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Association of appendicular skeletal muscle mass with carotid intima-media thickness according to body mass index in Korean adults
Ji Eun Heo, Hyeon Chang Kim, Jee-Seon Shim, Bo Mi Song, Hye Yoon Bae, Ho Jae Lee, Il Suh
Epidemiol Health. 2018;40:e2018049.   Published online October 7, 2018
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
The combined effects of obesity and appendicular skeletal muscle (ASM) on atherosclerosis, especially in middleaged populations, remain poorly understood. This cross-sectional study investigated the effects of ASM on carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) according to body mass index (BMI) in middle-aged Korean adults.
Herein, 595 men and 1,274 women aged 30-64 years completed questionnaires and underwent health examinations as part of the Cardiovascular and Metabolic Disease Etiology Research Center cohort. ASM was measured via bioelectrical impedance analysis and adjusted for weight (ASM/Wt). IMT was assessed using B-mode ultrasonography; highest quartile of IMT was defined as gender-specific top quartile of the IMT values. Higher BMIs was defined as a BMI over 25.0 kg/m2 .
Compared to the highest ASM/Wt quartile, the lowest ASM/Wt quartile was significantly associated with highest quartile of IMT in men with lower BMIs (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 2.78; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.09 to 7.13), but not in those with higher BMIs (aOR, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.24 to 1.91). In women, there was no significant association of low skeletal muscle mass with highest quartile of IMT, regardless of BMI.
Low appendicular skeletal muscle mass is associated with carotid arterial wall thickening in men with lower BMIs, but not in men with higher BMIs. Our findings suggest that the risk of atherosclerosis may be low in middle-aged Korean men with appropriate body weight and skeletal muscle mass maintenance.
Korean summary
한국 중년 성인을 대상으로 사지근육양과 죽상경화증(경동맥 내중막 두께≥75 percentile)의 관련성을 체질량지수(≥25, <25 kg/m2)로 층화하여 평가하였다. 체질량지수 25 kg/m2 미만인 남자에서는, 사지근육양이 낮으면 죽상경화증의 위험이 유의하게 높았으나, 체질량지수 25 kg/m2 이상인 남자에서는 관련성이 없었다. 반면 여자에서는 체질량지수에 상관없이 사지근육양과 죽상경화증의 독립적인 관련성이 관찰되지 않았다.


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The Association between Bone Density at Os calcis and Body Composition according to Years since Menopause in Postmenopausal Women Aged 45-84 Years Living in a Rural Area.
Eun Kyung Shin, Ki Suk Kim, Hee Young Kim, Kyung Eui Hong, Hyo Jee Joung, Sung Il Cho
Korean J Epidemiol. 2003;25(2):108-118.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
This cross-sectional study aimed to compare early postmenopausal women with late menopausal women in respect to body composition as a major determinant of calcaneal bone density.
Areal bone density was measured at os calcis with peripheral dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Soft lean mass and fat mass were measured using bioelectric impedance in 109 postmenopausal women aged 45 to 84 years.
When age and height were adjusted, the variance of calcaneal bone density was better explained by fat mass (15%) than by soft lean mass (7%) in early postmenopausal women. In contrast, soft lean mass (17%) explained the variance of calcaneal bone density better than fat mass (11%) in late postmenopausal women. However, interaction terms between years since menopause (YSM) and soft lean mass or fat mass were not statistically significant in multiple linear regression model for total postmenopausal subject.
The findings of this study suggest that fat mass is the major determinant of calcaneal bone density in early postmenopausal women, whereas fat free mass is more important determinant of calcaneal bone density in late postmenopausal women.

Epidemiol Health : Epidemiology and Health