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COVID-19: Special Article
Changes in mental health of Korean adolescents before and during the COVID-19 pandemic: a special report using the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Survey
Bomi Park, Jihee Kim, Jieun Yang, Sunhye Choi, Kyungwon Oh
Epidemiol Health. 2023;45:e2023019.   Published online February 14, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2023019
  • 5,115 View
  • 351 Download
  • 2 Web of Science
  • 2 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
We aimed to study the effects of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on adolescents’ mental health in Korea.
METHODS
We used data from the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Survey 2018-2021 with 227,139 students aged 12-18 years. We estimated the differences in depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, and stress perception before (2018-2019) and during (2020-2021) the pandemic, as well as before (2019), the first year (2020) of, and the second year (2021) of the pandemic. We also examined whether COVID-19 is statistically associated with mental health.
RESULTS
In both male and female adolescents, the prevalence of depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, and stress perception was higher in the “not living with family,” “low household economic status,” and “self-rated unhealthy status” subgroups. The prevalence of depressive symptoms and stress perception was higher in middle school students. Adolescents were less likely to experience depressive symptoms (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 0.86; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.83 to 0.89), suicidal ideation (aOR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.76 to 0.83), and stress perception (aOR, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.74 to 0.79) in 2020 than in 2019. However, there were more depressive symptoms (aOR, 1.06; 95% CI, 1.02 to 1.09), suicidal ideation (aOR, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.10 to 1.21), and stress perception (aOR, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.16 to 1.23) in 2021 than in 2020.
CONCLUSIONS
The COVID-19 pandemic had positive impacts on mental health of adolescents in its early stages but has had negative impacts as the pandemic continues. Attention should be paid to adolescents who are particularly vulnerable to the mental health effects of the pandemic.
Summary
Korean summary
The results from a nationally representative data showed that mental health in adolescents was improved in the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic compared to before the COVID-19 pandemic, but it was deteriorated in the second year of the pandemic compared to the first year.
Key Message
본 연구에서는 대규모 건강조사를 이용하여 코로나19가 장기화됨에 따른 영향을 평가하고자 하였다. 2018년-2021년 청소년건강행태조사에 참여한 만 12-18세 청소년 227,139 명을 대상으로 분석한 결과, 코로나19 유행 첫번째 해(2020년)에는 코로나19 유행 이전에 비해 정신건강이 개선되었으나, 코로나19 유행 두 번째 해(2021년)에는 코로나19 유행 첫 번째 해에 비해 청소년 정신건강이 나빠졌다. 또한 가족과 함께 거주하지 않는 경우, 가정 경제 수준이 낮은 경우, 본인이 건강하지 않다고 인지하는 경우에 더 취약하였다.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Excess mortality during the Coronavirus disease pandemic in Korea
    Changwoo Han, Hoyeon Jang, Juhwan Oh
    BMC Public Health.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • A Comparison of Changes in Health Behavior, Obesity, and Mental Health of Korean Adolescents Before and During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Online Cross-Sectional Study
    Mi-Sun Lee, Hooyeon Lee
    Psychiatry Investigation.2023; 20(11): 1086.     CrossRef
COVID-19: Special Article
Changes in health behaviors and obesity of Korean adolescents before and during the COVID-19 pandemic: a special report using the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Survey
Chang-Mo Oh, Yangha Kim, Jieun Yang, Sunhye Choi, Kyungwon Oh
Epidemiol Health. 2023;45:e2023018.   Published online February 14, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2023018
  • 5,739 View
  • 325 Download
  • 1 Web of Science
  • 2 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
This study aimed to investigate changes in health behaviors, including cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking, physical activity, dietary behaviors, and obesity, before and during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic using the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Survey (KYRBS) database.
METHODS
KYRBS data from 2015 to 2021 were used in this study. Differences in health behaviors between before (pre-pandemic period: 2018-2019) and during (pandemic period: 2020-2021) the pandemic were examined. Differences were compared using linear regression and the chi-square test considering the complex survey design after adjusting for grade level.
RESULTS
The prevalence of current cigarette smoking and current alcohol drinking significantly decreased in both male and female students during the pandemic compared to the pre-pandemic period. However, the prevalence of obesity significantly increased in both male and female students during the same period. When examining physical activity and dietary behaviors closely related to obesity, fast food consumption increased and fruit consumption decreased during the pandemic in both male and female students, whereas no significant changes in physical activity were observed in either male or female students.
CONCLUSIONS
The deterioration of adolescent dietary behaviors and an increase in the prevalence of obesity can increase the future disease burden, and concerted efforts at the individual and national levels are needed to reduce obesity and promote healthy dietary behaviors.
Summary
Korean summary
이 연구는 한국 청소년건강행태조사자료(KYRBS)를 사용하여 코로나19 유행 전후의 우리나라 청소년들의 흡연, 음주, 신체활동, 식습관, 비만 등의 건강행태의 변화에 대하여 살펴보고자 하였다. 이 연구에서는 2015년부터 2021년까지의 청소년건강행태조사자료를 사용하여, 코로나19 유행 이전 (2018-2019년)과 코로나 유행 이후 (2020-2021년) 기간의 건강행태의 변화에 대하여 조사하였다. 학년레벨을 보정한 후, 복합표본설계를 고려하여 로지스틱 회귀분석과 카이제곱검정을 이용하여 코로나19 유행 이전 (2018-2019년)과 비교하여, 코로나 유행 이후 (2020-2021년) 기간의 건강행태의 변화가 있었는지에 대하여 확인하였다. 그 결과, 코로나19 유행 이전 (2018-2019년)과 비교하여, 코로나19 유행 기간(2020-2021년) 동안에 현재흡연율과 현재음주율이 유의하게 감소하였다. 그러나 동일한 기간 동안에 남학생과 여학생 모두에서 비만율이 유의하게 증가하였는데, 비만율과 관련된 신체활동 및 식습관에 대하여 살펴보았을 때, 신체활동에서는 유의한 변화가 없었던 반면, 남학생과 여학생 모두에서 패스트푸드 섭취는 증가하고 과일섭취가 감소한 것으로 나타났다. 따라서 코로나19 유행기간 동안 흡연율 및 음주율 등의 청소년 건강에 유익한 변화도 있었으나, 비만율도 같이 증가한 것을 확인할 수 있었다. 청소년기의 식습관의 악화 및 비만율의 증가는 미래 우리나라의 질병부담을 증가시킬 수 있기 때문에, 청소년의 비만율을 낮추고 건강한 식습관을 증진시키기 위한 개인 및 사회 차원의 노력이 필요하다.
Key Message
-The current cigarette smoking and current alcohol drinking rates significantly decreased among Korean adolescents during the pandemic period compared to the pre-pandemic period. -On the other hand, the obesity rate increased significantly especially among Korean male adolescents, which is accompanied by changes in dietary habits such as an increase in fast food intake and a decrease in fruit intake.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Changes in Adolescent Health Behavior and the Exacerbation of Economic Hardship During the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Cross-sectional Study From the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Survey
    Chaeeun Kim, Haeun Lee, Kyunghee Jung-Choi, Hyesook Park
    Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health.2024; 57(1): 18.     CrossRef
  • A Comparison of Changes in Health Behavior, Obesity, and Mental Health of Korean Adolescents Before and During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Online Cross-Sectional Study
    Mi-Sun Lee, Hooyeon Lee
    Psychiatry Investigation.2023; 20(11): 1086.     CrossRef

Epidemiol Health : Epidemiology and Health