Warning: fopen(/home/virtual/epih/journal/upload/ip_log/ip_log_2024-06.txt): failed to open stream: Permission denied in /home/virtual/lib/view_data.php on line 95 Warning: fwrite() expects parameter 1 to be resource, boolean given in /home/virtual/lib/view_data.php on line 96 Mental health outcomes of quarantine and isolation for infection prevention: a systematic umbrella review of the global evidence
Skip Navigation
Skip to contents

Epidemiol Health : Epidemiology and Health

OPEN ACCESS
SEARCH
Search

Articles

Page Path
HOME > Epidemiol Health > Volume 42; 2020 > Article
COVID-19
Systematic Review
Mental health outcomes of quarantine and isolation for infection prevention: a systematic umbrella review of the global evidence
Md Mahbub Hossain1,2orcid, Abida Sultana2orcid, Neetu Purohit3orcid
Epidemiol Health 2020;42:e2020038.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2020038
Published online: June 2, 2020

1Department of Health Promotion and Community Health Sciences, School of Public Health, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA

2Nature Study Society of Bangladesh, Khulna, Bangladesh

3The IIHMR University, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India

Correspondence: Md Mahbub Hossain Department of Health Promotion and Community Health Sciences, School of Public Health, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843, USA E-mail: mhossain@tamu.edu
• Received: March 17, 2020   • Accepted: June 2, 2020

©2020, Korean Society of Epidemiology

This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

  • 38,828 Views
  • 1,480 Download
  • 383 Web of Science
  • 269 Crossref
  • 370 Scopus
  • OBJECTIVES
    Transmission of infectious diseases is often prevented by quarantine and isolation of the populations at risk. These approaches restrict the mobility, social interactions, and daily activities of the affected individuals. In recent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, quarantine and isolation are being adopted in many contexts, which necessitates an evaluation of global evidence on how such measures impact the mental health outcomes among populations. This umbrella review aimed to synthesize the available evidence on mental health outcomes of quarantine and isolation for preventing infectious diseases.
  • METHODS
    We searched nine major databases and additional sources and included articles if they were systematically conducted reviews, published as peer-reviewed journal articles, and reported mental health outcomes of quarantine or isolation in any population.
  • RESULTS
    Among 1,364 citations, only eight reviews met our criteria. Most of the primary studies in those reviews were conducted in high-income nations and in hospital settings. These articles reported a high burden of mental health problems among patients, informal caregivers, and healthcare providers who experienced quarantine or isolation. Prevalent mental health problems among the affected individuals include depression, anxiety, mood disorders, psychological distress, posttraumatic stress disorder, insomnia, fear, stigmatization, low self-esteem, lack of self-control, and other adverse mental health outcomes.
  • CONCLUSIONS
    This umbrella review found severe mental health problems among individuals and populations who have undergone quarantine and isolation in different contexts. This evidence necessitates multipronged interventions including policy measures for strengthening mental health services globally and promoting psychosocial wellbeing among high-risk populations.
Quarantine and isolation are public health measures used to prevent the transmission of infectious diseases among individuals and communities [1,2]. Conceptually, quarantine and isolation share the same purpose of infection prevention; however, these terms have distinct meanings in practice. Isolation aims to separate infected individuals from those who have not contracted the infection, whereas quarantine takes a different approach by separating and restricting the movements of people who have been exposed to an infectious disease to monitor whether they develop the disease over time [1].
Historically, quarantine was one of the few known measures to protect lives and cities during the plague epidemics in Europe during the 14th century [3]. Later in the United States, the increasing burden of different infectious diseases, including yellow fever, resulted in the 1878 National Quarantine Act [3,4]. In the past centuries, quarantine became relevant for addressing cholera epidemics and many other historical events related to infectious diseases globally [2,3].
In December 2019, an outbreak of a novel strain of coronavirus occurred in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China, and spread across the world within a short time [5,6]. On February 11, 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) named it coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) [7]. China implemented a 14-day quarantine for to prevent the transmission of COVID-19 [8]. Nonetheless, the death toll of COVID-19 continued to grow rapidly across the world. With an increasing number of new cases and a high case fatality rate, COVID-19 became a major concern for global health [9]. The WHO acknowledged this crisis and declared COVID-19 a pandemic [10,11]. To address the growing burden of COVID-19, Italy announced a nationwide quarantine [12]. These events brought the attention of the scientific community to quarantine, isolation, and other preventive measures that may protect health and save lives around the world.
Although quarantine and isolation are adopted for protecting individuals’ physical health from infectious diseases, it is also essential to consider the mental health implications of these measures for those who experience such restrictions. People quarantined in earlier outbreaks of infectious diseases have reported adverse mental health outcomes following the quarantine period. A study evaluated the mental health status of 398 parents of children who experienced disease containment and found 30% of the isolated or quarantined children and 25% of the quarantined or isolated parents met the criteria for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) [13]. Another study assessed the mental health status of individuals who were isolated during the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) epidemic. This study found that the prevalence of anxiety symptoms and feelings of anger was 7.6% (95% confidence interval [CI], 6.3 to 8.9) and 16.6% (95% CI, 14.8 to 18.4), respectively [14]. A cohort study evaluated the psychological impact of the 2003 Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) outbreak in Canada among 1,912 adults, and found a high burden of psychological distress and symptoms of PTSD (p<0.001) among healthcare providers [15]. Similar studies have provided information on how various mental health conditions may appear when an individual is quarantined or isolated [16,17]. Therefore, evidence on such problems would be useful for informing policy-makers and practitioners about the mental health outcomes associated with quarantine and isolation. Such evidence can facilitate further research and informed decision-making to ensure that the infectious disease or condition is addressed while minimizing the harms to the mental health and wellbeing of the affected individuals.
Evidence synthesis is recognized as a rigorous process wherein the best possible information is identified and critically appraised to inform decision-making in the health sciences [18,19]. As observational or experimental studies may provide a partial understanding of how quarantine and isolation impact human minds, it is essential to combine the findings of multiple primary studies to inform the scientific community and policy-makers through systematic reviews and meta-analyses. This process often becomes more challenging when continued intellectual discourse about a topic results in the development and publication of multiple reviews with similar or conflicting findings. Such differences across studies are acknowledged and analyzed in umbrella reviews or reviews of the reviews [20,21], which aim to find the best possible evidence from existing reviews in a systematic way and to inform evidence-based decision-making.
Since 2015, many umbrella reviews have been conducted to evaluate the evidence base on the psychosocial epidemiology of mental health in diverse populations [22-27]. Although several reviews have reported psychological impacts of quarantine or isolation [28,29], no umbrella review or overview of the reviews was found, although such a review could provide valuable information on the mental health implications of quarantine and isolation within the global landscape. The objective of this umbrella review is to evaluate the mental health outcomes associated with quarantine and isolation from existing reviews. Such evidence may offer broader insights into the psychosocial aftermaths of COVID-19 and empower decision-makers to adopt evidence-based policies to protect individuals’ physical and mental health during and after infectious disease outbreaks.
Guidelines, sources, and processes of collecting the literature
In this umbrella review, we followed the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines and the recommendations by the Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) Umbrella Review Methodology Working Group [21,30]. We searched the MEDLINE, Embase, PubMed, Academic Search Ultimate, Health Source: Nursing/Academic Edition, Health Policy Reference Center, American Psychological Association (APA) PsycInfo, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), and Web of Science databases using a set of keywords as listed in Table 1.
These keywords were used to capture several domains in the scientific literature. First, quarantine and isolation may be discussed interchangeably in the literature, and different types of isolation have been described in global studies. Several keywords were used to capture this variety of keywords in the existing literature. Second, several keywords were used to identify the literature on infectious diseases, including past outbreaks and the contemporary COVID-19 pandemic. Third, to assess the global literature in an inclusive manner, we adopted a broader definition of mental health in this review. We considered any mental disorders listed in the International Classification of Diseases or Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, which include depression, anxiety, substance and alcohol use disorders, sleep disorders, and other psychiatric conditions [31,32]. We also included psychological and behavioral conditions, including but not limited to self-esteem, loneliness, and psychological distress, that are integral to mental health and wellbeing [33,34]. The inclusion of conditions was consistent with the WHO definition of health [35], which motivated this review to include broader outcomes and determinants associated with mental health alongside evaluations of mental disorders. Lastly, we used keywords for including systematically conducted reviews with different names. A review reported the existence of at least 14 types of reviews [36], which informed our choice of keywords to identify all review articles that had a systematic methodology of searching the literature for the respective review question. We combined these keywords with appropriate Boolean operators (OR/AND) and searched within the titles, abstracts, subject heading (e.g., Medical Subject Headings [MeSH]), and other search fields. Moreover, we performed manual searching of the reference lists of selected articles, published studies that were highly cited in the field, and newer articles that cited the earlier articles. This manual searching was conducted in the Google Scholar database. Furthermore, we reached out to subject matter experts to identify potential studies that may have met our criteria. The entire search process was conducted since the inception of the respective databases and was updated until March 10, 2020.
Inclusion and exclusion criteria
We included an article in this umbrella review if it fulfilled all the following inclusion criteria: (1) it was published in a peer-reviewed journal, (2) the language of the full-text article was English, (3) it was a review article with a clearly stated methodology of searching the literature (for example, systematic reviews, meta-analyses, systematic scoping reviews, etc.), (4) it reported any mental health-related conditions (for example, mental disorders such as PTSD or mental health conditions such as fear or loneliness), (5) the participants of the primary studies in the respective reviews had experienced quarantine or any form of isolation for infection prevention in any capacity (for example, patients, their informal caregivers, or healthcare providers who were involved in the quarantine or isolation process), (6) populations from any socio-demographic background or participants with known medical conditions were included (for example, children, adults, elderly, or individuals with any diseases or infections were included), and (7) it was published at any time within the search period. Lastly, we excluded articles that did not meet at least one of the above-mentioned criteria.
Screening and selection of the literature
All the citations found through searching the databases and additional sources were uploaded to RefWorks [37], which was used to manage the citations data and to exclude duplicate citations from the total collection of literature. Further, these citations were exported to Rayyan [38], which is a cloud-based platform for screening citations data. Two authors (MMH and AS) independently screened all the citations according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria of this review. At the end of the primary screening, any discrepancies during the screening process were resolved based on a discussion in the presence of the third author (NP). Then, the full-texts of the preliminarily selected articles were reviewed to evaluate their eligibility for this review and excluded if they did not meet all criteria as stated earlier.
Data extraction and analysis
We extracted data from the finally selected articles using a manual data extraction form. Two authors independently extracted data on the following domains: titles and objectives of the reviews, the number of databases searched, the timeframe of conducting the search process, types of the primary studies included in the reviews, the countries of origin of those studies, sample sizes, characteristics of the study participants, the infectious conditions or agents that were the primary reasons for quarantine or isolation in the respective studies, and the mental health outcomes reported in the reviews. A narrative synthesis was conducted due to heterogeneity in methods, population characteristics, reasons for quarantine or isolation, and mental health outcomes in the respective reviews.
Quality assessment
We used the JBI critical appraisal checklist for systematic reviews and research synthesis [21] to assess the methodological quality of studies included in this umbrella review. This checklist consists of 10 items dealing with different methodological aspects of a review article, including the appropriateness of the search strategies, the approach to synthesizing evidence, potential sources of biases, and prospects for future research and policy-making. In this review, 2 authors independently evaluated each of the included articles. On this 10-item checklist, each item can receive 1 point, and the overall quality score of a study can range from 0 to 10. In this umbrella review, studies receiving 0-4, 5-7, and 8-10 points were categorized as low-quality, medium-quality, and high-quality studies, respectively. The scoring and categorizing processes in this review were informed by earlier umbrella reviews [26,27,39].
Ethics statement
No ethical approval was required as this is a systematic review of published reviews and it did not involve any human participants.
Characteristics of the included articles
We found a total of 603 citations from MEDLINE (n=128), Embase (n=114), PubMed (n=131), Academic Search Ultimate (n=43), Health Source: Nursing/Academic Edition (n=16), Health Policy Reference Center (n=2), APA PsycInfo (n=17), CINAHL (n=48), and Web of Science (n=104). In addition, Google Scholar and additional sources provided 761 citations. In total, 1,364 citations were considered in this review and 771 unique records were screened after removing 593 duplicate records (Figure 1). After full-text screening, 8 reviews were included in this umbrella review (Table 2) [28,29,40-45]. These reviews were published between 2009 and 2020, and most reviews (n=5) were published since 2018. The reviews used different scholarly sources, ranging from 2 to 4 databases. The number of primary studies in those reviews ranged from 7 to 26. Most reviews included cohort studies (n, 6: number/range of primary studies in each review; S, 1 to 12), followed by cross-sectional studies (n, 5; s, 2 to 11), qualitative studies (n, 3; s, 2 to 10), case-control studies (n, 1; s, 6), quasi-experimental studies (n, 2; s, 2), case studies (n, 1; s, 2), mixed-method studies (n, 1; s, 2), reviews (n, 1; s, 1), and psychological evaluations (n, 1; s, 1). In the quality assessment (Supplementary Material 1), 3 reviews were found to have high quality [28,44,45], while 5 had medium quality [29,40-43].
Characteristics of the study populations
The reviews included primary studies ranging from case studies with 1 subject to larger samples (e.g., 9,648). Three reviews did not specify the origin of the primary studies [40,41,43]; among the remaining reviews, most of the primary studies were from the United States, United Kingdom, and Canada, whereas fewer studies were conducted in Sweden, Australia, Netherlands, Korea, Senegal, New Zealand, Ireland, Brazil, Liberia, Turkey, France, Spain, Sierra Leone, Hong Kong, Taiwan, China, and Singapore [28,29,42,44,45]. Most reviews included primary studies conducted in healthcare settings. For example, Gammon et al. [28] reviewed 14 studies with samples ranging from 1 to 528, whereas Purssell et al. [44] reviewed 26 studies with samples ranging from 14 to 9,684. Both reviews evaluated studies that recruited participants from clinical settings, including healthcare providers and clinical students. In contrast, a review by Brooks et al. [29] included studies that recruited participants, including patients, providers, students, institutional stakeholders, and community members from diverse settings.
Infectious diseases or conditions for quarantine and isolation
Different types of measures for infection prevention and associated causes were reported across reviews (Table 3). Abad et al. [41] evaluated studies focusing on isolation, whereas 3 studies specified source isolation in the primary studies [28,42,43]. Moreover, 3 reviews focused on contact precaution or isolation [40,44,45]. One study by Brooks et al. [29] emphasized primary studies conducted on quarantine.
Across the study populations, quarantine or isolation measures were taken in response to several infectious agents or conditions. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was the most commonly reported (number of reviews, 6) reason for isolating the patients [28,41-45]. Four reviews reported multi-drug resistant organisms as the primary reason for isolation [40,41,44,45]. Several reviews reported that SARS (n=3) and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (n=2) were the reasons for isolation [29,41,42]. Other infectious agents or conditions associated with isolation or quarantine included healthcare-associated infections, tuberculosis, Ebola, H1N1 influenza, equine influenza, and MERS [29,41,43].
Mental health outcomes of quarantine and isolation
The reviews reported a high burden of mental health conditions among individuals who experienced isolation or quarantine [28,29,45]. For example, Gammon et al. [28] found that 33% of the participants who had undergone source isolation had poor mental health status. Among specific mental health outcomes, all reviews reported a high prevalence of anxiety among study participants [28,29,40-45]. For example, Purssell et al. [44] found that the pooled standardized mean difference for anxiety was 1.45 (95% CI, 0.56 to 2.34) among participants who experienced contact precautions and isolation.
Six reviews reported varying levels of depression among the study participants [29,41-45]. For example, Sharma et al. [45] found pooled mean difference estimates for the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale to be -1.85 (p=0.09), whereas Purssell et al. [44] found the pooled mean difference to be 1.28 (95% CI, 0.47 to 2.09) for depression among the study participants. Four reviews reported anger and irritability among the study participants [29,40-42]. For example, a review found that up to 57% of the participants reported irritability alongside other mental conditions following the quarantine [29]. Psychological distress associated with suboptimal patient-provider communication was reported in 4 reviews [28,40,41,43]. Moreover, 4 reviews found varying levels of stress among the study participants who experienced quarantine or isolation [28,29,42,43].
Several psychosocial conditions affected the mental health and wellbeing of the individuals during and after quarantine or isolation. Three reviews found that the participants perceived social exclusion or felt neglected [40,42,43]. Often, psychological and emotional disturbances were reported by the affected individuals, as found in 3 reviews [29,42,43]. Stigmatization was reported in 3 reviews, which impacted the study participants’ mental health and wellbeing [28,42,43]. For example, Gammon et al. [28] found that 32% of MRSA carriers reported stigma, among which 14% of the participants reported “clear stigma” and 42% reported “suggestive for stigma.”
Quarantine and isolation for infection prevention also impacted the mental health and wellbeing of healthcare providers [28,29]. For example, Brooks et al. [29] found several mental health conditions among the healthcare providers who worked under quarantine, including acute stress disorder, exhaustion, detachment, anxiety, depression, irritability, insomnia, poor concentration, deterioration of work performance, alcohol use, avoidance behavior, and posttraumatic stress-related symptoms, even 3 years after the quarantine period. Moreover, the mental health of informal caregivers was affected due to quarantine and isolation. Brooks et al. [29] reported that 28% of parents of children who were quarantined had trauma-related mental disorders, which was higher than comparison parents who had a prevalence of 6% for the same condition.
Several other mental disorders and psychological conditions were found across study populations, including low self-esteem [40,41,43], mood disorders [29,43], fear [29,41], guilt [29], loneliness [28,41-43], boredom [41,42], feeling a lack of control [28,42,43], insomnia [29], PTSD [29], perceived dirtiness [43], vigilant handwashing [29], and avoiding crowds and social gatherings even after quarantine or isolation [29]. One study in the review by Abad et al. [41] reported that a few participants acknowledged positive feelings of privacy and freedom during isolation, whereas the remaining studies reported higher scores for depression, anxiety, anger-hostility, fear, loneliness, boredom, and low self-esteem.
To the best of our knowledge, this is the first umbrella review to evaluate the global evidence on mental health outcomes associated with quarantine and isolation measures for infection prevention. Most reviews included cohort studies as well as qualitative studies, which enabled them to explore how periods of restricted mobility not only addressed the transmission of infectious diseases, but affected the mental health and wellbeing of the study participants. Some of the reviews found that the impacts of quarantine and isolation continued over a longer period, highlighting how acute exposure to psychosocial stressors during quarantine and isolation can exert prolonged impacts on the human mind, psychological processes, and mental health outcomes. Such effects were found among patients, informal caregivers, and healthcare providers, indicating that complex psychosocial dynamics take place among the key stakeholders in the process of quarantine or isolation who are likely to be affected and to experience negative mental health outcomes. These findings were consistent across most reviews and primary studies included in the respective reviews. Moreover, most reviews included in this umbrella review had medium quality and 3 reviews had high quality, whereas no review was found to have low quality. As the included reviews were heterogeneous in their methods, populations, and outcomes, no conclusion can be drawn on how the quality of the reviews could have mediated the comparative findings of the respective reviews. However, as none of the reviews received a low score for quality in the assessment process, this umbrella review found consistency in the findings of the analyzed reviews. Quarantine and isolation impacted mental health and wellbeing across populations in different contexts, and this finding remains a critical concern for global health discourse. However, several issues should be considered to further evaluate these findings and to draw meaningful insights for future research, policy-making, and practice.
First, most studies in the included reviews originated from high-income countries, which may affect the generalizability of the findings to low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs). These countries are often under-represented in terms of generating evidence through empirical studies [46], which remains a major concern for strengthening the global evidence base on psychosocial epidemiology. Therefore, this review underscores the need to conduct more studies in LMICs to better understand how quarantine or isolation may affect mental health and wellbeing in those contexts.
Second, patients and their informal caregivers experienced a high burden of mental disorders, which necessitates integrating psychosocial care and mental health support alongside physical health services during quarantine or isolation for infection control. Existing models of care may need human contact to deliver such services. However, recent advancements in digital health interventions may address such issues and facilitate delivering mental health interventions using digital platforms with minimal human involvement [47-49]. Future research and implementation strategies should explore such avenues to improve mental health outcomes during infectious disease outbreaks.
Third, healthcare providers have reported experiencing various mental health problems, including emotional exhaustion, which may result in suboptimal performance at the workplace, as found in this umbrella review. Several evidence-based reviews have reported a high burden of professional burnout among healthcare providers [50-52], which may be exacerbated during quarantine and isolation for infection prevention. Such evidence suggests the need for academic and professional approaches to sensitize clinical students and healthcare providers to be aware of such issues in practical settings and to adopt protective mental health measures before working in such stressful conditions. Moreover, evidence-based psychosocial interventions for improving mental health and wellbeing among healthcare providers should be adopted [53].
Fourth, most of the reviews synthesized evidence from populations in clinical settings. This highlights the significance of healthcare organizations during isolation and quarantine. Such examples have become evident during the COVID-19 pandemic; for instance, healthcare organizations in China played critical roles in treating infected individuals and preventing the outbreak within their scope [54]. It is necessary to revisit existing protocols and resources in health services organizations so that their preparedness for providing mental healthcare in quarantine and isolation can be ensured.
Fifth, the profile of infectious conditions that were associated with quarantine and isolation in this review involved a variety of agents, limiting the degree to which conclusions can be drawn on how different agents may have required different levels of isolation or impacted mental health among the participants differently. Moreover, scarce insights relevant for the COVID-19 pandemic can be drawn from previous studies analyzing different conditions. Furthermore, the global research trends on COVID-19 have not adequately explored the psychosocial impacts of this ongoing crisis [55], which underscores the critical need for more research in this domain. However, studies on SARS and MERS outbreaks provide some insights on how coronaviruses have affected mental health in earlier outbreaks. The current evidence base should be considered when designing future studies and interventions for COVID-19 and other infectious conditions.
Sixth, the current evidence provides information on different mental health problems associated with quarantine and isolation, which may also need psychosocial perspectives to assess the way these preventive measures are enforced globally. Rather than mandating such approaches, altruistic social behavior and practices should be promoted [29]. Moreover, the early engagement of infected individuals, caregivers, or populations at risk may allow all parties to make informed decisions and to address anxiety and distress related to uncertainty about potential risks and benefits [56,57].
Seventh, interpersonal relationships, networks, and social capital appear to have critical significance during major health events, including quarantine and isolation [58]. Such ties must be explored and leveraged to improve mental health outcomes during infection prevention. For example, a study reported a few participants who acknowledged higher levels of privacy and freedom during isolation [41]. This highlights how perceptions can be different and how individual ideas and perceived stressors may result in diverse mental health outcomes. Therefore, individual psychosocial factors should be thoroughly evaluated to identify risk and protective factors among individuals, which may guide the development and adoption of personalized mental health measures. Other opportunities to strengthen mental healthcare may include interventions for improving patient-provider communication, social media interventions, online support groups, and other resources appropriate to the contexts and psychosocial preferences of the affected individuals.
Eighth, awareness is one of the key determinants of mental health among individuals and populations [59]. It is essential to acknowledge the role of knowledge and attitudes about mental health, especially during quarantine and isolation, which may reduce stigmatization as well as promote resilience to psychosocial problems. The presence of co-occurring physical or mental health problems may exacerbate the psychological challenges during quarantine and isolation. It is recommended that infection control measures should be included in existing health promotion programs so that psychosocial preparedness can be developed at the population level, which may profoundly help during unforeseen infectious crises.
Ninth, the effectiveness of isolation or quarantine may depend on the structure and functions of different organograms in a health system. Although measures often focus on crude indicators such as the incidence or mortality rate, little is known about how the levels of preparedness of health systems contribute to assure the citizens during outbreaks of major infectious diseases. This may impact the way an outbreak or potential infection is perceived by people across societies. The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in diverse responses from health systems in different countries. The current review found varying levels of mental health outcomes globally, which necessitates strengthening health systems’ capacities to improve mental health among the affected populations. Moreover, future research is necessary to understand how different health systems react to small-scale to large-scale outbreaks, and how such responses influence mental health status across populations.
Last but not least, infection prevention requires stricter measures to standardize the processes and ensure the quality of such services globally. During large-scale crises like COVID-19, this need is perceived strongly throughout the international scientific community, which has been reflected in extensive collaborative research since the start of the COVID-19 outbreak [55]. However, global mental health remains a developing domain in health sciences, meaning that little information is available on how global institutions and stakeholders can contribute together to improve mental health outcomes among diverse population groups around the world. It is necessary to develop a global alliance, perhaps an institution under the leadership of major global health stakeholders, which may work on improving global mental health with a focus on providing support to regional and local institutions for building capacities and resources for mental health. Such efforts may create and strengthen mental health support networks, allowing timely actions to respond to infectious conditions, to promote psychosocial resilience, and to protect mental health among individuals and populations simultaneously.
This review has several limitations, which must be acknowledged. We did not include articles beyond the strategy outlined in this review. This may have resulted in selection bias as there are many more databases with potential studies that could have met our criteria. Another limitation is publication bias, which may have limited the synthesis of evidence from unpublished studies. Moreover, the heterogeneous methods and outcomes of the reviews included in this study do not provide insights on how different levels of quarantine or isolation may have had distinct impacts on mental health outcomes in different contexts, which remains a limitation of this review. Last but not least, an umbrella review evaluates reviews, rather than synthesizing study-level evidence [21]; such meta-epidemiological analyses may have different objectives or outcomes, which were beyond the scope of this review. These limitations should be considered in translating the evidence of this review into practice and conducting future research in this area.
This umbrella review synthesized the global evidence on mental health outcomes of quarantine and isolation for infection prevention. The current evidence informs a high burden of different mental health problems among patients, informal caregivers, and healthcare providers. These challenges must be recognized for strengthening mental health services during quarantine and isolation. Moreover, risk and protective factors of mental health among individuals and populations should be evaluated to inform the future development and implementation of multilevel interventions aiming to ensure optimal mental health and wellbeing when individuals experience complex psychosocial stressors due to restricted mobility and social interactions. Lastly, humane caregiving should be placed at the center of infection control, ensuring scientific standards to achieve collective goals in protecting physical and mental health among populations at risk.
Supplementary materials are available at http://www.e-epih.org/.
Supplementary Material 1.
epih-42-e2020038-suppl.pdf

CONFLICT OF INTEREST

The author has no conflicts of interest to declare for this study.

FUNDING

None.

AUTHOR CONTRIBUTIONS

Conceptualization: MMH, AS. Data curation: MMH, AS, NP. Formal analysis: MMH, AS. Funding acquisition: None. Methodology: MMH. Project administration: MMH, NP. Visualization: MMH. Writing- original draft: MMH. Writing- review and editing: MMH, AS, NP.

None.
Figure 1.
Flow diagram of the literature search process.
epih-42-e2020038f1.jpg
Table 1.
Keywords used for searching databases
Search query Keywords (searched within titles, abstracts, subject headings such as MeSH, and general keywords)
1 “quarantine” OR “isolation” OR “source isolation” OR “contact isolation” OR “patient isolation” OR “confinement”
2 “infection” OR “infected” OR “infective” or “infectious” or “communicable” OR “COVID” OR “COVID-19” OR “nCoV” OR “corona-virus” OR “MERS” OR “SARS” OR “outbreak” OR “epidemic” OR “pandemic”
3 “mental health” OR “mental disorders” OR “mental illness” OR “psychiatric” OR “psychological” OR “psychosocial” OR “adverse outcomes” OR “unintended consequences” OR “depression” OR “depressive” OR “sleep disorder” OR “insomnia” OR “anxiety” OR “PTSD” OR “suicide” OR “self-harm” OR “suicidal” OR “distress” OR “affective” OR “fear” OR “phobia”
4 “systematic review” OR “systematic literature review” OR “evidence-based review” OR “meta-analysis” OR “meta-analytic” OR “meta-regression” OR “pooled effect” OR “pooled estimate” OR “scoping review” OR “rapid review” OR “evidence-based practice” OR “systematized review” OR “literature review” OR “review of the literature”
Final search query 1 AND 2 AND 3 AND 4

MeSH, Medical Subject Headings.

Table 2.
Characteristics of the articles included in this review
Study Name and timeframe of databases searched Name and timeframe of databases searched Country or locations of the primary studies Quality of the review Sample size and characteristics
Morgan et al., 2009 [40] MEDLINE, PubMed, Google Scholar, and additional sources; 1970-2008 7 studies on mental health outcomes: 5 cohort studies, 2 cross-sectional and series interviews Not specified Medium Sample size ranged from 8 to 43; participants in 7 selected studies; most (n=6) studies recruited hospitalized patient populations, 1 study included both patients and providers
Abad et al., 2010 [41] MEDLINE and CINAHL; 1966-2009 8 cohort studies and 7 case-control studies Not specified Medium Sample size ranged from 16 to 156; most studies had adult participants; 2 studies recruited children; samples were recruited from hospital wards
Barratt et al., 2011 [42] MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and Cochrane Library Databases; 1990-2010 Studies were qualitative (n=7), cohort (n=7), cross-sectional (n=6), case studies (n=2), and review (n=1) Most studies were from the UK (n=6) followed by the US (n=4), Hong Kong (n=1), and Canada (n=1) Medium Sample size ranged from 7 to 300; samples were recruited from different clinical settings
Gammon et al., 2018 [43] PubMed and ASSIA; 1990-2017 Not specified Not specified Medium Sample size ranged from 13 to 41 among studies reporting sample sizes; participants were recruited from different hospital wards
Gammon et al., 2019 [28] MEDLINE and ASSIA; 1990-2017 14: only 1 study was cohort-based; most studies were cross-sectional, and 10 studies had a qualitative design Most studies were from the UK (n=6), followed by the US (n=2), Sweden (n=2), and 1 study each from the Netherlands, New Zealand, Ireland, and Brazil High Sample size ranged from 1 to 528; most studies recruited patients and providers from clinical settings, whereas 2 samples included nursing students
Brooks et al., 2020 [29] MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Web of Science; timeframe not specified 25: cross-sectional (n=11), qualitative (n=7), longitudinal (n=1), observational (n=2), mixed methods (n=3), and psychological evaluation (n=1) Most studies were conducted in Canada (n=8) and China (n=4); 2 studies each from Taiwan, Australia, Korea, and Liberia; 1 study each from Sierra Leone, Senegal, Hong Kong, and Sweden; 1 study had participants both from the US and Canada Medium Sample size ranged from 10 to 6,231; diverse samples including patients, providers, students, institutional stakeholders, and community members were recruited
Purssell et al., 2020 [44] Embase, MEDLINE, and PsycINFO; from the inception of the databases until December 2018 26: cohort (n=12), case-control (n=6), cross-sectional (n=4), and quasi-experimental (n=2) studies Most studies were from the US (n=14), followed by the UK (n=3), Canada (n=3), and 1 study each from Spain, Turkey, Netherlands, Singapore, France, and 1 study had participants both from the US and Canada High Sample size ranged from 14 to 9,684; patients were recruited from diverse clinical settings
Sharma et al., 2020 [45] Embase, PubMed, and Google Scholar; studies published through March 2019 7: cohort (n=4), quasi-experimental (n=2), and not specified (n=1) Not specified High Sample size ranged from 16 to 148; participants were recruited from diverse clinical settings

CINAHL, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature; ASSIA, Applied Social Sciences Index and Abstracts.

Table 3.
Mental health outcomes in different conditions of quarantine and isolation
Study Type and reasons for quarantine, isolation, or other measures for infection prevention Mental health impacts
Morgan et al., 2009 [40] Contact precaution; MDROs Patients expressed feeling neglected, isolated, angry (p=0.037), depression (up to 77%, p-values ranged from < 0.01 to < 0.001), anxiety (p<0.001), low self-esteem (p<0.01), perception of less control (p<0.001); less patient-provider contact was reported
Abad et al., 2010 [41] Isolation; multiple infectious conditions including VRE, MRSA, healthcare-associated infections, MDRO, SARS, and mixed infections Most studies reported higher scores for depression, anxiety, anger-hostility, fear, loneliness, boredom, and low self-esteem; One study reported higher freedom and privacy perceived by the patients; higher anxiety scores were associated with history of mental illness; Most studies found that providers visited less frequently and spent less time with isolated patients compared to the controls
Barratt et al., 2011 [42] Source isolation; VRE, MRSA, SARS, and mixed infections Studies reported stress, anxiety, depression, loneliness, anger, neglect, abandonment, boredom, stigmatization, low sense of control and self-esteem, and negative emotions
Gammon et al., 2018 [43] Source isolation; MRSA, tuberculosis, and other non-specified infections Participants experienced limited visiting, lack of attention and lesser interaction with providers, and disruption of routine; Additionally, feelings of loneliness, abandonment, social exclusion, stigmatization, anxiety, depression, mood changes, stress, negative effects on coping and psychological functioning, low self-esteem and sense of control, emotional problems, anger, perceived feeling of dirtiness, and a lack of clarity on the isolation process were reported; Moreover, studies have found that many psychosocial issues were attributable to the primary cause(s) of hospitalization
Gammon et al., 2019 [28] Source isolation; MRSA and other non-specified infectious conditions Patients reported a lack of control and feeling lonely in isolation, which led to a perceived state of social exclusion; Along with poor mental health (33%), about 32% of MRSA carriers reported stigma; of these, 14% reported “clear stigma” and 42% reported “suggestive for stigma”; Patients also reported suboptimal patient-provider communication, lack of understanding facial expression due to masks, and procedures that provoked anxiety and stresses of isolation
Brooks et al., 2020 [29] Quarantine; SARS (n=15), Ebola (n=5), H1N1 influenza (n=3), Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (n=2), and equine influenza (n=1) Patients reported general psychological problems, emotional disturbance, depression, stress, low mood (up to 73%), irritability (up to 57%), anger, guilt, nervousness, sadness, fear, numbness, vigilant handwashing and avoidance of crowds even after quarantine period; The parents and children who were quarantined had higher prevalence of trauma-related mental disorders (28% parents had such symptoms compared to 6% control parents); Healthcare providers also reported acute stress disorder, exhaustion, detachment, anxiety, depression, irritability, insomnia, poor concentration, deterioration of work performance, alcohol use, avoidance behavior, and posttraumatic stress-related symptoms even 3 yr after the quarantine period
Purssell et al., 2020 [44] Contact precaution and isolation; MRSA and MDROs The pooled standardized mean difference was 1.28 (95% CI, 0.47 to 2.09) for depression and 1.45 (95% CI, 0.56 to 2.34) for anxiety among the study participants
Sharma et al., 2020 [45] Isolation precaution; MRSA, MDROs, and other infections The pooled mean difference estimates for HADS-A was -1.4 (p=0.15) and that for HADS-D was -1.85 (p= 0.09) for anxiety and depression, respectively; Most studies (n=6) reported negative effects on psychological burden scales in the empirical analysis

MDROs, multiple drug-resistant organisms; VRE, vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus; MRSA, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus; SARS, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome; CI, confidence interval; HADS, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scales.

  • 1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Quarantine and isolation; 2017 [cited 2020 Mar 12]. Available from: https://www.cdc.gov/quarantine/index.html.Article
  • 2. Tognotti E. Lessons from the history of quarantine, from plague to influenza A. Emerg Infect Dis 2013;19:254-259.ArticlePubMedPMC
  • 3. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. History of quarantine; 2012 [cited 2020 Mar 12]. Available from: https://www.cdc.gov/quarantine/historyquarantine.html.
  • 4. Michael JM. The National Board of Health: 1879-1883. Public Health Rep 2011;126:123-129.ArticlePubMed
  • 5. World Health Organization. WHO-China joint mission on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19); 2020 Feb 28 [cited 2020 Mar 12]. Available from: https://www.who.int/news-room/feature-stories/detail/who-china-joint-mission-on-coronavirus-disease-2019-(covid-19).
  • 6. Zu ZY, Jiang MD, Xu PP, Chen W, Ni QQ, Lu GM, et al. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): a perspective from China. Radiology 2020;200490.ArticlePubMed
  • 7. World Health Organization. Rolling updates on coronavirus disease (COVID-19). [cited 2020 Mar 12]. Available from: https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019/events-as-they-happen.
  • 8. Coronavirus: Beijing orders 14-day quarantine for returnees. BBC News; 2020 Feb 15 [cited 2020 Mar 12]. Available from: https://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-china-51509248.
  • 9. World Health Organization. Coronavirus disease (COVID-2019) situation reports. [cited 2020 May 1]. Available from: https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019/situation-reports/.
  • 10. World Health Organization. WHO Director-General’s opening remarks at the media briefing on COVID-19 - 11 March 2020. [cited 2020 Mar 12]. Available from: https://www.who.int/dg/speeches/detail/who-director-general-s-opening-remarks-at-the-media-briefing-on-covid-19---11-march-2020.
  • 11. Ducharme J. World Health Organization declares COVID-19 a ‘pandemic.’ Here’s what that means. Time; 2020 Mar 11 [cited 2020 Mar 12]. Available from: https://time.com/5791661/who-coronavirus-pandemic-declaration/.
  • 12. Horowitz J. Italy announces restrictions over entire country in attempt to halt coronavirus. The New York Times; 2020 Mar 11 [cited 2020 Mar 12]. Available from: https://www.nytimes.com/2020/03/09/world/europe/italy-lockdown-coronavirus.html.
  • 13. Sprang G, Silman M. Posttraumatic stress disorder in parents and youth after health-related disasters. Disaster Med Public Health Prep 2013;7:105-110.ArticlePubMed
  • 14. Jeong H, Yim HW, Song YJ, Ki M, Min JA, Cho J, et al. Mental health status of people isolated due to Middle East Respiratory Syndrome. Epidemiol Health 2016;38:e2016048.ArticlePubMedPMCPDF
  • 15. Reynolds DL, Garay JR, Deamond SL, Moran MK, Gold W, Styra R. Understanding, compliance and psychological impact of the SARS quarantine experience. Epidemiol Infect 2008;136:997-1007.ArticlePubMed
  • 16. Soon MM, Madigan E, Jones KR, Salata RA. An exploration of the psychologic impact of contact isolation on patients in Singapore. Am J Infect Control 2013;41:e111-e113.ArticlePubMed
  • 17. Gammon J. Analysis of the stressful effects of hospitalisation and source isolation on coping and psychological constructs. Int J Nurs Pract 1998;4:84-96.ArticlePubMed
  • 18. Masic I, Miokovic M, Muhamedagic B. Evidence based medicine - new approaches and challenges. Acta Inform Med 2008;16:219-225.ArticlePubMedPMC
  • 19. Brownson RC, Fielding JE, Green LW. Building capacity for evidence-based public health: reconciling the pulls of practice and the push of research. Annu Rev Public Health 2018;39:27-53.ArticlePubMed
  • 20. Biondi-Zoccai G. Umbrella reviews: evidence synthesis with overviews of reviews and meta-epidemiologic studies. Cham: Springer; 2016. p 1-319.
  • 21. Aromataris E, Fernandez R, Godfrey CM, Holly C, Khalil H, Tungpunkom P. Summarizing systematic reviews: methodological development, conduct and reporting of an umbrella review approach. Int J Evid Based Healthc 2015;13:132-140.ArticlePubMed
  • 22. Turrini G, Purgato M, Ballette F, Nosè M, Ostuzzi G, Barbui C. Common mental disorders in asylum seekers and refugees: umbrella review of prevalence and intervention studies. Int J Ment Health Syst 2017;11:51.ArticlePubMedPMCPDF
  • 23. Hossain MM. Umbrella review as an emerging approach of evidence synthesis in health sciences: a bibliometric analysis. SSRN 2020;doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3551055.Article
  • 24. Hossain MM, Sultana A, Tasnim S, Fan Q, Ma P, McKyer EL, et al. Prevalence of mental disorders among people who are homeless: an umbrella review. PsyArXiv 2020;doi: https://doi.org/10.1177/0020764020924689.Article
  • 25. Hossain MM, Sultana A, Ma P, Fan Q, Sharma R, Purohit N, et al. Effects of natural environment on mental health: an umbrella review of systematic reviews and meta-analyses. PsyArXiv 2020;doi: https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/4r3mh.Article
  • 26. Hossain MM, Purohit N, Sultana A, Ma P, McKyer EL, Ahmed HU. Prevalence of mental disorders in South Asia: an umbrella review of systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Asian J Psychiatr 2020;51:102041.ArticlePubMed
  • 27. Hossain MM, Khan N, Sultana A, Ma P, McKyer EL, Ahmed HU, et al. Prevalence of comorbid psychiatric disorders among people with autism spectrum disorder: an umbrella review of systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Psychiatry Res 2020;287:112922.ArticlePubMed
  • 28. Gammon J, Hunt J, Musselwhite C. The stigmatisation of source isolation: a literature review. J Res Nurs 2019;24:677-693.ArticlePubMedPMC
  • 29. Brooks SK, Webster RK, Smith LE, Woodland L, Wessely S, Greenberg N, et al. The psychological impact of quarantine and how to reduce it: rapid review of the evidence. Lancet 2020;395:912-920.ArticlePubMedPMC
  • 30. Liberati A, Altman DG, Tetzlaff J, Mulrow C, Gøtzsche PC, Ioannidis JP, et al. The PRISMA statement for reporting systematic reviews and meta-analyses of studies that evaluate healthcare interventions: explanation and elaboration. BMJ 2009;339:b2700.ArticlePubMedPMC
  • 31. World Health Organization. International Classification of Diseases 11th revision: the global standard for diagnostic health information; 2019 [cited 2020 Mar 12]. Available from: https://icd.who.int/en.
  • 32. American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM-5); 2013 [cited 2019 Dec 5]. Available from: https://www.psychiatry.org/psychiatrists/practice/dsm.
  • 33. Zhao L, Zhang X, Ran G. Positive coping style as a mediator between older adults’ self-esteem and loneliness. Soc Behav Pers 2017;45:1619-1628.Article
  • 34. Zhou J, Li X, Tian L, Huebner ES. Longitudinal association between low self-esteem and depression in early adolescents: the role of rejection sensitivity and loneliness. Psychol Psychother 2020;93:54-71.ArticlePubMed
  • 35. World Health Organization. WHO remains firmly committed to the principles set out in the preamble to the Constitution. [cited 2019 Dec 24]. Available from: https://www.who.int/about/who-we-are/constitution.
  • 36. Grant MJ, Booth A. A typology of reviews: an analysis of 14 review types and associated methodologies. Health Info Libr J 2009;26:91-108.ArticlePubMed
  • 37. Hendrix IC. RefWorks. J Med Libr Assoc 2004;92:111-113.PMC
  • 38. Ouzzani M, Hammady H, Fedorowicz Z, Elmagarmid A. Rayyan-a web and mobile app for systematic reviews. Syst Rev 2016;5:210.ArticlePubMedPMCPDF
  • 39. McRae MP. Dietary fiber is beneficial for the prevention of cardiovascular disease: an umbrella review of meta-analyses. J Chiropr Med 2017;16:289. 299.ArticlePubMedPMC
  • 40. Morgan DJ, Diekema DJ, Sepkowitz K, Perencevich EN. Adverse outcomes associated with contact precautions: a review of the literature. Am J Infect Control 2009;37:85. 93.ArticlePubMedPMC
  • 41. Abad C, Fearday A, Safdar N. Adverse effects of isolation in hospitalised patients: a systematic review. J Hosp Infect 2010;76:97. 102.ArticlePubMedPMC
  • 42. Barratt RL, Shaban R, Moyle W. Patient experience of source isolation: lessons for clinical practice. Contemp Nurse 2011;39:180. 193.ArticlePubMed
  • 43. Gammon J, Hunt J. Source isolation and patient wellbeing in healthcare settings. Br J Nurs 2018;27:88. 91.ArticlePubMed
  • 44. Purssell E, Gould D, Chudleigh J. Impact of isolation on hospitalised patients who are infectious: systematic review with meta-analysis. BMJ Open 2020;10:e030371.ArticlePubMedPMC
  • 45. Sharma A, Pillai DR, Lu M, Doolan C, Leal J, Kim J, et al. Impact of isolation precautions on quality of life: a meta-analysis. J Hosp Infect 2020;105:35-42.ArticlePubMed
  • 46. Hossain MM, Sultana A, Fan Q, Ma P, Purohit N. Prevalence and determinants of dating violence: an umbrella review of systematic reviews and meta-analyses. SageSubmissions 2020;doi: https://doi.org/10.31124/advance.11492703.v1.Article
  • 47. Grist R, Porter J, Stallard P. Mental health mobile apps for preadolescents and adolescents: a systematic review. J Med Internet Res 2017;19:e176.ArticlePubMedPMC
  • 48. Grist R, Croker A, Denne M, Stallard P. Technology delivered interventions for depression and anxiety in children and adolescents: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Clin Child Fam Psychol Rev 2019;22:147-171.ArticlePubMedPDF
  • 49. Van Hoof J, Kort HS, Duijnstee MS, Rutten PG, Hensen JL. The indoor environment and the integrated design of homes for older people with dementia. Build Environ 2010;45:1244-1261.Article
  • 50. Monsalve-Reyes CS, San Luis-Costas C, Gómez-Urquiza JL, Albendín-García L, Aguayo R, Cañadas-De la Fuente GA. Burnout syndrome and its prevalence in primary care nursing: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC Fam Pract 2018;19:59.ArticlePubMedPMCPDF
  • 51. Suleiman-Martos N, Albendín-García L, Gómez-Urquiza JL, Vargas-Román K, Ramirez-Baena L, Ortega-Campos E, et al. Prevalence and predictors of burnout in midwives: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020;17:641.ArticlePubMedPMC
  • 52. Rodrigues H, Cobucci R, Oliveira A, Cabral JV, Medeiros L, Gurgel K, et al. Burnout syndrome among medical residents: a systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS One 2018;13:e0206840.ArticlePubMedPMC
  • 53. Wiederhold BK, Cipresso P, Pizzioli D, Wiederhold M, Riva G. Intervention for physician burnout: a systematic review. Open Med (Wars) 2018;13:253-263.ArticlePubMedPMC
  • 54. Chen S, Yang J, Yang W, Wang C, Bärnighausen T. COVID-19 control in China during mass population movements at New Year. Lancet 2020;395:764-766.ArticlePubMedPMC
  • 55. Hossain MM. Current status of global research on novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19): a bibliometric analysis and knowledge mapping. SSRN 2020;doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3547824.Article
  • 56. Giubilini A, Douglas T, Maslen H, Savulescu J. Quarantine, isolation and the duty of easy rescue in public health. Dev World Bioeth 2018;18:182-189.ArticlePubMed
  • 57. Coltart CE, Lindsey B, Ghinai I, Johnson AM, Heymann DL. The Ebola outbreak, 2013-2016: old lessons for new epidemics. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2017;372:20160297.ArticlePubMedPMC
  • 58. Ehsan A, Klaas HS, Bastianen A, Spini D. Social capital and health: a systematic review of systematic reviews. SSM Popul Health 2019;8:100425.ArticlePubMedPMC
  • 59. Wainberg ML, Scorza P, Shultz JM, Helpman L, Mootz JJ, Johnson KA, et al. Challenges and opportunities in global mental health: a research-to-practice perspective. Curr Psychiatry Rep 2017;19:28.ArticlePubMedPMCPDF

Figure & Data

References

    Citations

    Citations to this article as recorded by  
    • The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on physical activity habits at a residential university
      Brynn L. Hudgins, Stephanie P. Kurti, Elizabeth S. Edwards, Trent A. Hargens
      Journal of American College Health.2024; 72(1): 65.     CrossRef
    • An assessment of the psychometric properties and psychological correlates of the Greek COVID‐19 Anxiety Syndrome Scale (C‐19ASS)
      Mohammad Seydavi, Michalitsa Despoina Troulli, Mehdi Akbari, Ana V. Nikčević, Marcantonio M. Spada
      Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • The Impact of COVID-19 on Mental Health in Medical Students: A Cross-Sectional Survey Study in Italy
      Sara Carletto, Giuseppina Lo Moro, Vittoria Zuccaroli Lavista, Giovanna Soro, Roberta Siliquini, Fabrizio Bert, Paolo Leombruni
      Psychological Reports.2024; 127(2): 620.     CrossRef
    • A review of common mental health problems in the general population during the COVID-19 pandemic in South Asia
      Arifa Farzana Tanha, Nusrat Hossain Sheba, Md. Saiful Islam, Marc N. Potenza, Md. Rabiul Islam
      Current Psychology.2024; 43(16): 14987.     CrossRef
    • Landscape ecological perception of urban green space under the pressure of COVID-19: health-activity-satisfaction evaluation
      Zhaolong Zheng, Qinghai Guo, Yang Liu, Soebekti Chatarina Regina, Tian Huang, Mengyao Zhang, Caiyun Wang
      International Journal of Sustainable Development & World Ecology.2024; 31(3): 361.     CrossRef
    • Differential Impact of Emotional and Contextual Factors Associated with COVID-19 on Adolescent Mental Health
      María Sánchez-López, Desirée Llamas-Díaz, Alberto Megías-Robles, Raquel Gómez-Leal, María José Gutiérrez-Cobo, Pablo Fernández-Berrocal, Rosario Cabello
      Psychology Research and Behavior Management.2024; Volume 17: 147.     CrossRef
    • Combined benefits of active and passive social media during the COVID-19 pandemic: a health perspective
      Bohee So, Ki Han Kwon
      Global Knowledge, Memory and Communication.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • Prevalence of depression, stress and suicide tendency among individuals with long COVID and determinants: a protocol of a systematic review and meta-analysis
      Razieh Bidhendi-Yarandi, Akbar Biglarian, Enayatollah Bakhshi, Mohammad-Reza Khodaei-Ardakani, Samira Behboudi-Gandevani
      BMJ Open.2024; 14(2): e075754.     CrossRef
    • Assessment of lifestyle changes related to quarantine among Saudi population during the early COVID-19 pandemic: pre- and post-analysis
      Mira M. Abu-Elenin, Ahmed A. Elshora, Marwa A. Shahin, Nesrin K. Abd El-Fatah
      Journal of the Egyptian Public Health Association.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • Self-quarantining, social distancing, and mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic: A multi wave, longitudinal investigation
      Jerin Lee, Jenna Wilson, Benjamin Oosterhoff, Natalie J. Shook, Lakshit Jain
      PLOS ONE.2024; 19(2): e0298461.     CrossRef
    • Family and peer functioning mediate associations between COVID-19 impact and child mental health
      Jodi Zik, Jessica Hawks, Jarrod M. Ellingson, Eliza Elliotte, Anne Penner, Colin Malaska, Tara Trujillo, Joel Stoddard
      Current Psychology.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • Parental Perception of Children's Mental Health During the Pandemic: Insights From an Italian Cross‐Sectional Study
      Giuseppina Lo Moro, Giacomo Scaioli, Francesco Conrado, Luca Lusiani, Sonia Pinto, Edoardo Rolfini, Fabrizio Bert, Roberta Siliquini
      Journal of School Health.2024; 94(6): 539.     CrossRef
    • Covid-19 Pandemi Sürecinde Sosyal İzolasyonda olan Bireylerin Beslenme ve Fiziksel Aktivite Alışkanlıkları
      Aslıhan Elmas, Özlem Kırandı
      Herkes için Spor ve Rekreasyon Dergisi.2024; 6(1): 47.     CrossRef
    • COVID-19-Related Stressors and Psychophysical Health Conditions among Italian University Students: A Post Pandemic Insight
      Maria Francesca Cattaneo Della Volta, Federica Vallone, Maria Clelia Zurlo
      Healthcare.2024; 12(7): 752.     CrossRef
    • Longitudinal changes in depression and anxiety during the COVID‐19 pandemic and the impact of COVID‐related factors
      CJ Eubanks Fleming, Abbey L. Rose, Alexis T. Franzese, Mark Weaver
      Journal of Clinical Psychology.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on mental health and viral suppression among persons living with HIV in western Washington
      Liying Wang, Francis Slaughter, Anh T. Nguyen, Sarah Smith, Sandeep Prabhu, Kristin Beima-Sofie, Stephaun Wallace, Heidi M. Crane, Jane M. Simoni, Susan M. Graham
      AIDS Care.2024; : 1.     CrossRef
    • A population health approach to workplace mental health: rationale, implementation and engagement
      Kaylee T. Woodard, Allison M. Bailey, Aaron I. Esagoff, Maren S. Fragala, Joanna I. Hayward, Jennifer L. Hunter, Yea-Jen Hsu, Paul M. Kim, Matthew E. Peters, Susan M. Carr
      Frontiers in Public Health.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • Social media use, psychological well-being and physical health during lockdown
      Zhiying Yue, David S. Lee, Jun Xiao, Renwen Zhang
      Information, Communication & Society.2023; 26(7): 1452.     CrossRef
    • Understanding Experience of Patients With Highly Infectious Diseases During Extended Isolation: A Design Perspective
      Zorana Matić, Maria F. Wong Sala, Leandro Miletto Tonetto, Gabrielle Conrad Campiglia, Jill Morgan, Jennifer R. DuBose, Craig M. Zimring, Colleen S. Kraft
      HERD: Health Environments Research & Design Journal.2023; 16(1): 97.     CrossRef
    • Update on the Role of Imaging in Detection of Intimate Partner Violence
      Anji Tang, Andrew Wong, Bharti Khurana
      Radiologic Clinics of North America.2023; 61(1): 53.     CrossRef
    • The challenge of estimating the direct and indirect effects of COVID-19 interventions – Toward an integrated economic and epidemiological approach
      Florian Dorn, Berit Lange, Martin Braml, David Gstrein, John L.Z. Nyirenda, Patrizio Vanella, Joachim Winter, Clemens Fuest, Gérard Krause
      Economics & Human Biology.2023; 49: 101198.     CrossRef
    • Investigation of the Relationship between Covid-19 Pandemic and Consumption Behavior, Nutrition Habits, Physiological Activity and Complementary Medicine Practices in Different Age and Profession Groups
      Kasım TAKIM, Mehmet Emin AYDEMİR, Sercan CENGİZ, İbrahim AYDIN
      Journal of Basic and Clinical Health Sciences.2023; 7(1): 167.     CrossRef
    • The Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on the Registration and Care Provision of Mental Health Problems in General Practice: Registry-Based Study
      Jan Vandamme, Simon Gabriël Beerten, Jonas Crèvecoeur, Steve Van den Bulck, Bert Aertgeerts, Nicolas Delvaux, Gijs Van Pottelbergh, Mieke Vermandere, Laura Tops, Thomas Neyens, Bert Vaes
      JMIR Public Health and Surveillance.2023; 9: e43049.     CrossRef
    • Temporary suspension of visiting as experienced by non-covid-19 patients undergoing orthopaedic surgery, their relatives, and health professionals; a multimethod study
      Carrinna Aviaja Hansen, Maria Louise Iversen, Melannie Bramming-Hansen, Trine Tvedegaard Jakobsen, Charlotte Voss Soerensen
      Nordisk sygeplejeforskning.2023; 13(1): 1.     CrossRef
    • The Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Outdoor Physical Activities for People with Disabilities, including the Risks for Psychophysical Well-Being
      Giacomo Farì, Pietro Fiore, Vincenzo Ricci, Alessandra Zonno, Marko Joksimovic, Domenico Petruzzella, Giulia Gioia, Denise Giarrizzo, Savino Mastrorillo, Brunella Coretti, Francesco Paolo Bianchi, Francesco Agostini, Antonella Muscella, Maurizio Ranieri,
      Sustainability.2023; 15(2): 1436.     CrossRef
    • The Global Pandemic as a Life-Changer? Medical, Psychological, or Self Help during COVID-19 Pandemic: A Cross-Sectional Representative Study
      Tomasz Sobierajski, Stanisław Surma, Monika Romańczyk, Marek Krzystanek
      International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2023; 20(2): 1092.     CrossRef
    • Improvements in Compassion and Fears of Compassion throughout the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Multinational Study
      Marcela Matos, Kirsten McEwan, Martin Kanovský, Júlia Halamová, Stanley R. Steindl, Nuno Ferreira, Mariana Linharelhos, Daniel Rijo, Kenichi Asano, Sara P. Vilas, Margarita G. Márquez, Sónia Gregório, Gonzalo Brito-Pons, Paola Lucena-Santos, Margareth da
      International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2023; 20(3): 1845.     CrossRef
    • Impact of COVID-19 on Rocky Vista University medical students’ mental health: A cross-sectional survey
      Dean C. Paz, Manav Singh Bains, Morgan L. Zueger, Varasiddimounish R. Bandi, Victor Y. Kuo, Mark Payton, Rebecca Jean Ryznar
      Frontiers in Psychology.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • The impact of leader safety communication on work engagement under pandemic: The effect of OBSE and anxiety based on COVID-19
      Xingchi Zhou, Yujie Guo, Yuhao Liu
      Frontiers in Public Health.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • COVID-19 Obesity: Differences in Infection Risk Perception, Obesity Stress, Depression, and Intention to Participate in Leisure Sports Based on Weight Change
      Chulhwan Choi, Kyung-Rok Oh, Mun-Gyu Jun
      Healthcare.2023; 11(4): 526.     CrossRef
    • COVID-19 pandemic experiences of students from BAME and White ethnic groups pursuing higher education in the UK: A qualitative comparative exploration
      Geeta Hitch, Shahaduz Zaman
      Frontiers in Psychiatry.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • Time trends in mental health indicators in Germany's adult population before and during the COVID-19 pandemic
      Elvira Mauz, Lena Walther, Stephan Junker, Christina Kersjes, Stefan Damerow, Sophie Eicher, Heike Hölling, Stephan Müters, Diana Peitz, Susanne Schnitzer, Julia Thom
      Frontiers in Public Health.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • Risk factor analysis of omicron patients with mental health problems in the Fangcang shelter hospital based on psychiatric drug intervention during the COVID-19 pandemic in Shanghai, China
      Ping Yu, Xiaolan Bian, Zhihui Xie, Xu Wang, Xujing Zhang, Zhidong Gu, Zhitao Yang, Feng Jing, Weiyu Qiu, Jingsheng Lin, Jie Tang, Chen Huang, Yibo Zhang, Ying Chen, Zongfeng Zhang, Yufang Bi, Hanbing Shang, Erzhen Chen
      Frontiers in Psychiatry.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • Distress Signals: Age Differences in Psychological Distress before and during the COVID-19 Pandemic
      Sandra Hale, Joel Myerson, Michael J Strube, Leonard Green, Amy B. Lewandowski
      International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2023; 20(4): 3549.     CrossRef
    • Association of disrespectful care after childbirth and COVID-19 exposure with postpartum depression symptoms- a longitudinal cohort study in Nepal
      Ashish KC, Ankit Acharya, Pratiksha Bhattarai, Omkar Basnet, Anisha Shrestha, Garima Rijal, Alkistis Skalkidou
      BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • Evaluation of Healthcare Workers Infected with COVID-19: A Qualitative Research on the Disease Process and Its Effects
      Beyza ŞAHİN, Abdülkadir AYDIN, Erkut ETÇİOĞLU, Hasan Çetin EKERBİÇER, Aslıhan ARIKAN
      Online Türk Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi.2023; 8(1): 8.     CrossRef
    • Moderating Mechanism in the Relationship between Social Isolation and Mental Health among College Students during High-Risk Period of COVID-19 Transmission in Hubei, China
      Dong Yang, Chia Ching Tu, Zhengyan Guo, Xiao Dai, Chia Feng Tu
      International Journal of Mental Health Promotion.2023; 25(2): 193.     CrossRef
    • Evaluating the Impact of Mask Mandates and Political Party Affiliation on Mental Health Internet Search Behavior in the United States During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Generalized Additive Mixed Model Framework
      Joseph A Gyorda, Damien Lekkas, George Price, Nicholas C Jacobson
      Journal of Medical Internet Research.2023; 25: e40308.     CrossRef
    • Redefining immobility with mediated mobilities: Reflections from South Korean quarantine vlogs
      Jiwon Yun
      New Media & Society.2023; : 146144482311569.     CrossRef
    • How Did the COVID-19 Pandemic Increase Salience of Intimate Partner Violence on the Policy Agenda?
      Luce Lebrun, Aline Thiry, Catherine Fallon
      International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2023; 20(5): 4461.     CrossRef
    • Between Care and Coercion: Asylum Seekers’ Experiences With COVID-19 Containment and Mitigation Measures in German Reception Centres
      Eilin Rast, Clara Perplies, Louise Biddle, Kayvan Bozorgmehr
      International Journal of Public Health.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • Effectiveness of Drama-Based Intervention in Improving Mental Health and Well-Being: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis during the COVID-19 Pandemic and Post-Pandemic Period
      Lulu Jiang, Farideh Alizadeh, Wenjing Cui
      Healthcare.2023; 11(6): 839.     CrossRef
    • Psychometric development and evaluation of a COVID-19 social stigma scale in Indonesia
      Neti Juniarti, Raini Diah Susanti, Desy Indra Yani, Nurani Nurhasanah, Muhammad Arsyad Subu
      PLOS ONE.2023; 18(4): e0283870.     CrossRef
    • Students' and lecturers' perspectives on the implementation of online learning in medical education due to COVID-19 in Germany: a cross-sectional pilot study
      Stefan F. Hertling, David A. Back, Mario Kaiser, Franziska M. Loos, Ekkehard Schleußner, Isabel Graul
      Frontiers in Medicine.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • Why is advance care planning underused in oncology settings? A systematic overview of reviews to identify the benefits, barriers, enablers, and interventions to improve uptake
      Lisa Guccione, Sonia Fullerton, Karla Gough, Amelia Hyatt, Michelle Tew, Sanchia Aranda, Jill Francis
      Frontiers in Oncology.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • The Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on the Health of People with Mental Disorders
      S. N. Enikolopov, O. M. Boyko, T. I. Medvedeva, O. Yu. Vorontsova, P. A. Baranov, I. V. Oleichik
      Psikhiatriya.2023; 21(2): 72.     CrossRef
    • Mindfulness and COVID-19-Related Stress: Staying Present During Uncertain Times
      Craig P. Polizzi, Fiona G. Sleight, Damla E. Aksen, Charlie W. McDonald, Steven Jay Lynn
      Mindfulness.2023; 14(5): 1135.     CrossRef
    • The gender dimensions of mental health during the Covid-19 pandemic: A path analysis
      Kate Dotsikas, Liam Crosby, Anne McMunn, David Osborn, Kate Walters, Jennifer Dykxhoorn, Prabhat Mittal
      PLOS ONE.2023; 18(5): e0283514.     CrossRef
    • The contribution of meaning making and religiosity to individuals’ psychological wellbeing during the Covid-19 pandemic: Prosocial orientation matters
      Daniela Villani, Angela Sorgente, Alessandro Antonietti, Paola Iannello
      Europe’s Journal of Psychology.2023; 19(2): 192.     CrossRef
    • Trade-off Between Quarantine Length and Compliance to Optimize COVID-19 Control
      Kaiyue Zou, Michael Hayashi, Sophia Simon, Joseph N.S. Eisenberg
      Epidemiology.2023; 34(4): 589.     CrossRef
    • A Case of New-Onset Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and Schizophrenia in a 14-Year-Old Male following the COVID-19 Pandemic
      Daniel Bibawy, Jennyferd Barco, Yeghia Sounboolian, Priya Atodaria, Lut Tamam
      Case Reports in Psychiatry.2023; 2023: 1.     CrossRef
    • PANDEMIC EFFECTS AT PHYSICAL AND PSYCHOSOCIAL LEVEL OF THE ATHLETES
      Dan-Mihai ROHOZNEANU, Florin Valentin LEUCIUC, Adrian GEORGESCU
      Studia Universitatis Babeş-Bolyai Educatio Artis Gymnasticae.2023; 68(1): 77.     CrossRef
    • Inequalities in the receipt of healthcare practitioner counseling for adults after COVID-19 in southern Brazil
      Juliana Quadros Santos Rocha, Rinelly Pazinato Dutra, Yohana Pereira Vieira, Suele Manjourany Silva Duro, Mirelle de Oliveira Saes
      BMC Public Health.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • Changes in dietary habit and physical activity among the diabetic patients of Bangladesh during COVID-19: A cross-sectional study
      Ishrat Jahan, A. B. M. Nahid Hasan, Azaz Bin Sharif, Sharmin Akter, Nnodimele Onuigbo Atulomah
      PLOS Global Public Health.2023; 3(6): e0002096.     CrossRef
    • Mental Health: Pandemics, Epidemics and Tau Protein
      Ghinwa M. Barakat, Ghaith Assi, Noura B. El Khoury
      Clinical Practice & Epidemiology in Mental Health.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • Experiences of Isolation among Patients Hospitalized during an Infectious Disease Outbreak: A Systematic Review and Meta-Ethnography
      Andrea Rodríguez-Prat, Denise Pergolizzi, Iris Crespo, Cristina Monforte-Royo
      Behavioral Medicine.2023; : 1.     CrossRef
    • Personal and contextual variables predict music consumption during the first COVID-19 lockdown in Canada
      Yuvika Dandiwal, Lindsay Fleming, Daniel J. Levitin
      Frontiers in Psychology.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • The impact of COVID‐19 pandemic lockdown on smoking habits and lifestyle: A cross‐sectional study
      Almu'atasim Khamees, Sajeda Awadi, Shireen Rawashdeh, Muna Talafha, Mai Alzoubi, Walaa Almdallal, Sharaf al‐Eitan, Ahmad Saeed, Raed M. Al‐Zoubi, Mazhar Salim Al‐Zoubi
      Health Science Reports.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • Psychosocial comorbidities of diabetes during the COVID-19 pandemic in Iran
      Mehri Doosti-Irani, Kobra Noorian, Leila Rafiee Vardanjani, Paulo Fanti, EvahW Odoi, Samereh Abdoli
      Journal of Education and Health Promotion.2023; 12(1): 210.     CrossRef
    • Children sleep habits and their knowledge during COVID-19: the impact on quality of life
      Mustafa M. Hashem, Shimaa Mohammad Yousof, Heba S. Tesen, Alaa Ghanem Ahmed, Fatma Fawzy, Rofida Elsemelawy, Menna Essam Hafez, Ahmed Esmail Elsayed Amer, Jaidaa F. Mekky
      The Egyptian Journal of Neurology, Psychiatry and Neurosurgery.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • Prevalence and Factors Associated with Depression Among Older Adults During the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Cross-Sectional Study in Urban Areas in Thailand
      Aksornanong Tangthong, Basmon Manomaipiboon
      Clinical Interventions in Aging.2023; Volume 18: 1055.     CrossRef
    • Machine learning approaches for predicting suicidal behaviors among university students in Bangladesh during the COVID-19 pandemic: A cross-sectional study
      Sultan Mahmud, Md Mohsin, Abdul Muyeed, Shaila Nazneen, Md. Abu Sayed, Nabil Murshed, Tajrin Tahrin Tonmon, Ariful Islam
      Medicine.2023; 102(28): e34285.     CrossRef
    • Breastfeeding Practices and Postpartum Depression in Mexican Women during the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Cross-Sectional Study
      Mariana Chávez-Tostado, Karla Verónica Chávez-Tostado, Gabino Cervantes-Guevara, Guillermo Cervantes-Cardona, Diana Mercedes Hernandez-Corona, Tonatiuh González-Heredia, Miriam Méndez-del Villar, Fernanda Isadora Corona-Meraz, Milton Omar Guzmán-Ornelas,
      Medicina.2023; 59(7): 1330.     CrossRef
    • Stress, anxiety and depression among medical students during COVID-19 pandemic: A systematic review and meta-analysis
      Erfan Ayubi, Saeid Bashirian, Ensiyeh Jenabi, Majid Barati, Salman Khazaei
      Personalized Medicine in Psychiatry.2023; 41-42: 100108.     CrossRef
    • A Survey of Changes in the Psychological State of Individuals with Social Withdrawal (hikikomori) in the Context of the COVID Pandemic
      Takafumi Ogawa, Yuki Shiratori, Haruhiko Midorikawa, Miyuki Aiba, Daichi Sugawara, Naoaki Kawakami, Tetsuaki Arai, Hirokazu Tachikawa
      COVID.2023; 3(8): 1158.     CrossRef
    • A social network analysis: mental health scales used during the COVID-19 pandemic
      Shuang Chen, Xue Lan, Han Yu
      Frontiers in Psychiatry.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • Piloting a new method to estimate action thresholds in medicine through intuitive weighing
      Bart K M Jacobs, Alfred Kipyegon Keter, Aquiles Rodrigo Henriquez-Trujillo, Paco Trinchan, Madeleine L de Rooij, Tom Decroo, Lutgarde Lynen
      BMJ Evidence-Based Medicine.2023; 28(6): 392.     CrossRef
    • Impact of COVID-19 on the mental health of children and young people: an umbrella review
      Leonardo Bevilacqua, Lana Fox-Smith, Amy Lewins, Poonam Jetha, Athena Sideri, Gil Barton, Richard Meiser-Stedman, Peter Beazley
      Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health.2023; 77(11): 704.     CrossRef
    • The influences of dormitory exercise on negative emotions among quarantined Chinese college students during the COVID-19 pandemic
      Yu Zhang, Zehui Wen, Junying Li, Yongbin Shi, ShuQiao Meng
      Frontiers in Psychiatry.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • Change in the form of work of psychologists after the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic in Poland, and the subjective mental state of this professional group
      Marlena Sokół-Szawłowska
      International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics.2023; 29(4): 1552.     CrossRef
    • Communication to promote and support physical distancing for COVID-19 prevention and control
      Rebecca E Ryan, Charlotte Silke, Anne Parkhill, Ariane Virgona, Bronwen Merner, Shauna Hurley, Louisa Walsh, Caroline de Moel-Mandel, Lina Schonfeld, Adrian GK Edwards, Jessica Kaufman, Alison Cooper, Rachel Kar Yee Chung, Karla Solo, Margaret Hellard, Gi
      Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • Psychosocial and Economic Risks of Institutional Quarantine in a Low-Resource Setting: Experiences of Affected Persons during the COVID-19 Pandemic in Uganda
      Esther K. Nanfuka, Agatha Kafuko, Rita Nakanjako, James T. Ssenfuuma, Florence Turyomurugyendo, Jingo Kasule
      COVID.2023; 3(9): 1473.     CrossRef
    • Depressive Disorders of Polish University Students During the Covid-19 Pandemic
      Małgorzata Przybysz-Zaremba
      International Journal of Positivity & Well-Being (IJPW).2023; : 1.     CrossRef
    • COVID-19—Evidence of the Impact of Literacy and Salutogenic Behaviours in Positive Mental Health: A Cross-Sectional Study
      Cláudia Almeida, André Novo, Maria Lluch Canut, Carme Ferré-Grau, Carlos Sequeira
      Behavioral Sciences.2023; 13(10): 845.     CrossRef
    • Depressive Disorders of Polish University Students During the Covid-19 Pandemic
      Małgorzata Przybysz-Zaremba
      International Journal of Positivity & Well-Being (IJPW).2023; : 1.     CrossRef
    • قدرة القلق والاكتئاب واضطراب ما بعد الصدمة على التنبؤ بإدمان مواقع التواصل الاجتماعي لدى طلبة الجامعة في ظل جائحة كورونا
      إيمان سرميني
      مجلة جامعة الشارقة للعلوم الانسانية والاجتماعية.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • Association of COVID-19 Infection with Sociodemographic, Anthropometric and Lifestyle Factors: A Cross-Sectional Study in an Older Adults’ Population Aged over 65 Years Old
      Eleni Pavlidou, Sousana K. Papadopoulou, Georgios Antasouras, Theofanis Vorvolakos, Olga Alexatou, Gerasimos Tsourouflis, Exakousti-Petroula Angelakou, Aspasia Serdari, Maria G. Grammatikopoulou, Evmorfia Psara, Konstantinos Vadikolias, Antonios Dakanalis
      Diseases.2023; 11(4): 165.     CrossRef
    • Biopsychosocial Profile of COVID-19 Patients Cared for in Public and Private Health Facilities in Kandahar Province, Afghanistan
      Mohammad Hashim Wafa, Muhammad Haroon Stanikzai, Najibullah Fazli, Stefania Chiappini
      Mental Illness.2023; 2023: 1.     CrossRef
    • Prevalence of Obesity and Lifestyle Risk Factors Following Two Years’ COVID-19 Related Service Closure at Wellness Center, Primary Health Care
      Sarah Musa, Ayman Al-Dahshan, Rajvir Singh
      Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity.2023; Volume 16: 3851.     CrossRef
    • Psychological Impact of COVID-19 and Its Influence on Parental Willingness to Vaccinate Children: A Cross-Sectional Study at a Tertiary Care Hospital in Kolkata
      Jayeeta Burman, Nivedita Roy Choudhury, Amitabha Chattopadhyay, Sembagamuthu Sembiah, Anubrata Karmakar, Mukesh Shukla
      Cureus.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • Experiencing the COVID-19 pandemic as a homeless person in Chennai, India: An interpretative phenomenological analysis
      Laalithya Konduru, Nishant Das, Nabeel Al-Yateem
      PLOS ONE.2023; 18(11): e0295164.     CrossRef
    • The impact of COVID-19 and the confinement on the secondary level students of the Eastern region of Morocco
      Hind Moumni, Fatima Elghazouani
      Indian Journal of Psychiatry.2023; 65(11): 1176.     CrossRef
    • SAÚDE MENTAL E PANDEMIA: Avaliação dos níveis de ansiedade e depressão em pessoas que tiveram Covid-19 no município de Sobral-CE
      Francisco Thiago Paiva Monte, Roberlandia Evangelista Lopes Ávila, Hermínia Maria Sousa da Ponte, Percy Antonio Galimbertti Catanio
      Psicologia e Saúde em Debate.2023; 9(2): 670.     CrossRef
    • Trajectories and determinants of acute stress disorder during the COVID‐19 centralized quarantine: A latent class growth analysis
      Bowen Chen, Jun Zhang, Shuxin Yu, Nancy Xiaonan Yu
      Stress and Health.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the Thai population: Delineating the effects of the pandemic and policy measures
      Nongyao Kasatpibal, Nongkran Viseskul, Akarapong Untong, Kwaunpanomporn Thummathai, Kampong Kamnon, Srisakul Sangkampang, Rusila Tokilay, Srisuda Assawapalanggool, Anucha Apisarnthanarak
      Antimicrobial Stewardship & Healthcare Epidemiology.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • Depressive symptoms among people under COVID-19 quarantine or self-isolation in Korea: a propensity score matching analysis
      Hyeon Sik Chu, Kounseok Lee
      Frontiers in Psychiatry.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • Evaluation of eating behavior disorders and Mediterranean diet adherence level during the Covid-19 pandemic period
      Ayse Nur Elmaskaya, Fatmagul Yur
      Pharmacy & Pharmacology International Journal.2023; 11(6): 193.     CrossRef
    • Changes in Alcohol Use During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Impact of the Lockdown Conditions and Mental Health Factors
      E. Schmits, F. Glowacz
      International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction.2022; 20(2): 1147.     CrossRef
    • e-Health Technological Ecosystems: Advanced Solutions to Support Informal Caregivers and Vulnerable Populations During the COVID-19 Outbreak
      Emanuele Blasioli, Elkafi Hassini
      Telemedicine and e-Health.2022; 28(2): 138.     CrossRef
    • Many happy returns: Preliminary study on retrospective and prospective experiences of enchantment
      Rense Lange, James Houran, J. Bruce Tracey
      Tourism and Hospitality Research.2022; 22(3): 376.     CrossRef
    • COVID-19–Related Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Among Jordanian Nurses During the Pandemic
      Mohammed Qutishat, Loai Abu Sharour, Kholoud Al-Dameery, Ibtisam Al-Harthy, Sulaiman Al-Sabei
      Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness.2022; 16(6): 2552.     CrossRef
    • Exploring the Relationship Between Self-Isolation and Distress Among People with Gastrointestinal Disorders During the COVID-19 Pandemic
      Antonina Mikocka-Walus, David Skvarc, Manuel Barreiro de Acosta, Floor Bennebroek Evertsz, Charles N. Bernstein, Johan Burisch, Nuno Ferreira, Richard B. Gearry, Lesley A. Graff, Sharon Jedel, Anna Mokrowiecka, Andreas Stengel, Inês A. Trindade, Miranda A
      Journal of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings.2022; 29(3): 654.     CrossRef
    • Suchtkrank in der Pandemie? – COVID-19 und Abhängigkeitserkrankungen
      Beate Erbas, Hannah Strauch
      Das Gesundheitswesen.2022; 84(01): 19.     CrossRef
    • Effects of COVID-19 lockdown on low back pain intensity in chronic low back pain patients: results of the multicenter CONFI-LOMB study
      Florian Bailly, Stéphane Genevay, Violaine Foltz, Amélie Bohm-Sigrand, Alain Zagala, Julien Nizard, Audrey Petit
      European Spine Journal.2022; 31(1): 159.     CrossRef
    • Pre-Pandemic Peer Relations Predict Adolescents’ Internalizing Response to Covid-19
      Fanny Mlawer, Christina C. Moore, Julie A. Hubbard, Zachary M. Meehan
      Research on Child and Adolescent Psychopathology.2022; 50(5): 649.     CrossRef
    • The postpartum period during the COVID-19 pandemic: investigating Turkish women’s postpartum support and postpartum-specific anxiety
      Merve Kochan, Ayse Deliktas Demirci, Kamile Kabukcuoglu
      Journal of Perinatal Medicine.2022; 50(3): 261.     CrossRef
    • Prevalence and factors associated with mental health problems in Saudi general population during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic: A systematic review and meta‐analysis
      Faris Alzahrani, Najim Z. Alshahrani, Abdulelah Abu Sabah, Abdulmajid Zarbah, Saeed Abu Sabah, Mohammed A. Mamun
      PsyCh Journal.2022; 11(1): 18.     CrossRef
    • Mental health status of informal waste workers during the COVID-19 pandemic in Bangladesh
      Md. Rajwanul Haque, Md. Mostaured Ali Khan, Md. Mosfequr Rahman, M. Sajjadur Rahman, Shawkat A. Begum, Zezhi Li
      PLOS ONE.2022; 17(1): e0262141.     CrossRef
    • Psychological Burden and Associated Factors of the COVID-19 Pandemic on People in Quarantine and Isolation Centers in Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study
      Tadesse Misgana, Dejene Tesfaye, Mandaras Tariku, Tilahun Ali, Daniel Alemu, Yadeta Dessie
      Frontiers in Psychiatry.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on health lifestyle in patients with peripheral artery disease: A cross-sectional study
      Raphael Mendes Ritti-Dias, Marilia Almeida Correia, Juliana Ferreira Carvalho, Heloisa Amaral Braghieri, Nelson Wolosker, Gabriel Grizzo Cucato, Hélcio Kanegusuku
      Journal of Vascular Nursing.2022; 40(1): 54.     CrossRef
    • The Trend of Psychiatric Visits and Psychiatric Medication Prescription Among People Tested for SARS-CoV-2 During the Initial Phase of COVID-19 Pandemic in South Korea
      Jungeun Kim, Soo Jung Rim, Minkyung Jo, Min Geu Lee, Subin Park
      Psychiatry Investigation.2022; 19(1): 61.     CrossRef
    • Exploring the Association of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Employee Sleep Quality at a Healthcare Technology and Services Organization
      Daniel Arku, Jennifer M. Bingham, Jacques Turgeon, Veronique Michaud, Terri Warholak, David R. Axon
      COVID.2022; 2(2): 168.     CrossRef
    • Evaluating a psychological support service focused on the needs of critical care and theatres staff in the first wave of COVID-19
      Katie Herron, Grainne Lonergan, Susan Travis, Patricia Rowan, Jane Hutton, Laura Kelly, Declan Jordan, Jane Beattie, Peter Hampshire, Julia McCarthy, Sue Ryan, Hoo Kee Tsang
      British Journal of Nursing.2022; 31(3): 148.     CrossRef
    • Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on food and drink consumption and related factors: A scoping review
      Misa Shimpo, Rie Akamatsu, Yui Kojima
      Nutrition and Health.2022; 28(2): 177.     CrossRef
    • How Long Does Adaption Last for? An Update on the Psychological Impact of the Confinement in Portugal
      Ana Daniela Costa, Afonso Fernandes, Sónia Ferreira, Beatriz Couto, Mafalda Machado-Sousa, Pedro Moreira, Pedro Morgado, Maria Picó-Pérez
      International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2022; 19(4): 2243.     CrossRef
    • Associations of Depression and Anxiety with Stigma in a Sample of Patients in Saudi Arabia Who Recovered from COVID-19
      Munirah Alkathiri, Omar Almohammed, Faleh Alqahtani, Yazed AlRuthia
      Psychology Research and Behavior Management.2022; Volume 15: 381.     CrossRef
    • Mental Health and Quality of Life for Healthcare Workers in a University Hospital Under COVID-19
      Hye-Ji Choi, Chan-Mo Yang, Sang-Yeol Lee, Hye-Jin Lee, Seung-Ho Jang
      Psychiatry Investigation.2022; 19(2): 85.     CrossRef
    • Intimate Partner Violence and Mental Health during Lockdown of the COVID-19 Pandemic
      Fabienne Glowacz, Amandine Dziewa, Emilie Schmits
      International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2022; 19(5): 2535.     CrossRef
    • The Impact of Long COVID-19 on Mental Health: Observational 6-Month Follow-Up Study
      Sarah Houben-Wilke, Yvonne MJ Goërtz, Jeannet M Delbressine, Anouk W Vaes, Roy Meys, Felipe VC Machado, Maarten van Herck, Chris Burtin, Rein Posthuma, Frits ME Franssen, Herman Vijlbrief, Yvonne Spies, Alex J van 't Hul, Martijn A Spruit, Daisy JA Jansse
      JMIR Mental Health.2022; 9(2): e33704.     CrossRef
    • Transparent entscheiden im moralischen Dilemma
      Annette Rogge, Michaela Naeve-Nydahl, Peter Nydahl, Florian Rave, Kathrin Knochel, Katharina Woellert, Claudia Schmalz
      ProCare.2022; 27(1-2): 12.     CrossRef
    • Covid-19 İzolasyon Sürecinde Gebelerin Çift Uyumunun Çatışma Çözme Tepkileri ile ilişkisi
      Seyhan ÇANKAYA, Büşra ÇARK
      Turkish Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care.2022; 16(1): 94.     CrossRef
    • Promoting Flight Crew Mental Health Requires International Guidance for Down-Route Quarantine Circumstances
      Alpo Vuorio, Aedrian Bekker, Anna-Stina Suhonen-Malm, Robert Bor
      Frontiers in Public Health.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • Well-Being at Home During Forced Quarantine Amid the COVID-19 Pandemic
      Elzbieta Krajewska-Kułak, Agnieszka Kułak-Bejda, Wojciech Kułak, Grzegorz Bejda, Cecylia Łukaszuk, Napoleon Waszkiewicz, Mateusz Cybulski, Andrzej Guzowski, Joanna Fiłon, Paulina Aniśko, Magda Popławska
      Frontiers in Psychiatry.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • An overview of preventive and control strategies for common mental health disorders during infectious disease epidemics
      Shradha Parsekar, Vijay Shree Dhyani, Eti Rajwar, Jisha B Krishnan, Bhumika Tumkur Venkatesh, Kavitha Saravu, Helmut Brand
      F1000Research.2022; 11: 297.     CrossRef
    • Mental health of individuals infected with SARS-CoV-2 during mandated isolation and compliance with recommendations—A population-based cohort study
      Anja Domenghino, Hélène E. Aschmann, Tala Ballouz, Dominik Menges, Dominique Strebel, Sandra Derfler, Jan S. Fehr, Milo A. Puhan, Wen-Wei Sung
      PLOS ONE.2022; 17(3): e0264655.     CrossRef
    • Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on BMI: Its changes in relation to socio-demographic and physical activity patterns based on a short period
      Tahmina Akter, Zebunnesa Zeba, Ismail Hosen, Firoj Al-Mamun, Mohammed A. Mamun, Enamul Kabir
      PLOS ONE.2022; 17(3): e0266024.     CrossRef
    • Workplace Factors, Burnout Signs, and Clinical Mental Health Symptoms among Mental Health Workers in Lombardy and Quebec during the First Wave of COVID-19
      Filippo Rapisarda, Martine Vallarino, Camille Brousseau-Paradis, Luigi De Benedictis, Marc Corbière, Patrizia Villotti, Elena Cavallini, Catherine Briand, Lionel Cailhol, Alain Lesage
      International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2022; 19(7): 3806.     CrossRef
    • Evaluating a psychological support service focused on the needs of critical care and theatre staff in the first wave of COVID-19
      Katie Herron, Grainne Lonergan, Susan Travis, Patricia Rowan, Jane Hutton, Laura Kelly, Declan Jordan, Jane Beattie, Peter Hampshire, Julia McCarthy, Sue Ryan, Hoo Kee Tsang
      British Journal of Healthcare Assistants.2022; 16(3): 144.     CrossRef
    • Factors Predicting Practices in Prevention of COVID-19 and Impacts among Population in Chiang Mai, Thailand
      Nongyao Kasatpibal, Peninnah Oberdorfer, Wasan Katip, Raktham Mektrirat, Usanee Wattananandkul, Kwaunpanomporn Thummathai
      Medicina.2022; 58(4): 505.     CrossRef
    • The Burden of the Pain: Adverse Mental Health Outcomes of COVID-19 in Women With and Without Cancer
      Lucilla Lanzoni, Eleonora Brivio, Serena Oliveri, Paolo Guiddi, Mariam Chichua, Ketti Mazzocco, Gabriella Pravettoni
      Frontiers in Psychology.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • Effect of fever or respiratory symptoms on leaving without being seen during the COVID-19 pandemic in South Korea
      Dohyung Kim, Weon Jung, Jae Yong Yu, Hansol Chang, Se Uk Lee, Taerim Kim, Sung Yeon Hwang, Hee Yoon, Tae Gun Shin, Min Seob Sim, Ik Joon Jo, Won Chul Cha
      Clinical and Experimental Emergency Medicine.2022; 9(1): 1.     CrossRef
    • Dihydromyricetin improves social isolation-induced cognitive impairments and astrocytic changes in mice
      Saki Watanabe, Alzahra Al Omran, Amy S. Shao, Chen Xue, Zeyu Zhang, Jifeng Zhang, Daryl L. Davies, Xuesi M. Shao, Junji Watanabe, Jing Liang
      Scientific Reports.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • Effect of Neuromuscular Training Program on Quality of Life After COVID-19 Lockdown Among Young Healthy Participants: A Randomized Controlled Trial
      Dragan Marinkovic, Drazenka Macak, Dejan M. Madic, Goran Sporis, Dalija Kuvacic, Dajana Jasic, Vilko Petric, Marijan Spehnjak, Aleksandra Projovic, Zoran Gojkovic
      Frontiers in Psychology.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • Ability to Care for an Ill Loved One During the First COVID-19 Lockdown: Mediators of Informal Caregivers’ Stress in Europe
      Shadya Monteiro, Margot Fournier, Jérôme Favrod, Anne-Laure Drainville, Léa Plessis, Sylvie Freudiger, Krzysztof Skuza, Charlene Tripalo, Nicolas Franck, Marie-Clotilde Lebas, Jocelyn Deloyer, Hélène Wilquin, Philippe Golay, Shyhrete Rexhaj
      Frontiers in Psychiatry.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • Nursing Experience of New Nurses Caring for COVID-19 Patients in Military Hospitals: A Qualitative Study
      Young-Hoon Kwon, Hye-Ju Han, Eunyoung Park
      Healthcare.2022; 10(4): 744.     CrossRef
    • Treatment of COVID-19 anxiety by auricular points
      Xingxin Wang, Yulei Zhao, Xinyu Yang, Zhongqi Fan, Ziyue Wang, Ping Zhang, Jun Chen
      Medicine.2022; 101(10): e28984.     CrossRef
    • Anxiety, Depression, and Other Emotional Disorders during the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Narrative Review of the Risk Factors and Risk Groups
      Polina Kassaeva, Elena Belova, Ekaterina Shashina, Denis Shcherbakov, Valentina Makarova, Boris Ershov, Vitaly Sukhov, Nadezhda Zabroda, Natarajan Sriraam, Oleg Mitrokhin, Yury Zhernov
      Encyclopedia.2022; 2(2): 912.     CrossRef
    • Training Patterns and Mental Health of Bodybuilders and Fitness Athletes During the First Lockdown of the COVID-19 Pandemic—A Cross-Sectional Study
      Samuel Iff, Stefan Fröhlich, Robin Halioua, Christian Imboden, Jörg Spörri, Johannes Scherr, Ingo Butzke, Erich Seifritz, Malte Christian Claussen
      Frontiers in Sports and Active Living.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • Change in college student health and well-being profiles as a function of the COVID-19 pandemic
      Stephanie T. Lanza, Courtney A. Whetzel, Ashley N. Linden-Carmichael, Craig J. Newschaffer, Jong In Kim
      PLOS ONE.2022; 17(5): e0267724.     CrossRef
    • Perceived Changes in Emotions, Worries and Everyday Behaviors in Children and Adolescents Aged 5–18 Years with Type 1 Diabetes during the COVID-19 Pandemic
      Anastasia Sfinari, Panagiota Pervanidou, Giorgos Chouliaras, Emmanouil Zoumakis, Ioannis A. Vasilakis, Nicolas C. Nicolaides, Christina Kanaka-Gantenbein
      Children.2022; 9(5): 736.     CrossRef
    • The Psychological Impact of Quarantine During the COVID-19 Pandemic on Quarantined Non-Healthcare Workers, Quarantined Healthcare Workers, and Medical Staff at the Quarantine Facility in Saudi Arabia
      Abdulrahman Alfaifi, Abdulaziz Darraj, Maged El-Setouhy
      Psychology Research and Behavior Management.2022; Volume 15: 1259.     CrossRef
    • Mental Wellbeing and Boosting Resilience to Mitigate the Adverse Consequences of the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Critical Narrative Review
      Amoneeta Beckstein, Marie Chollier, Sangeeta Kaur, Ananta Raj Ghimire
      SAGE Open.2022; 12(2): 215824402211004.     CrossRef
    • Life During COVID-19: The Student Experience
      Julianne LaRosa, Cierrah Doran, Amanda Guth, Karan Varshney, Beverly Anaele, Kaitlyn Davis, Stephen DiDonato, Martha Romney, Shimrit Keddem, Rosemary Frasso
      Pedagogy in Health Promotion.2022; 8(2): 126.     CrossRef
    • The Impact of Hyper-Acute Inflammatory Response on Stress Adaptation and Psychological Symptoms of COVID-19 Patients
      Ion Papava, Liana Dehelean, Radu Stefan Romosan, Mariana Bondrescu, Cristian Zoltan Dimeny, Eugenia Maria Domuta, Felix Bratosin, Iulia Bogdan, Mirela Loredana Grigoras, Codruta Victoria Tigmeanu, Angelica Gherman, Iosif Marincu
      International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2022; 19(11): 6501.     CrossRef
    • Prevalence and Factors Associated with Insomnia in Military Personnel: A Retrospective Study during the Second COVID-19 Epidemic Wave in Peru
      Mario J. Valladares-Garrido, Cinthia Karina Picón-Reátegui, J. Pierre Zila-Velasque, Pamela Grados-Espinoza
      Healthcare.2022; 10(7): 1199.     CrossRef
    • Assessing Changes in Anxiety, Empowerment, Stigma and Wellbeing in Participants Attending an Online-Based Recovery College in Quebec During the Covid-19 Pandemic: A Pre-Experimental Study
      Filippo Rapisarda, Julio Macario de Medeiros, Catherine Briand, Antoine Boivin, Johana Monthuy-Blanc, Catherine Vallée, Marie-Josée Drolet, Brigitte Vachon, Francesca Luconi
      International Journal of Public Health.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • The Impact of SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) on the Acuity of Mental Health–Related Diagnosis at Admission for Young Adults in New York City and Washington, DC: Observational Study
      Amanda Fialk, Alexa Connors, Brianna Cerrito, Karee Jones, Frank Buono
      JMIR Formative Research.2022; 6(7): e39217.     CrossRef
    • Change in Neuroticism and Extraversion among Pre-University Education Employees during the COVID-19 Pandemic
      Teodora-Gabriela Alexescu, Mădălina-Stela Nechita, Anca-Diana Maierean, Damiana-Maria Vulturar, Mircea Ioan Handru, Daniel-Corneliu Leucuța, Olga Hilda Orășan, Vasile Negrean, Lorena Ciumarnean, Doina Adina Todea
      Medicina.2022; 58(7): 895.     CrossRef
    • Quality of Life of Older Adults with Physical and Mobility Disabilities during the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Cross-Sectional Study in Thailand
      Sutham Nanthamongkolchai, Athicha Tojeen, Chokchai Munsawaengsub, Korravarn Yodmai, Wanich Suksatan
      Sustainability.2022; 14(14): 8525.     CrossRef
    • COVID-19 Pandemic Consequences among Individuals with Eating Disorders on a Clinical Sample in Poland—A Cross-Sectional Study
      Przemysław Seweryn Kasiak, Natalia Adamczyk, Alicja Monika Jodczyk, Aleksandra Kaproń, Anna Lisowska, Artur Mamcarz, Daniel Śliż
      International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2022; 19(14): 8484.     CrossRef
    • Relatives Experience More Psychological Distress Due to COVID-19 Pandemic-Related Visitation Restrictions Than In-Patients
      Sabine Felser, Corinna Sewtz, Ursula Kriesen, Brigitte Kragl, Till Hamann, Felix Bock, Daniel Fabian Strüder, Clemens Schafmayer, Désirée-Louise Dräger, Christian Junghanss
      Frontiers in Public Health.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • Behavioral activation / inhibition systems and lifestyle as predictors of mental disorders in adolescent athletes during Covid19 pandemic
      Morteza Homayounnia Firoozjah, Alireza Homayouni, Shahnaz Shahrbanian, Shaghayegh Shahriari, Diana Janinejad
      BMC Public Health.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • Covid-19 phobia in prehospital emergency medical services workers in Turkey
      CE Sahin, MS Deger, MA Sezerol, MY Ozdemir
      Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice.2022; 25(8): 1239.     CrossRef
    • Adverse childhood experiences are associated with a higher risk for increased depressive symptoms during Covid-19 pandemic – a cross-sectional study in Germany
      Vera Clemens, Franziska Köhler-Dauner, Ferdinand Keller, Ute Ziegenhain, Jörg M. Fegert
      BMC Psychiatry.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • Association of compliance with COVID-19 public health measures with depression
      Ju An Byun, Tae Jun Sim, Tae Yoon Lim, Sung-In Jang, Seung Hoon Kim
      Scientific Reports.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • Mental health issues and service delivery in COVID-19 quarantine facilities: A qualitative study
      Mina Chandra, Gunja Sengupta, ChandraBhushan Rai, Satyam Sharma
      Journal of Psychiatry Spectrum.2022; 1(2): 100.     CrossRef
    • PRACTICE OF SELF-MEDICATION AND QUALITY OF LIFE ASSESSMENT AMONG HEALTHCARE WORKERS OF A TERTIARY HOSPITAL IN ASSAM DURING COVID-19 PANDEMIC
      SIDDHARTHA KRISHNA DEKA, LAKHIMI BORAH, RIPUNJOY SARMAH
      Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research.2022; : 184.     CrossRef
    • Loneliness and mental health at the early stages of the Covid‐19 pandemic in England
      Rosie Allen, Julie Prescott, Sandie McHugh, Jerome Carson
      Health & Social Care in the Community.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • Living with Endemic COVID-19
      Thomas Kieber-Emmons, Anastas Pashov
      Monoclonal Antibodies in Immunodiagnosis and Immunotherapy.2022; 41(4): 171.     CrossRef
    • A Web-Delivered, Clinician-Led Group Exercise Intervention for Older Adults With Type 2 Diabetes: Single-Arm Pre-Post Intervention
      Morwenna Kirwan, Christine L Chiu, Thomas Laing, Noureen Chowdhury, Kylie Gwynne
      Journal of Medical Internet Research.2022; 24(9): e39800.     CrossRef
    • COVİD-19 DÖNEMİNDE ADÖLESANLARIN SAĞLIKLI YAŞAM TARZI İNANÇLARININ BELİRLENMESİ
      Zeynep ÖZENDİ, Esra TURAL BÜYÜK
      Samsun Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi.2022; 7(3): 701.     CrossRef
    • The role of religious coping to overcome mental distress and anxiety during the COVID‐19 pandemic: An integrative review
      Muzzamel Hussain Imran, Zhihong Zhai, Mujahid Iqbal
      Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy.2022; 22(3): 817.     CrossRef
    • Anxiety, Distress and Stress among Patients with Diabetes during COVID-19 Pandemic: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
      Rubén A. García-Lara, José L. Gómez-Urquiza, María José Membrive-Jiménez, Almudena Velando-Soriano, Monserrat E. Granados-Bolivar, José L. Romero-Béjar, Nora Suleiman-Martos
      Journal of Personalized Medicine.2022; 12(9): 1412.     CrossRef
    • COVID-19 neuropsychiatric repercussions: Current evidence on the subject
      Ronaldo Teixeira da Silva Júnior, Jonathan Santos Apolonio, Beatriz Rocha Cuzzuol, Bruna Teixeira da Costa, Camilo Santana Silva, Glauber Rocha Lima Araújo, Marcel Silva Luz, Hanna Santos Marques, Luana Kauany de Sá Santos, Samuel Luca Rocha Pinheiro, Vin
      World Journal of Methodology.2022; 12(5): 365.     CrossRef
    • Health Behaviors and Associated Feelings of Remote Workers During the COVID-19 Pandemic—Silesia (Poland)
      Agnieszka Białek-Dratwa, Elżbieta Szczepańska, Mateusz Grajek, Beata Całyniuk, Wiktoria Staśkiewicz
      Frontiers in Public Health.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • The effects of social isolation stress and discrimination on mental health
      Lasse Brandt, Shuyan Liu, Christine Heim, Andreas Heinz
      Translational Psychiatry.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • The Difference in the Quality of Life of Korean Children With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Between Before and After COVID-19
      Jung-Hoon Lee, Seri Maeng, Jeong-Seop Lee, Jae-Nam Bae, Won-Hyoung Kim, Hyeyoung Kim
      Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.2022; 33(4): 113.     CrossRef
    • A Bibliometric Analysis of Literature on Covid-19 And Mental Health
      Parveen Rani, Arvind Yadav, Dinesh Kumar, Jyoti Pandey, Mubashir Gull, Mohd Arshad Ansari, Shantanu Ghosh, Bhavna Sahni
      National Journal of Community Medicine.2022; 13(09): 642.     CrossRef
    • Individual-based modeling reveals that the COVID-19 isolation period can be shortened by community vaccination
      Chayanin Sararat, Jidchanok Wangkanai, Chaiwat Wilasang, Tanakorn Chantanasaro, Charin Modchang
      Scientific Reports.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • The Increased Alcohol and Marijuana Use Associated with the Quality of Life and Psychosocial Aspects: a Study During the Covid-19 Pandemic in a Brazilian University Community
      Andrea Donatti Gallassi, Eduardo Yoshio Nakano, Kleverson Gomes de Miranda, Josenaide Engracia dos Santos, Daniela da Silva Rodrigues, Flávia Mazitelli de Oliveira
      International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • Eliciting empathetic drives to prosocial behavior during stressful events
      Nicola Grignoli, Chiara Filipponi, Serena Petrocchi
      Frontiers in Psychology.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • Risk factors for worsening of somatic symptom burden in a prospective cohort during the COVID-19 pandemic
      Petra Engelmann, Bernd Löwe, Thomas Theo Brehm, Angelika Weigel, Felix Ullrich, Marylyn M. Addo, Julian Schulze zur Wiesch, Ansgar W. Lohse, Anne Toussaint
      Frontiers in Psychology.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • The significant transformation of life into health and beauty in metaverse era
      Jinkyung Lee, Ki Han Kwon
      Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology.2022; 21(12): 6575.     CrossRef
    • Key features of a trauma-informed public health emergency approach: A rapid review
      Christina L. Heris, Michelle Kennedy, Simon Graham, Shannon K. Bennetts, Caroline Atkinson, Janine Mohamed, Cindy Woods, Richard Chennall, Catherine Chamberlain
      Frontiers in Public Health.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • Psychological Status of College Students During COVID-19 Pandemic: A Cross-Sectional Study in Saudi Arabia
      Mona Alanazi
      Advances in Medical Education and Practice.2022; Volume 13: 1443.     CrossRef
    • The Influence of COVID-19 on University Students’ Well-Being, Physical Activity, Body Composition, and Strength Endurance
      Robert Podstawski, Kevin John Finn, Krzysztof Borysławski, Aneta Anna Omelan, Anna Maria Podstawska, Andrzej Robert Skrzypczak, Andrzej Pomianowski
      International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2022; 19(23): 15680.     CrossRef
    • Self-Care for Nurses and Midwives: Findings from a Scoping Review
      Luisa Sist, Sara Savadori, Annalisa Grandi, Monica Martoni, Elena Baiocchi, Carlotta Lombardo, Lara Colombo
      Healthcare.2022; 10(12): 2473.     CrossRef
    • Lower Back Pain Caused by the Impact of COVID-19 Quarantine on Physical Activity and Daily Sitting Among Adult Saudi Arabian Populations in Jeddah: A Cross-Sectional Study
      Lutf Ahmed Abumunaser, Kawther Ali Alfaraj, Lujain Khalid Kamal, Renad Abdullah Alzahrani, Maram Misfer Alzahrani, Alzahraa Bader AlAhmed
      Orthopedic Research and Reviews.2022; Volume 14: 477.     CrossRef
    • Baseline emotional state influences on the response to animated short films: A randomized online experiment
      Juliana Gioia Negrão, Paulo Rodrigo Bazán, Raymundo Machado de Azevedo Neto, Shirley Silva Lacerda, Eve Ekman, Elisa Harumi Kozasa
      Frontiers in Psychology.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • Personality Trait Changes in Athletic Training Students during Their University Career: Effects of Academic Stress or COVID-19 Pandemic?
      Keb Hernández-Peña, Gemma María Gea-García, Juan Pedro García-Fuentes, Luis Manuel Martínez-Aranda, Ruperto Menayo Antúnez
      Sustainability.2022; 15(1): 486.     CrossRef
    • COVID-19 Pandemisinin Üniversite Öğrencilerinin Rekreasyon Tercihlerine Etkileri
      Derya SARI
      Artvin Çoruh Üniversitesi Uluslararası Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi.2022; 8(2): 35.     CrossRef
    • Prevalence and Risk Factors Associated with Mental Health in Adolescents from Northern Chile in the Context of the COVID-19 Pandemic
      Rodrigo Moya-Vergara, Diego Portilla-Saavedra, Katherin Castillo-Morales, Ricardo Espinoza-Tapia, Sandra Sandoval Pastén
      Journal of Clinical Medicine.2022; 12(1): 269.     CrossRef
    • The COVID-19 Pandemic Between Bio-Ethics, Bio-Law and Bio-Politics: A Case Study on The Italian Experience of The DuPre Commission
      Ines Testoni
      ETHICS IN PROGRESS.2022; 13(2): 90.     CrossRef
    • Impact of COVID-19 pandemic lockdown on movement behaviours of children and adolescents: a systematic review
      Madhu Kharel, Jennifer Lisa Sakamoto, Rogie Royce Carandang, Shinejil Ulambayar, Akira Shibanuma, Ekaterina Yarotskaya, Milana Basargina, Masamine Jimba
      BMJ Global Health.2022; 7(1): e007190.     CrossRef
    • Mental health effects of infection containment strategies: quarantine and isolation—a systematic review and meta-analysis
      Jonathan Henssler, Friederike Stock, Joris van Bohemen, Henrik Walter, Andreas Heinz, Lasse Brandt
      European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience.2021; 271(2): 223.     CrossRef
    • Impacts of COVID-19 pandemic on urban park visitation: a global analysis
      Dehui (Christina) Geng, John Innes, Wanli Wu, Guangyu Wang
      Journal of Forestry Research.2021; 32(2): 553.     CrossRef
    • Correlates of insomnia among the adults during COVID19 pandemic: evidence from an online survey in India
      Arista Lahiri, Sweety Suman Jha, Rudraprasad Acharya, Abhijit Dey, Arup Chakraborty
      Sleep Medicine.2021; 77: 66.     CrossRef
    • The psychological effects of staying home due to the COVID-19 pandemic
      Faruk Bozdağ
      The Journal of General Psychology.2021; 148(3): 226.     CrossRef
    • Psychological distress among Italians during the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) quarantine
      Maurizio Bonati, Rita Campi, Michele Zanetti, Massimo Cartabia, Francesca Scarpellini, Antonio Clavenna, Giulia Segre
      BMC Psychiatry.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • Stress und Covid-19: Ein Narrativer Review über neuroendokrin-immune Mechanismen, die eine Abwehr von SARS-CoV-2 verbessern könnten
      Eva Milena Johanne Peters, Manfred Schedlowski, Carsten Watzl, Ulrike Gimsa
      PPmP - Psychotherapie · Psychosomatik · Medizinische Psychologie.2021; 71(02): 61.     CrossRef
    • COVID-19 pandemisinin yetişkinlerin diyet davranışları, fiziksel aktivite ve stres düzeyleri üzerine etkisi
      Gülyeter ERDOĞAN YÜCE, Gamze MUZ
      Cukurova Medical Journal.2021; 46(1): 283.     CrossRef
    • Globale Auswirkungen der COVID-19-Pandemie auf die Versorgung von Menschen mit psychischen Erkrankungen
      Shuyan Liu, Andreas Heinz, Matthias N. Haucke, Stephan Heinzel
      Der Nervenarzt.2021; 92(6): 556.     CrossRef
    • Depressive, anxiety, and insomnia symptoms between population in quarantine and general population during the COVID-19 pandemic: a case-controlled study
      Chengmin Wang, Weidong Song, Xiaohui Hu, Shaoguang Yan, Xing Zhang, Xunqiang Wang, Wenli Chen
      BMC Psychiatry.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • The Effect of COVID-19 Lockdown Measures on Physical Activity Levels and Sedentary Behaviour in a Relatively Young Population Living in Kosovo
      Masar Gjaka, Kaltrina Feka, Antonino Bianco, Faton Tishukaj, Valerio Giustino, Anna Maria Parroco, Antonio Palma, Giuseppe Battaglia
      Journal of Clinical Medicine.2021; 10(4): 763.     CrossRef
    • COVID-19 and Personality: A Cross-Sectional Multicenter Study of the Relationship Between Personality Factors and COVID-19-Related Impacts, Concerns, and Behaviors
      Mahmoud K. AL-Omiri, Ibrahim A. Alzoubi, Abdullah A. Al Nazeh, Abdallah K. Alomiri, Mohannad N. Maswady, Edward Lynch
      Frontiers in Psychiatry.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • Health, Psycho-Social Factors, and Ageism in Older Adults in Spain during the COVID-19 Pandemic
      Rocío Fernández-Ballesteros, Macarena Sánchez-Izquierdo
      Healthcare.2021; 9(3): 256.     CrossRef
    • Exercise and Use of Enhancement Drugs at the Time of the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Multicultural Study on Coping Strategies During Self-Isolation and Related Risks
      Artemisa R. Dores, Irene P. Carvalho, Julius Burkauskas, Pierluigi Simonato, Ilaria De Luca, Roisin Mooney, Konstantinos Ioannidis, M. Ángeles Gómez-Martínez, Zsolt Demetrovics, Krisztina Edina Ábel, Attila Szabo, Hironobu Fujiwara, Mami Shibata, Alejandr
      Frontiers in Psychiatry.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • Coping Styles, Mental Health, and the COVID-19 Quarantine: A Nationwide Survey in Poland
      Agata Kołodziejczyk, Błazej Misiak, Dorota Szcześniak, Julian Maciaszek, Marta Ciułkowicz, Dorota Łuc, Tomasz Wieczorek, Karolina Fila-Witecka, Sylwia Chladzinska-Kiejna, Joanna Rymaszewska
      Frontiers in Psychiatry.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • Mental Health in Patients with Coronavirus Disease-19 and the Quarantined People
      Hye Yoon Park
      Journal of Korean Neuropsychiatric Association.2021; 60(1): 11.     CrossRef
    • Effects of COVID-19 Lockdown on Physical Activity, Sedentary Behavior, and Satisfaction with Life in Qatar: A Preliminary Study
      Souhail Hermassi, Maha Sellami, Ahmad Salman, Abdulla S. Al-Mohannadi, El Ghali Bouhafs, Lawrence D. Hayes, René Schwesig
      International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2021; 18(6): 3093.     CrossRef
    • The Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Male Strength Athletes Who Use Non-prescribed Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids
      Barnaby N. Zoob Carter, Ian D. Boardley, Katinka van de Ven
      Frontiers in Psychiatry.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • Changes in health status, workload, and lifestyle after starting the COVID-19 pandemic: a web-based survey of Japanese men and women
      Machi Suka, Takashi Yamauchi, Hiroyuki Yanagisawa
      Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • Telecommuting, Off-Time Work, and Intrusive Leadership in Workers’ Well-Being
      Nicola Magnavita, Giovanni Tripepi, Carlo Chiorri
      International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2021; 18(7): 3330.     CrossRef
    • The Italians in the Time of Coronavirus: Psychosocial Aspects of the Unexpected COVID-19 Pandemic
      Francesca Favieri, Giuseppe Forte, Renata Tambelli, Maria Casagrande
      Frontiers in Psychiatry.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • Ethische Entscheidungsempfehlungen zu Besuchsregelungen im Krankenhaus während der COVID-19-Pandemie
      Annette Rogge, Michaela Naeve-Nydahl, Peter Nydahl, Florian Rave, Kathrin Knochel, Katharina Woellert, Claudia Schmalz
      Medizinische Klinik - Intensivmedizin und Notfallmedizin.2021; 116(5): 415.     CrossRef
    • Facing COVID-19 Between Sensory and Psychoemotional Stress, and Instrumental Deprivation: A Qualitative Study of Unmanageable Critical Incidents With Doctors and Nurses in Two Hospitals in Northern Italy
      Ines Testoni, Chiara Franco, Enrica Gallo Stampino, Erika Iacona, Robert Crupi, Claudio Pagano
      Frontiers in Psychology.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • Effects of Home Confinement on the Intensity of Physical Activity during the COVID-19 Outbreak in Team Handball According to Country, Gender, Competition Level, and Playing Position: A Worldwide Study
      Souhail Hermassi, El Ghali Bouhafs, Nicola Luigi Bragazzi, Shiro Ichimura, Khaled E. Alsharji, Lawrence D. Hayes, René Schwesig
      International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2021; 18(8): 4050.     CrossRef
    • Is Watching TV Series an Adaptive Coping Strategy During the COVID-19 Pandemic? Insights From an Italian Community Sample
      Valentina Boursier, Alessandro Musetti, Francesca Gioia, Maèva Flayelle, Joël Billieux, Adriano Schimmenti
      Frontiers in Psychiatry.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • A cross-sectional study of psychological distress in patients hospitalized for COVID-19
      Srilakshmi Pingali, AjayKumar Joopaka, PradeepSharma Telkapalli, Molanguri Umashankar
      Archives of Mental Health.2021; 22(1): 4.     CrossRef
    • Effects of Interoceptive Sensibility on Mental Health during the Coronavirus Disease 2019 Pandemic
      Naho Suzuki, Tetsuya Yamamoto, Chigusa Uchiumi, Nagisa Sugaya
      International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2021; 18(9): 4616.     CrossRef
    • Psychological impact of infection with SARS-CoV-2 on health care providers: A qualitative study
      Vidya Venkatesh, VijayNirup Samyuktha, BennyPaul Wilson, Dheeraj Kattula, JayaprakashRussell Ravan
      Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care.2021; 10(4): 1666.     CrossRef
    • Cyberchondria Amidst COVID-19 Pandemic: Challenges and Management Strategies
      Rahul Varma, Sreeja Das, Tushar Singh
      Frontiers in Psychiatry.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • Utilization of Inpatient Mental Health Care in the Rhineland During the COVID-19 Pandemic
      Jürgen Zielasek, Jürgen Vrinssen, Euphrosyne Gouzoulis-Mayfrank
      Frontiers in Public Health.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • Daily hassles and depressive symptoms among COVID-19 home quarantined Chinese university students: The moderating effects of negative cognitive styles
      Junyi Wang, Yinglu Zhou, Jinhong Ding, Jing Xiao
      Journal of Psychology in Africa.2021; 31(2): 124.     CrossRef
    • Changes in physical activity and sleep habits among adults in Russian Federation during COVID-19: a cross-sectional study
      Anna V. Kontsevaya, Dinara K. Mukaneeva, Azaliia O. Myrzamatova, Anthony D. Okely, Oxana M. Drapkina
      BMC Public Health.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • Mental Disorders of Bangladeshi Students During the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Systematic Review
      Firoj al Mamun, Ismail Hosen, Jannatul Mawa Misti, Mark Mohan Kaggwa, Mohammed A. Mamun
      Psychology Research and Behavior Management.2021; Volume 14: 645.     CrossRef
    • Suicide and Suicidal Behaviors in the Context of COVID-19 Pandemic in Bangladesh: A Systematic Review
      Mohammed A Mamun
      Psychology Research and Behavior Management.2021; Volume 14: 695.     CrossRef
    • Impact of COVID-19 Institutional Isolation Measures on Postnatal Women in Level 3 COVID Facility in Northern India
      Manisha Gupta, Neelima Agarwal, Alpana G Agrawal
      Journal of South Asian Federation of Obstetrics and Gynaecology.2021; 13(1): 50.     CrossRef
    • MENTAL HEALTH CHALLENGES, RESILIENCE AND COPING STYLE CONTRIBUTING TO THE WELL BEING OF PATIENTS RECOVERED FROM COVID - 19.
      Kanaga Lakshmi P, V Smitha Ruckmani
      PARIPEX INDIAN JOURNAL OF RESEARCH.2021; : 60.     CrossRef
    • Holistic approach supporting mental wellbeing of people in enforced quarantine in South Australia during the COVID‐19 pandemic
      Katina D'Onise, Sonali Meena, Kamalesh Venugopal, Marc Currie, Emily Kirkpatrick, Jenny Hurley, Rebecca Nolan, John Brayley, Bryan Atherton, Nicola Spurrier
      Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health.2021; 45(4): 325.     CrossRef
    • Catharsis Through Cinema: An Italian Qualitative Study on Watching Tragedies to Mitigate the Fear of COVID-19
      Ines Testoni, Emil Rossi, Sara Pompele, Ilaria Malaguti, Hod Orkibi
      Frontiers in Psychiatry.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • The psychophysiological effects of the COVID-19 quarantine in the college students
      Yusuf Soylu
      Physical education of students.2021; 25(3): 158.     CrossRef
    • Unpacking the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic: identifying structural domains
      Kaitlin E. Bountress, Shannon E. Cusack, Abigail H. Conley, Steven H. Aggen, Jasmin Vassileva, Danielle M. Dick, Ananda B. Amstadter
      European Journal of Psychotraumatology.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • The Experience of Patients with COVID-19 in China: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis
      Yanbo Wang, Xiao Pan, Yonghai Bai
      Psychology Research and Behavior Management.2021; Volume 14: 877.     CrossRef
    • Differences Between the Psychiatric Symptoms of Healthcare Workers Quarantined at Home and in the Hospital After Contact With a Patient With Middle East Respiratory Syndrome
      Su Jeong Seong, Hyung Joon Kim, Kyung Mi Yim, Ji Won Park, Kyung Hoon Son, Yeong Ju Jeon, Jae Yeon Hwang
      Frontiers in Psychiatry.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • Impact of COVID-19 Pandemic on Sleep Quality, Stress Level and Health-Related Quality of Life—A Large Prospective Cohort Study on Adult Danes
      Maria Didriksen, Thomas Werge, Janna Nissen, Michael Schwinn, Erik Sørensen, Kaspar R. Nielsen, Mie T. Bruun, Karina Banasik, Thomas F. Hansen, Christian Erikstrup, Sisse R. Ostrowski, Poul J. Jennum, Henrik Hjalgrim, Henrik Ullum, Ole B. Pedersen
      International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2021; 18(14): 7610.     CrossRef
    • COVID-19 Fear, Resilience, Social Support, Anxiety, and Suicide among College Students in Spain
      Jesús Muyor-Rodríguez, Francisco Caravaca-Sánchez, Juan Sebastián Fernández-Prados
      International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2021; 18(15): 8156.     CrossRef
    • Family perceptions related to isolation during COVID-19 hospitalization
      Candace Eden, Susan B. Fowler
      Nursing.2021; 51(8): 56.     CrossRef
    • Active Coping and Anxiety Symptoms during the COVID-19 Pandemic in Spanish Adults
      Raquel Lara, Martha Fernández-Daza, Sara Zabarain-Cogollo, María Angustias Olivencia-Carrión, Manuel Jiménez-Torres, María Demelza Olivencia-Carrión, Adelaida Ogallar-Blanco, Débora Godoy-Izquierdo
      International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2021; 18(16): 8240.     CrossRef
    • Towards an In-Depth Understanding of Physical Activity and Eating Behaviours during COVID-19 Social Confinement: A Combined Approach from a Portuguese National Survey
      Marlene Nunes Silva, Maria João Gregório, Rute Santos, Adilson Marques, Bruno Rodrigues, Cristina Godinho, Catarina Santos Silva, Romeu Mendes, Pedro Graça, Miguel Arriaga, Graça Freitas
      Nutrients.2021; 13(8): 2685.     CrossRef
    • COVID-19’a Yakalanma Kaygısı İle Fiziksel Aktiviteye Katılım Motivasyonu Arasındaki İlişkinin İncelenmesi
      Gönül YAVUZ, Zeynep KUTLU, Necdet Eray PİŞKİN, Serkan İBİŞ, Hasan AKA, Zait Burak AKTUĞ
      Gaziantep Üniversitesi Spor Bilimleri Dergisi.2021; 6(3): 232.     CrossRef
    • COVID-19 crisis: Influence of eHealth literacy on mental health promotion among Saudi nursing students
      Ejercito M. Balay-odao, Nahed Alquwez, Fatmah Alsolami, Hanan M.M. Tork, Khalaf Al Otaibi, Abdulellah Al Thobaity
      Journal of Taibah University Medical Sciences.2021; 16(6): 906.     CrossRef
    • ‘When the Waves Roll High’: Religious Coping among the Amish and Mennonites during the COVID-19 Pandemic
      Bernard D. DiGregorio, Katie E. Corcoran, Corey J. Colyer, Rachel E. Stein
      Religions.2021; 12(9): 678.     CrossRef
    • The Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic and Societal Infection Control Measures on Children and Adolescents' Mental Health: A Scoping Review
      Jamile Marchi, Nina Johansson, Anna Sarkadi, Georgina Warner
      Frontiers in Psychiatry.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • El estrés en tiempos de pandemia del coronavirus
      Hilario Campos Durán, Artemio López García, Francisco Aguilar Rebolledo
      Plasticidad y Restauración Neurológica.2021; 8(1): 28.     CrossRef
    • PaLS Study: How Has the COVID-19 Pandemic Influenced Physical Activity and Nutrition? Observations a Year after the Outbreak of the Pandemic
      Alicja Monika Jodczyk, Grzegorz Gruba, Zuzanna Sikora, Przemysław Seweryn Kasiak, Joanna Gębarowska, Natalia Adamczyk, Artur Mamcarz, Daniel Śliż
      International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2021; 18(18): 9632.     CrossRef
    • Psychological Distress of International Students during the COVID-19 Pandemic in China: Multidimensional Effects of External Environment, Individuals’ Behavior, and Their Values
      Tao Xu
      International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2021; 18(18): 9758.     CrossRef
    • Suicidality in Bangladeshi Young Adults During the COVID-19 Pandemic: The Role of Behavioral Factors, COVID-19 Risk and Fear, and Mental Health Problems
      Mohammed A Mamun, Firoj al Mamun, Ismail Hosen, Mahmudul Hasan, Abidur Rahman, Ahsanul Mahbub Jubayar, Zeba Maliha, Abu Hasnat Abdullah, Md Abedin Sarker, Humayun Kabir, Avijit Sarker Jyoti, Mark Mohan Kaggwa, Md Tajuddin Sikder
      Risk Management and Healthcare Policy.2021; Volume 14: 4051.     CrossRef
    • Impact of Synchronous Online Physical Education Classes Using Tabata Training on Adolescents during COVID-19: A Randomized Controlled Study
      Kwang-Jin Lee, Byungjoo Noh, Keun-Ok An
      International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2021; 18(19): 10305.     CrossRef
    • Loneliness and Depression among Women in Poland during the COVID-19 Pandemic
      Anna Idzik(oneninenine), Anna Leńczuk-Gruba, Ewa Kobos, Mariola Pietrzak, Beata Dziedzic
      International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2021; 18(20): 10698.     CrossRef
    • Novel coronavirus pathogen in humans and animals: an overview on its social impact, economic impact, and potential treatments
      Rokeya Akter, Md. Habibur Rahman, Tanima Bhattacharya, Deepak Kaushik, Vineet Mittal, Jatin Parashar, Kuldeep Kumar, Md. Tanvir Kabir, Priti Tagde
      Environmental Science and Pollution Research.2021; 28(48): 68071.     CrossRef
    • The Virtual Team Member: Remote Engagement of Medical Students in COVID-19 Care
      Cecilia Yoon, Jihui Lee, Ericka Fong, Jennifer I. Lee
      Medical Science Educator.2021; 31(6): 1831.     CrossRef
    • Effect of COVID-19 Pandemic-Induced Dietary and Lifestyle Changes and Their Associations with Perceived Health Status and Self-Reported Body Weight Changes in India: A Cross-Sectional Survey
      Jagmeet Madan, Traci Blonquist, Eram Rao, Ankita Marwaha, Joshya Mehra, Richa Bharti, Nishi Sharma, Ritika Samaddar, Sandhya Pandey, Eunice Mah, Varsha Shete, YiFang Chu, Oliver Chen
      Nutrients.2021; 13(11): 3682.     CrossRef
    • “Everything Will Be All Right!” National and European Identification as Predictors of Positive Expectations for the Future During the COVID-19 Emergency
      Silvia Moscatelli, Anna Rita Graziani, Lucia Botindari, Stefano Ciaffoni, Michela Menegatti
      Frontiers in Psychology.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • The Impact of COVID-19 on Mental Health: Psychosocial Conditions of Students with and without Special Educational Needs
      David Scheer, Désirée Laubenstein
      Social Sciences.2021; 10(11): 405.     CrossRef
    • Dietary Patterns, Adherence to the Food-Based Dietary Guidelines, and Ultra-Processed Consumption During the COVID-19 Lockdown in a Sample of Spanish Young Population
      José Francisco López-Gil, Antonio García-Hermoso, Pedro Juan Tárraga-López, Javier Brazo-Sayavera
      Frontiers in Pediatrics.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • COVID-19 and mental health in children and adolescents: a diagnostic panel to map psycho-social consequences in the pandemic context
      Menno Baumann
      Discover Mental Health.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • COVID-19 Infection: A Neuropsychiatric Perspective
      Theodora A. Manolis, Evdoxia J. Apostolopoulos, Antonis A. Manolis, Helen Melita, Antonis S. Manolis
      The Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences.2021; 33(4): 266.     CrossRef
    • Loneliness and mental health among the elderly in Poland during the COVID-19 pandemic
      Beata Dziedzic, Anna Idzik, Ewa Kobos, Zofia Sienkiewicz, Tomasz Kryczka, Wiesław Fidecki, Mariusz Wysokiński
      BMC Public Health.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • “Then COVID happened…”: Veterans’ Health, Wellbeing, and Engagement in Whole Health Care During the COVID-19 Pandemic
      Natalie Purcell, Joanna Sells, Sarah McGrath, Haley Mehlman, Daniel Bertenthal, Karen H Seal
      Global Advances in Health and Medicine.2021; 10: 216495612110538.     CrossRef
    • Age-Related Differences of Rumination on the Loneliness–Depression Relationship: Evidence From a Population-Representative Cohort
      Horace Tong, Wai Kai Hou, Li Liang, Tsz Wai Li, Huinan Liu, Tatia M C Lee, Jennifer Tehan Stanley
      Innovation in Aging.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • Social Inequities in the Impact of COVID-19 Lockdown Measures on the Mental Health of a Large Sample of the Colombian Population (PSY-COVID Study)
      Juan P. Sanabria-Mazo, Bernardo Useche-Aldana, Pedro P. Ochoa, Diego F. Rojas-Gualdrón, Corel Mateo-Canedo, Meritxell Carmona-Cervelló, Neus Crespo-Puig, Clara Selva-Olid, Anna Muro, Jorge L. Méndez-Ulrich, Albert Feliu-Soler, Juan V. Luciano, Antoni Sanz
      Journal of Clinical Medicine.2021; 10(22): 5297.     CrossRef
    • How COVID-19 Affected Healthcare Workers in the Hospital Locked Down due to Early COVID-19 Cases in Korea
      Hyeon-Ah Lee, Myung Hee Ahn, Seonjeong Byun, Hae-Kook Lee, Yong-Sil Kweon, Seockhoon Chung, Yong-Wook Shin, Kyoung-Uk Lee
      Journal of Korean Medical Science.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • SARS-CoV-2 Positive and Isolated at Home: Stress and Coping Depending on Psychological Burden
      Elias Kowalski, Axel Schneider, Stephan Zipfel, Andreas Stengel, Johanna Graf
      Frontiers in Psychiatry.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • Ethnic Differences in Environmental Restoration: Arab and Jewish Women in Israel
      Diana Saadi, Izhak Schnell, Emanuel Tirosh
      International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2021; 18(23): 12628.     CrossRef
    • The Gender and Education of Parents as Factors That Influence Their Views on Physical Education
      Beáta Ružbarská, Branislav Antala, Miroslav Gombár, Lenka Tlučáková
      Sustainability.2021; 13(24): 13708.     CrossRef
    • Factors related to compliance with the COVID-19 health regulations among young people
      Joana Jaureguizar, Iratxe Redondo, Nuria Galende, Naiara Ozamiz
      World Journal of Psychiatry.2021; 11(12): 1247.     CrossRef
    • “You Feel Very Isolated”: Effects of COVID-19 Pandemic on Caregiver Social Connections
      Alycia A. Bristol, Aaron C. Mata, Melody Mickens, Kara B. Dassel, Lee Ellington, Debra Scammon, Amber Thompson, Gail L. Towsley, Rebecca L. Utz, Alexandra L. Terrill
      Gerontology and Geriatric Medicine.2021; 7: 233372142110601.     CrossRef
    • Association of national COVID-19 cases with objectively and subjectively measured mental health proxies in the Austrian Football league – an epidemiological study
      Antje van der Zee-Neuen, Alexander Seymer, Dagmar Schaffler-Schaden, Jürgen Herfert, James ÓBrien, Tim Johansson, Patrick Kutschar, Stephan Ludwig, Thomas Stöggl, David Keeley, Maria Flamm, Jürgen Osterbrink
      All Life.2021; 14(1): 1011.     CrossRef
    • Maternal mental health in Africa during the COVID-19 pandemic: a neglected global health issue
      Kobi V. Ajayi, Elizabeth Wachira, Obasanjo Afolabi Bolarinwa, Beulah D. Suleman
      Epidemiology and Health.2021; 43: e2021078.     CrossRef
    • Excess deaths on suicide during COVID-19 in South Korea
      Haemin Park, Domyung Paek
      The Korean Journal of Public Health.2021; 58(2): 1.     CrossRef
    • ՀԱՄԱՎԱՐԱԿԻ ԸՆԹԱՑՔՈՒՄ ԱՆՁԻ ՀՈԳԵԲԱՆԱԿԱՆ ԱՆՎՏԱՆԳՈՒԹՅՈՒՆԸ ԵՒ ՀՈԳԵԿԱՆ ԱՌՈՂՋՈՒԹՅՈՒՆԸ. ՏԵՍԱԿԱՆ ԱՍՊԵԿՏ / A PERSON’S PSYCHOLOGICAL SAFETY AND MENTALHEALTH DURING A PANDEMIC: THE THEORETICAL ASPECT
      Ye. B. Muradyan
      ARMENIAN JOURNAL OF MENTAL HEALTH.2021; : 30.     CrossRef
    • Psychological complexities of visual restoration
      Paris Dickens, David Miller, Kanna Ramaesh
      BMJ Case Reports.2021; 14(1): e237603.     CrossRef
    • Increased stress, weight gain and less exercise in relation to glycemic control in people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes during the COVID-19 pandemic
      Merel M Ruissen, Hannah Regeer, Cyril P Landstra, Marielle Schroijen, Ingrid Jazet, Michiel F Nijhoff, Hanno Pijl, Bart E P B Ballieux, Olaf Dekkers, Sasja D Huisman, Eelco J P de Koning
      BMJ Open Diabetes Research & Care.2021; 9(1): e002035.     CrossRef
    • Air pollution and geriatric mental health: perspectives on the COVID-19 pandemic
      Rachit Sharma, Mahbub Hossain, Priyanka Pawar, Sonam Sharma
      International Psychogeriatrics.2020; 32(10): 1255.     CrossRef
    • Dose–response relationship between intergenerational contact frequency and depressive symptoms amongst elderly Chinese parents: a cross-sectional study
      Yaofei Xie, Mengdi Ma, Wenwen Wu, Yupeng Zhang, Yuting Zhang, Xiaodong Tan
      BMC Geriatrics.2020;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • Impact on Mental Health Due to COVID-19 Pandemic: Cross-Sectional Study in Portugal and Brazil
      Lígia Passos, Filipe Prazeres, Andreia Teixeira, Carlos Martins
      International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2020; 17(18): 6794.     CrossRef
    • Effects of the lockdown on the mental health of the general population during the COVID-19 pandemic in Italy: Results from the COMET collaborative network
      Andrea Fiorillo, Gaia Sampogna, Vincenzo Giallonardo, Valeria Del Vecchio, Mario Luciano, Umberto Albert, Claudia Carmassi, Giuseppe Carrà, Francesca Cirulli, Bernardo Dell’Osso, Maria Giulia Nanni, Maurizio Pompili, Gabriele Sani, Alfonso Tortorella, Umb
      European Psychiatry.2020;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • Maternal Distress/Coping and Children's Adaptive Behaviors During the COVID-19 Lockdown: Mediation Through Children's Emotional Experience
      Serena Petrocchi, Annalisa Levante, Federica Bianco, Ilaria Castelli, Flavia Lecciso
      Frontiers in Public Health.2020;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • Beginning of the Pandemic: COVID-19-Elicited Anxiety as a Predictor of Working Memory Performance
      Daniel Fellman, Liisa Ritakallio, Otto Waris, Jussi Jylkkä, Matti Laine
      Frontiers in Psychology.2020;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • Die COVID-19-Pandemie als Herausforderung für die psychische Gesundheit
      Eva-Lotta Brakemeier, Janine Wirkner, Christine Knaevelsrud, Susanne Wurm, Hanna Christiansen, Ulrike Lueken, Silvia Schneider
      Zeitschrift für Klinische Psychologie und Psychotherapie.2020; 49(1): 1.     CrossRef
    • Dietary Habits and Psychological States during COVID-19 Home Isolation in Italian College Students: The Role of Physical Exercise
      Stefano Amatori, Sabrina Donati Zeppa, Antonio Preti, Marco Gervasi, Erica Gobbi, Fabio Ferrini, Marco B. L. Rocchi, Carlo Baldari, Fabrizio Perroni, Giovanni Piccoli, Vilberto Stocchi, Piero Sestili, Davide Sisti
      Nutrients.2020; 12(12): 3660.     CrossRef
    • The COVID-19 pandemic: an unprecedented tragedy in the battle against childhood obesity
      Maximilian Andreas Storz
      Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics.2020; 63(12): 477.     CrossRef
    • Psychological Symptoms and Behavioral Changes in Children and Adolescents During the Early Phase of COVID-19 Quarantine in Three European Countries
      Rita Francisco, Marta Pedro, Elisa Delvecchio, Jose Pedro Espada, Alexandra Morales, Claudia Mazzeschi, Mireia Orgilés
      Frontiers in Psychiatry.2020;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • Leisure Sports Participants’ Engagement in Preventive Health Behaviors and Their Experience of Constraints on Performing Leisure Activities During the COVID-19 Pandemic
      Young-Jae Kim, Jeong-Hyung Cho, Yeon-Ji Park
      Frontiers in Psychology.2020;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • Establishing a Theory-Based Multi-Level Approach for Primary Prevention of Mental Disorders in Young People
      Giuseppina Lo Moro, Emma Soneson, Peter B. Jones, Julieta Galante
      International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2020; 17(24): 9445.     CrossRef
    • Psychological Distress in Quarantine Designated Facility During COVID-19 Pandemic in Saudi Arabia
      Abdulmajeed A Alkhamees, Moath S Aljohani, Mohammed A Alghesen, Ali T Alhabib
      Risk Management and Healthcare Policy.2020; Volume 13: 3103.     CrossRef
    • Assessment of the Mental Health Status of Social Media Users during the Outbreak of COVID-19
      Hossein Souri, Marziyeh Noorifard, Saber Aryamanesh
      Qom Univ Med Sci J.2020; 14(8): 21.     CrossRef
    • COVID-19 and mental health: A review and the role of telehealth and virtual reality
      Ricardo Sainz-Fuertes, Joan Miquel Gelabert Mir, Jose María Valderas, Kim Bullock, Anne Giersch, Kai Vogeley, Ariadna Torres García, Marta Argiles Huguet, Tamara Russell, Jack Hollingdale, Javier-David Lopez -Moriñigo, Isidro Navarro Delgado, Hugh Selsick
      Digital Medicine.2020; 6(2): 53.     CrossRef

    Figure

    Epidemiol Health : Epidemiology and Health