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2 "Jiseon Lee"
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Expansion of a food composition database for the food frequency questionnaire in the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study (KoGES): a comprehensive database of dietary antioxidants and total antioxidant capacity
Jiseon Lee, Ji-Sook Kong, Hye Won Woo, Mi Kyung Kim
Epidemiol Health. 2024;e2024050.   Published online May 10, 2024
DOI:    [Accepted]
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AbstractAbstract PDF
This study constructed a comprehensive database of dietary antioxidants and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) to facilitate the estimation of daily antioxidant intake using a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). This database was applied to 3 general population-based cohorts (n=195,961) within the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study (KoGES).
To establish a database of 412 foods derived from recipes of a 106-item FFQ, we followed a pre-established standardized protocol. This included the selection of source databases, matching of foods, substitution of unmatched items with identical foods and input of values, and assessment of coverage. For each food, the TAC was estimated by summing the individual antioxidant capacities, calculated by multiplying the amount of each antioxidant by its vitamin C equivalent antioxidant capacity.
We identified 48 antioxidants across 5 classes: retinol, carotenoids, vitamins C and E, and flavonoids, with flavonoids divided into 7 subclasses. TAC values were then established. Coverage exceeded 90.0% for retinol, carotenoids, vitamin C, and vitamin E, while coverage for flavonoids was 60.9%. The daily intakes of 4 antioxidant classes—all but vitamin E—were higher in women than in men. The Ansan-Ansung cohort exhibited the highest levels of dietary TAC, vitamin E, and flavonoids, while the Health Examinees Study cohort displayed the highest values for retinol, carotenoids, and vitamin C.
We customized a comprehensive antioxidant database for the KoGES FFQ, achieving relatively high coverage. This expansion could support research investigating the impact of dietary antioxidants on the development of chronic diseases targeted by the KoGES.
Original Article
Associations of cumulative average dietary total antioxidant capacity and intake of antioxidants with metabolic syndrome risk in Korean adults aged 40 years and older: a prospective cohort study (KoGES_CAVAS)
Ji-Sook Kong, Jiseon Lee, Youngjun Kim, Hye Won Woo, Min-Ho Shin, Sang Baek Koh, Hyeon Chang Kim, Yu-Mi Kim, Mi Kyung Kim
Epidemiol Health. 2023;45:e2023067.   Published online July 28, 2023
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  • 1 Web of Science
  • 2 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Limited and inconsistent prospective evidence exists regarding the relationship of dietary total antioxidant capacity (dTAC) and antioxidant intake with metabolic syndrome (MetS) risk. We evaluated the associations of the cumulative averages of dTAC and antioxidant intake (in 5 classes: retinol, vitamin C, vitamin E, carotenoids, and flavonoids, as well as 7 flavonoid subclasses) with the risk of MetS.
This study included 11,379 participants without MetS, drawn from the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study_CArdioVascular disease Association Study (KoGES_CAVAS). The cumulative average consumption was calculated using repeated food frequency questionnaires. Incidence rate ratios were estimated using a modified Poisson regression model with a robust error estimator.
The median follow-up period was 5.16 years, and 2,416 cases of MetS were recorded over 58,750 person-years. In men, significant inverse associations were observed in all 5 antioxidant classes, except for the highest quartile of dTAC. In women, dTAC and total flavonoids were not significantly associated with MetS; however, significant L-shaped associations were found for the remaining 4 antioxidant classes. Of the 7 flavonoid subclasses, only flavones in the highest quartile for men and flavan-3-ols in women lacked significant associations with MetS. The inverse associations were not sex-specific, but they were particularly pronounced among participants with a body mass index (BMI) of 23 kg/m<sup>2</sup> or higher.
The findings suggest that most antioxidant classes and flavonoid subclasses, unlike dTAC, exhibit a clear beneficial association with MetS in an L-shaped pattern in both men and women, particularly those with a high BMI.
Korean summary
농촌코호트 조사 참여자를 대상으로 식이 총항산화능, 총항산화능 하위분류, 플라보노이드 하위분류와 대사증후군 발생 위험의 전향적 연관성을 평가한 결과, 대부분의 항산화물(5개항산화물 분류:4개 항산화 비타민과 플라보노이드; 플라보노이드 7개 하부분류)에서 대사증후군과 음의 상관성을 확인할 수 있었으며 총항산화능(남자와 여자)과 플라보노이드(여자)에서 약한 연관성을 보였다. 남녀간 유의한 상호작용은 없었고 특히 BMI가 높은 집단에서 두드러졌다. 이 연구의 결과는 특히 식이 총항산화능을 구성하는 하위 유형을 적절히 섭취하는 것이 특히 비만한 성인에서 대사증후군 위험을 낮추는 예방전략으로 효과가 있을 수 있음을 시사한다.
Key Message
We observed that the cumulative average of dietary antioxidant vitamins and most flavonoids may be have pivotal roles in prevention of MetS, although there may be weak associations of dTAC and flavonoids in women. Moreover, these inverse associations were more pronounced in high BMI individuals. Our results suggest that the consumption of antioxidants and flavonoid may mitigate the MetS risk, particularly in overweight/obese individuals at high risk of developing chronic diseases.


Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • The association of dietary total flavonoids and their subclasses with the risk of type 2 diabetes: a prospective cohort study
    Hye Won Woo, Mi Kyung Kim, Kong Ji-Sook, Jiseon Lee, Min-Ho Shin, Sang Baek Koh, Hyeon Chang Kim, Yu-Mi Kim
    European Journal of Nutrition.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • A Systematized Review of the Relationship Between Obesity and Vitamin C Requirements
    Julia K Bird, Edith JM Feskens, Alida Melse-Boonstra
    Current Developments in Nutrition.2024; 8(5): 102152.     CrossRef

Epidemiol Health : Epidemiology and Health