants’ risk of DM was assessed using a Cox regression model with hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). A logistic regression model with odds ratios was used to evaluate associations among the participants’ likelihood of acquiring cardiometabolic diseases such as hypertension, chronic kidney disease (CKD), and cardiovascular disease.
Results
The risk of developing DM was 2.02-fold higher (95% CI, 1.88–2.18) and 2.88-fold higher (95% CI, 2.50–3.33), respectively, in participants with 1 and 2 family members diagnosed with familial DM. It was 2.72-fold higher (95% CI, 2.03–3.66) in those with early-onset familial DM. In the early-onset group, the respective risks of hypertension and CKD were 1.87-fold higher (95% CI, 1.37–2.55) and 4.31-fold higher (95% CI, 2.55–7.27) than in the control group.
Conclusions
The risk of DM and related cardiometabolic diseases was positively associated with the number of family members diagnosed with DM and an early diagnosis in family members with DM.


Epidemiol Health : Epidemiology and Health