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COVID-19: Original Article
The medium-term consequences of a COVID-19 lockdown on lifestyle among Spanish older people with hypertension, pulmonary disease, cardiovascular disease, musculoskeletal disease, depression, and cancer
Irene Rodríguez-Gómez, Coral Sánchez-Martín, Francisco J. García-García, Esther García-Esquinas, Marta Miret, Germán Vicente-Rodriguez, Narcís Gusi, Asier Mañas, José A. Carnicero, Marcela Gonzalez-Gross, José L. Ayuso-Mateos, Fernando Rodríguez-Artalejo, Leocadio Rodríguez-Mañas, Ignacio Ara
Epidemiol Health. 2022;44:e2022026.   Published online February 21, 2022
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  • 333 Download
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
This study investigated the associations of chronic diseases with changes in lifestyle and health behaviours in older people following the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) lockdown in Spain and compared the differences in changes over time.
1,092 participants (80.3±5.6 years; 66.5% female) from 2 Spanish cohorts were included. Telephone-based questionnaires were conducted to evaluate lifestyle and health risk behaviours at the end of lockdown and 7 months post-lockdown. Participants were classified as having physician-diagnosed chronic diseases based on self-reported data. Cox proportional models adjusted for major confounders were used.
Compared to those without the corresponding chronic diseases, older people with hypertension were less likely to report increased alcohol consumption (hazard ratio [HR], 0.73; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.55 to 0.99). Pulmonary diseases were associated with lower risks of increased sedentary time (HR, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.39 to 0.86) and worsened sleep quality (HR, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.36 to 0.87), while cardiovascular diseases were associated with a lower risk of decreased sedentary time (HR, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.38 to 0.88). Depression was linked to a higher likelihood of improved diet quality (HR, 1.53; 95% CI, 1.00 to 2.36). Cancer pacients were less likely to have worsened sleep quality (HR, 0.44; 95% CI, 0.22 to 0.89) but more likely to have reduced their frequency of social contact (HR, 2.05; 95% CI, 1.05 to 3.99).
Older people with chronic diseases showed beneficial changes in lifestyle and health risk behaviours after the COVID-19 lockdown. In particular, older people with hypertension, pulmonary disease, and cancer tended to make beneficial lifestyle and health behaviour changes. However, older people with cardiovascular disease and depression engaged in more health risk behaviours.
Korean summary
Key Message
Although the majority of older people with chronic diseases showed beneficial changes in lifestyle and health risk behaviors after the COVID-19 lockdown, public health interventions should be developed to prevent the dangerous long-term effects that COVID-19 pandemic-type situations may have on the health of older people, with a particular focus on older people with CVD and depression that seem to have experienced more health risk behaviors during the COVID-19 pandemic than older people with other chronic diseases.
Original Article
Prevalence, awareness, treatment, control, and risk factors of hypertension among adults: a cross-sectional study in Iran
Maryam Eghbali, Alireza Khosravi, Awat Feizi, Asieh Mansouri, Behzad Mahaki, Nizal Sarrafzadegan
Epidemiol Health. 2018;40:e2018020.   Published online May 18, 2018
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  • 406 Download
  • 25 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Hypertension (HTN) is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Considering the importance of this disease for public health, this study was designed in order to determine the prevalence, awareness, treatment, control, and risk factors of HTN in the Iranian adult population.
This cross-sectional study was conducted among 2,107 residents of Isfahan, Iran. Samples were selected through multi-stage random cluster sampling in 2015-2016. The outcome variable was HTN, determined by measuring blood pressure in the right arm via a digital arm blood pressure monitor. Awareness, treatment, and control of HTN were assessed by a validated and reliable researcher-developed questionnaire. Other demographic and clinical variables were assessed via a demographic questionnaire.
The overall prevalence of HTN was 17.3% (18.9 and 15.5% in men and women, respectively). The prevalence of HTN increased in both genders with age. The prevalence of awareness of HTN among people with HTN was 69.2%, of whom 92.4 and 59.9% were taking medication for HTN and had controlled HTN, respectively. Logistic regression identified age, body mass index, having diabetes and hyperlipidemia, and a positive family history of HTN as determinants of awareness of HTN.
The results showed that HTN was highly prevalent in the community, especially in men and in middle-aged and older adults. Approximately 30.8% of patients were unaware of their disease, and there was less awareness among younger adults. Despite the high frequency of taking medication to treat HTN, it was uncontrolled in more than 40.1% of patients. Health policy-makers should therefore consider appropriate preventive and therapeutic strategies for these high-risk groups.
Korean summary
Key Message


Citations to this article as recorded by  
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Epidemiol Health : Epidemiology and Health