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Original Article
The risk of gastric cancer according to changes in smoking status among Korean men
Sung Keun Park, Min-Ho Kim, Chang-Mo Oh, Eunhee Ha, Eun Hye Yang, Woo Yeon Hwang, Ann Hee You, Jae-Hong Ryoo
Epidemiol Health. 2022;44:e2022086.   Published online October 7, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2022086
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  • 1 Web of Science
  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
Smoking is a risk factor for gastric cancer. Studies have shown that the risk of gastric cancer can vary by smoking status and smoking amount at a single point in time. However, few data have been reported about the effect of changes in smoking status over time on the risk of gastric cancer.
METHODS
This study collected data from the National Health Insurance Corporation in Korea on 97,700 Korean men without gastric cancer who underwent health check-ups from 2002 to 2013. The smoking status (never smoked, quit smoking, and currently smoking) of study participants was assessed in 2003-2004 and 2009, and the results were categorized into 7 groups: never-never, never-quit, never-current, quit-quit, quit-current, current-quit, and current-current. Participants were followed until 2013 to identify incident gastric cancer. A multivariate Cox proportional hazard model was used to calculate adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for incident gastric cancer according to changes in smoking status and smoking amount (pack-years).
RESULTS
Compared with group 1 (never-never), participants currently smoking in 2009 (never-current, quit-current, and current-current) had higher HRs for gastric cancer (never-quit: 1.077; 95% CI, 0.887 to 1.306, never-current: 1.347; 95% CI, 0.983 to1.846, quit-quit: 1.086; 95% CI, 0.863 to 1.366, quit-current: 1.538; 95% CI, 1.042 to 2.269, current-quit: 1.339; 95% CI, 1.077 to 1.666, and current-current: 1.589; 95% CI, 1.355 to 1.864, respectively). The risk for gastric cancer was highest in heavy smokers, followed by moderate smokers.
CONCLUSIONS
In all categories of smoking status, current smoking was associated with the highest risk of gastric cancer. Heavy smoking was associated with an increased risk of gastric cancer, even in former smokers.
Summary
Korean summary
현재 흡연자의 경우 과거 흡연여부와 관계 없이 위암의 위험성이 가장 증가한다. 과거 흡연자의 경우에는 흡연량이 많은 경우에는 위암의 위험성이 증가한다. 이런 결과는 금연이나 흡연량을 줄이는 것이 위암의 위험성을 감소시키는데 매우 중요한 요인이란 것을 확인할 수 있다.
Key Message
Current smoking was associated with an increased risk of gastric cancer, regardless of previous smoking status. Although former smoking was not associated with an increased risk of gastric cancer, former smokers with a history of heavy smoking had an increased risk of gastric cancer. These results suggest that smoking cessation and reducing smoking amounts are both important factors in reducing the risk of gastric cancer.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Gastric dysplasia in random biopsies: the influence of Helicobacter pylori infection and alcohol consumption in the presence of a lesion
    Ana Isabel Ferreira, Tiago Lima Capela, Vítor Macedo Silva, Sofia Xavier, Pedro Boal Carvalho, Joana Magalhães, José Cotter
    Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology.2024; 59(2): 125.     CrossRef

Epidemiol Health : Epidemiology and Health