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3 "Heewon Kang"
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Original Articles
Decrease in household secondhand smoking among Korean adolescents associated with smoke-free policies: grade-period-cohort and interrupted time series analyses
Hana Kim, Heewon Kang, Sung-il Cho
Epidemiol Health. 2024;46:e2024009.   Published online December 13, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2024009
  • 2,568 View
  • 91 Download
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
Smoke-free areas have expanded and related campaigns have been implemented since 1995 in Korea. As a result, household secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure has decreased over the past 15 years. We assessed the cohort effect, the effect of a 2008 campaign on household SHS exposure, and the impact of a complete smoking ban in public places along with increased penalties, as implemented in December 2011.
METHODS
Nationally representative cross-sectional 15-wave survey data of Korean adolescents were used. The 810,516 participants were classified into 6 grade groups, 15 period groups, and 20 middle school admission cohorts. An age-period-cohort analysis, conducted with the intrinsic estimator method, was used to assess the cohort effect of household SHS exposure, and interrupted-time series analyses were conducted to evaluate the effects of the smoke-free policy and the campaign.
RESULTS
For cohorts who entered middle school from 2002 to 2008, the risk of household SHS exposure decreased among both boys and girls. Immediately after implementation of the smoke-free policy, the prevalence of household SHS exposure by period decreased significantly for boys (coefficient, -8.96; p<0.05) and non-significantly for girls (coefficient, -6.99; p=0.07). After the campaign, there was a significant decrease in household SHS exposure by cohort among boys, both immediately and post-intervention (coefficient, -4.84; p=0.03; coefficient, -1.22; p=0.02, respectively).
CONCLUSIONS
A school-admission-cohort effect was found on household SHS exposure among adolescents, which was associated with the smoke-free policy and the campaign. Anti-smoking interventions should be implemented consistently and simultaneously.
Summary
Korean summary
지난 15년 동안 한국 청소년의 가정 내 간접흡연 노출은 감소했다. 가정 내 간접흡연 노출에 대하여 중학교 입학 코호트 효과가 존재하였다. 또한, 청소년의 가정 내 간접흡연 노출 감소는 2011년 12월 공공장소에서의 금연구역 규제와 2008년 시행된 캠페인과 연관되어 있었다.
Key Message
Household secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure among Korean adolescents has decreased over the past 15 years. There was a school admission cohort effect on household SHS exposure. A complete smoking ban in public space with increased penalties in December 2011 and a campaign in 2008 to avoid SHS exposure were associated with reduced household SHS exposure among adolescents.
Tobacco consumption, sales, and output as monitoring indicators in the era of the tobacco endgame: a Korean example
Hana Kim, Hee-kyoung Nam, Heewon Kang
Epidemiol Health. 2023;45:e2023030.   Published online February 27, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2023030
  • 3,992 View
  • 140 Download
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
The consumption, sales, and output of tobacco products each suggest different areas of intervention for tobacco control. In the era of the tobacco endgame, as increasingly stronger supply-side measures are implemented, multifaceted indicators that assess both supply and/or demand are required. We aimed to estimate the consumption of cigarette and heated tobacco products (HTPs) and sought agreement between the various indicators.
METHODS
The annual cigarette and HTP consumption in 2014-2020 was calculated using the frequency and intensity of cigarette use from representative surveys of adults and adolescents by sex and age. Sales and output data were acquired from governmental sources. Spearman correlation coefficients and Bland–Altman plots were used to compare the indicators.
RESULTS
Tobacco output, cigarette sales, and cigarette consumption were greatest in 2014. The HTP consumption calculated for 2020 was 292.28 million packs. Cigarette consumption and sales correlated significantly, as did tobacco output and tobacco sales. A Bland–Altman plot comparing the difference between cigarette consumption and sales showed that this difference was largest in 2014, immediately before cigarette prices increased. With the exception of a single year, all cigarette consumption values were within the limits of agreement for cigarette sales and tobacco output.
CONCLUSIONS
Our analyses showed agreement between demand-side (tobacco consumption) and supply-side (sales and output) indicators. We recommend using all indicators to monitor the impacts of tobacco control on both demand and supply sides. The systematic use of various indicators is critical to achieve the end of the tobacco epidemic.
Summary
Korean summary
공급 제한 중심의 담배 종결전 정책 채택을 고려하는 국가가 증가하고 있다. 이에 따라, 흡연율과 같은 전통적인 지표 외에 공급 측면의 지표가 필요한 상황이다. 담배 소비량, 판매량 및 반출량을 비교 분석한 결과, 지표 간 일치도가 높았으나 정책이 강화되는 시점에 지표 간 격차가 증가하는 것을 확인할 수 있었다. 담배규제 및 종결전 정책 모니터링을 위해 수요 및 공급 측면 지표 모두를 활용할 필요가 있다.
Key Message
The tobacco endgame, which aims to put an end to the tobacco epidemic once and for all, provides supply-focused measures, in addition to the traditional demand-focused measures based on MPOWER strategies. Thus, new supply-focused indicators are required to supplement the traditional demand-side indicators such as tobacco use prevalence and consumption. Our analysis showed that consumption, sales, and output were generally in good agreement. Yet, substantial gaps were identified when tobacco control measures were strengthened. Each indicator is imperfect in isolation, and we suggest to use all consumption, sales, and output indicators in the national health objectives (e.g. Health Plan 2030).
The association between tobacco or nicotine product use behaviors and non-compliance with mask-wearing during the COVID-19 pandemic: a cross-sectional study in Korea
Da-eun Lee, Heewon Kang, Sung-il Cho
Epidemiol Health. 2022;44:e2022087.   Published online October 7, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2022087
  • 4,278 View
  • 259 Download
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
It is necessary to investigate tobacco or nicotine product (TNP) use which acts as a risk factor for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection. Especially, wearing a mask is difficult to practice while using TNP. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the association between TNP use behaviors and non-compliance with mask-wearing during the COVID-19 pandemic.
METHODS
The samples of 208,618 Korean adults from 2020 Community Health Survey in Korea were used. As an independent variable, TNP use behaviors such as TNP use status, changes in TNP use after the COVID-19 outbreak, TNP types, and attempt to quit were analyzed. Logistic regression was performed on gender-stratified participants.
RESULTS
Among men, the odds ratio (OR) of current and former TNP users were 2.00 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.66 to 2.40) and 1.32 (95% CI, 1.09 to 1.60), respectively, compared to never users. In women, OR was 1.50 (95% CI, 1.00 to 2.26) for former users. Cigarette use was more associated with not wearing a mask than non-cigarette tobacco or nicotine product (NCTNP) use (OR, 1.53; 95% CI, 1.12 to 2.08). Men whose TNP use decreased had lower non-compliance (OR, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.36 to 0.74); while women whose TNP use increased had lower non-compliance (OR, 0.13; 95% CI, 0.07 to 0.26).
CONCLUSIONS
Current and former users were less likely to wear masks. Cigarette use was more associated with not wearing a mask than NCTNP use. Changes in TNP use showed association for men and women; however, in the opposite direction. Therefore, more attention should be paid to TNP use prevention and cessation support during the epidemic of respiratory infectious diseases. Moreover, it is necessary to identify risk factors of cigarette users in compliance with mask-wearing.
Summary
Korean summary
담배 또는 니코틴 제품 (Tobacco or Nicotine Products, TNPs) 현재사용자와 과거사용자는 비사용자 대비 마스크 미착용 연관성이 높고, 비궐련 담배 또는 니코틴 제품 (Non-Cigarette Tobacco or Nicotine Products, NCTNPs) 사용자보다는 일반담배 사용자의 마스크 미착용 연관성이 높다. 남성에서는 코로나19 유행 이전 대비 TNPs 사용이 감소했을 때, 여성에서는 증가했을 때 마스크 미착용 연관성이 낮았다. 따라서 호흡기 감염병 유행 시기에는 더욱 TNPs 사용 예방과 금연 지원에 관심을 가질 것을 제안한다.
Key Message
During the epidemic of respiratory infectious diseases, more attention should be paid to tobacco or nicotine products (TNPs) use prevention and cessation support.

Epidemiol Health : Epidemiology and Health