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Volume 9 (1); June 1987
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Original Articles
A descriptive epidemiological study on cancer statistics on Korea based on published literatures on hospital cancer patients
Kwang Ho Meng, Won Chul Lee
Korean J Epidemiol. 1987;9(1):139-150.
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Abstract
There have been many studies on frequencies and characteristics of cancer patients seen at the hospitals in Korea since 1960s. However, each study gives only limited information on cancer in Korea because the relative frequencies of cancer vary so much among the studies mainly because that the specialized fields of cancer is different among the study hospitals. This study, therefore, summarized and reanalyzed the relative frequency of cancer in Korea according to the personal and other epidemiological characteristics by aggregating all the data that were separately used in those studies in between 1960 and 1984. This observation indicates that, since 1960, the stomach cancer has increased both in males and females in its relative frequency among all cancers. Liver cancer and lung cancer are the ones that have also markedly increased in recent years particularly in males. In males, those three cancers consists of about 57% of all cancers now. In females, cervical cancer is the most common cancer in its relative frequency since 1960s. However this cancer has substentially been decreased in recent years whereas the breast cancer has increased. In age distribution, the relative frequency of cancer has sharply increased at the age of 40 and over both in males and females. Increasing tendency of relative frequency of cancer in the age group of 70 and over in noticeable. Trends in age distribution of relative frequency of stomach cancer from 1960s to 1970s is very interesting. This analysis shows that the stomach cancer is increasing in younger age group both in males and females while it is decreasing in old age groups. Considering the increased proportion of aged population in recent years, this reveals quite a decrease of stomach cancer in old ages. On the other hand, the cervical cancer tends to occur more in younger age group. This may be partly because the young women today visit doctors more frequently than before. Five year survival rates of stomach cancer, colon & rectum cancer, cervical cancer, and female breast cancer are 12.9%, 20.3%, 84.3% and 46.3% respectively. The survival rates showed very wide range among different studies. The relative low 5-year survival rates we have than expected might be due delayed diagnosis and inappropriate treatment. Only about half of the patients visit hospitals within 6 months after they had noticed symptoms. Considering that there is relatively easy way of self examination technique, the low frequency of early hospital visits in breast cancer is noticeable.
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The study of serum retinol, carotenoids and vitamin E: relationship to serum cholesterol levels in different populations
Hyun Kyung Moon
Korean J Epidemiol. 1987;9(1):119-138.
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Leading cause of death in Taegu and Kyungpook district
Sung Kil Kim, Sung Kook Lee
Korean J Epidemiol. 1987;9(1):96-118.
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Abstract
From the total deaths confirmed by Doctor’s diagnosis among the registered deaths in 1984, death rates and leading causes of death in Taegu and Kyungpook district by sex and age were investigated by using the Korean standard classification of diseases of the list of 17 categories and the special list of 50 causes for tabulation of mortality. The crude death rates in Taegu and Kyungpook district in 1984 were 3.9 and 8.5,respectively, while that of nation wide data was 5.6 per 1,000 population. The crude death rate in Taegu was lower than national level but that of Kyungpook was higher than national level. Standardized death rates in Taegu and Kyungpook were 4.8 and 6.7 respectively, national rate being 5.6. The standardized death fate in Taegu was lower than national level but the rate of Kyungpook was higher than nation wide rate. The important causes of death among the list of 17 categories during the year of 1984 were, in order of frequency, the diseases of circulatory system, injury and poisoning, and neoplasms; these 3 causes were attributed to 68% of total death in 1984. Death rate due to the diseases of circulatory system in Taegu was higher than that of Kyungpook and nation wide rate. In particular, death rate of female attributed to the diseases of circulatory system in Taegu was the highest, the rate being as high as 34.6%. The rate of death due to injury and poisoning in Kyungpook was higher than that of Taegu area and nation wide. Particularly the death rate of male in Kyungpook was the highest, and the rate was 38.8% and the rate of death assigned to neoplasms in Taegu and Kyungpook were lower than that of nation wide. The improtant death causes attributed to special to causes for tabulation of mortality during the year of 1984 in Taegu were, in order of Frequency, cerebrovascular diseases, of pulmonary ciculation and other accident including complications, but those of Kyungpook were other accident including complications, cerebrovascular diseases and traffic accidents. In age groups of 0 to 14 years old and young adult age groups(15-44yrs.), the most prevalent causes causes of death in both sexes was other accident including complication. In age group of young adult, the most prevalent causes of death in females was poinsoning and the death rate of male. Especially in the age group of young adult, the death from suicide and self-inflicted injuries in Kyungpook was higher than that of Taegu area. In age group of middle age(45-64 yrs.), the most prevalent causes of death was cerebrovascular diseases. Among the death due to neoplasms the most prevalent neoplastic deseases was stomach cancer. In age group of old age(65-yrs. and over)the most frequent causes of death in Taegu was cerebrovascular diseases but that of Kyungpook was senility without mental disorders.
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Changes in mortality rates and cause of death in Kangwha county for the past 10 years (1975-1985)
Hee Choul Oh, Yong Ho Lee, Il Soon Kim
Korean J Epidemiol. 1987;9(1):87-95.
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To identify the changes in trends of death rates and causes of death for the population of Kangwha County for the past 10 years from 1975 to 1985, the total 652 death occurred during the study period(1981-1985) in three townships(Sunwon, Naega,Buleon Myuns)were analysed and compared with the previous five-year data(1975-1980). All death with causes of death were identified and confirmed by health project team consisted of a family health worker, Myun health workers, a public health nurse and field project director. The major findings of this study were as below: 1. Age adjusted death rate in average for the five-year period(1981-1985) was 5.6 per 1,000 population, 6.9 in male and 4.3 in female respectively which are about 20% reduction in death rate compared with the previous 5 years. 2. In general, age specific death rates revealed an U shaped curve for the past 10 year periods(1975-1985). The age specific death rates particularly for ages under 20 have markedly for both sexes for the study period. 3. Infant and neonatal death rates were markedly decreased from 18.8 and 12.9 per 1,000 live births in the previous period to 8.9 and 4.5 per 1,000 live births in average for the study period. The prematurity was the most common cause of neonatal death both the two study periods one case of neonatal tetanus was found during the 5 year study period. 4. The most common cause of death was cerebrovascular diseases with the magnitude of 139.1 per 100,000 population, in 5 year average, 148.9 in male and 122.5 in female. However, it showed a decreasing trend in comparing with the previous period(180.8 per 100,000:1975-1980) 5. The next leading cause of death was malignant neoplasms with magnitude of 120.7 per 100,000 population, 143.9 in male and 87.5 in female. However, an increasing trend in comparing with the previous period(94.5 per 100,000:1975-1980). All types of accidents rose to the 3rd from the 4th leading causes of death. 6. 84.4% of all deaths were due to any type of disease entities and suicide and poisoning/accidents comprised 5.7% and 5.4% respectively. 7. The proportion of treatment received from health care facilities(including drug stores, herb clinics, hospitals) prior to death increased, from 57.0% in 1975 to 68.1% in 1985. The most common place of death occurred was residence of their own(with 86.7%) and only 5.0% of deaths were occurred in hospital. This pattern persisted without changes for the past 10 years.
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Clinico-epidemiological observations on tropical malaria in Uganda
Chong Hwan Park, Anzai Sadamu
Korean J Epidemiol. 1987;9(1):66-86.
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An epidemiologic study on risk factors of hepatitis B infection in Korea
Yook Ok Ahn, Keun Yong Yoo, Byung Joo Park
Korean J Epidemiol. 1987;9(1):57-65.
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Abstract
Hepatitis B has recently become a prominent figure as one of the major communicable disease in Korea. Many reports on the HBV infection have been accumulated these years, but most of them were clinical and descriptive epidemiologic findings mainly to figure out the characters, size, and pattern of the infection in terms of hepatitis B antigenemia. This study was planned to pursue an analytic study to detect risk factors associated with the hepatitis B infection, successively to our previous study on the risk factors of HBSantigenemia.5) Three hundred and forty one subjects were selected randomly among those who were both HBsAg and HBsAb negative by RPHA and PHA tests at 1984 and have not received hepatitis B vaccination and have not suffered from liver disease since then. Data about the risk factors of HBV infection have been collected by direct interview with structured questionnaire, review of health records and serologic test for HBV markers by RIA methods from July to October, 1986. The results obtained were as follow : 1. The positive conversion rate of HBsAg was 8.5% in adult males and 3.5% in adult females and the total infection rate of HBV was 75.3% and 53.5% respectively. 2. In Korean adults HBV seems to be disseminated partly through the parenteral routes, but mainly through the oral routes, so more attention and energies should be concentrated on the interception of oral routes of HBV infection.
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Familial aggregation and intrafamilial transmission of hepatitis B
Hee Choul Oh, Il Soon Kim
Korean J Epidemiol. 1987;9(1):49-56.
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Abstract
This study was carried out in a rural area, Kangwha County to investigate familial aggregation of hepatitis B infection and to obtain knowledge on relative importance of vertical and horizontal transmission of hepatitis B within family members. Eight hundred and twenty eight persons from 391 households were examined for hepatitis B surface antigen(HBsAg)and antibody( anti — HBs)tested by ELISA method in 1984 and 1985. Results are as follows. 1. Strong familial aggregation of hepatitis B infection was observed. 2. Spouse concordance rate of HBsAg positive and both HBsAg and anti-HBs positive were 43.6% and 53.3% repectively, and these rates did not show statistical difference from those of total study population. 3. Mother with positive HBsAg was important to determine their children's HBV infection. 4. Horizontal transmission of hepatitis B between spouses seemed to take minor part of total hepatitis B infection among adults.
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Prevalence and changes of HBsAg and Anti-HBs for one year period in natural status and after hepatitis B vaccination
Il Soon Kim, Hee Choul Oh, Yoon Lee, Joo Duck Kim, Won Yong Lee
Korean J Epidemiol. 1987;9(1):40-48.
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Distribution of the serologic markers of hepatitis B virus after the hepatitis B vaccination on healthy Korean adults
Yoon Ok Ahn, Keun Yong Yoo, Byung Joo Park, Yong Ik Kim, Chung Yong Kim, Tae Soo Park
Korean J Epidemiol. 1987;9(1):28-39.
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An epidemiologic study on scrub typhus in Koje island
Il Suh, Il Soon Kim, Byung Yool Cheon, Young Joon Kim, Yun Sop Chong
Korean J Epidemiol. 1987;9(1):17-27.
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Abstract
Scrub typhus was reported in 1986 for the first time among Korean. Koje island was suspected of an endemic area because many patients with symptoms like scrub typhus were reported. To identify endemicity and epidemiologic characteristics of the disease an epidemiologic survey was conducted from Oct. 1 to Nov. 30 in Koje island. Patients with similar symptoms and signs suspected of scrub typhus were reported from 7 clinics in Koje island during the survey period. Bloods were drawn from those suspected patients and interviews were followed. Final diagnosis of scrub typhus was made by Indirect immunoperoxidase test in addition to clinical signs and symptoms. The endemicity of scrub typhus was identified. Incidence rate of scrub typhus in Koje island in 1986 was estimated to be exceeding 14.4 per 100,000 population. The rate was slightly higher in woman than that of man and majority of patients were aged between 20 and 60. Any special findings in relation with occupation of patients were unable to identify with present study. The major clinical symptoms were high fever, rash, loss of appetite, fatigue, headache and lymphnode enlargement. Eschar which is a pathognomonic finding of the disease was observed in 7 patients out of 15 serologically confirmed cases. The duration of illness was about 6 to 20 days.
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A study on the leptospiral strains isolated in Korea (preliminary result)
J.S Kim, Y Heo, H.W Chung, W.Y Lee, G Baranton, E Amazouz
Korean J Epidemiol. 1987;9(1):9-16.
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Abstract
The objective of this study is to identify serovar of ten leptospiral strains isolated in Korea. Leptospirosis is one of the newly identified diseases in Korea by isolating leptospires from the patients of epidemic pulmonary hemorrhagic fever in 1984, till when the syndrome complex had been a disease of unknown etiology since 1975 epidemic. Leptospirosis is a disease of public health importance since then because of high frequency of occurrence with high fatality, particularly after flood during fruit-bearing season among farmers. Numerous studies have been carried out including epidemiological, clinical and bacteriological studies for the new disease by researchers of various areas. Nevertheless identification and distribution of leptospiral serovars have not been accomplished to the extent of developing prevention strategies. This paper reports the preliminary result on the study that was conducted in the leptospires laboratory of Pasteur Institute jointly. Twenty six strains of leptospires were brought to the laboratory and studied for two months for serovar identification. Routine and standard methods for leptospiral identification were employed and the preliminary result obtained is summarized as following: 1. The leptospiral cultures were heavily contaminated, probably due to inadequate way of transportation, and only 15 strains out of 26 were successfully cultureable by filtering through 0.22μm sized filter membrane and/or culturing the contaminated in the media with 5-flourouracil. The eleven strains that had viable leptospires but failed pure culture are available again in Seoul from stock cultures. 2. Microagglutination tests with antisera of 28 serovars revealed that one strain out of 15 tested reacted strongly(1:51200 dilution)with antisera of Icterohemorrhagiae copenhageni, Icterohemorrhagiae mwogolo and Icterhemorrhagiae wijnberg. However when the cross-agglutination absorption test was done the result showed that the strain belonged to none of these three strains. Later we found the strain reacted most strongly with the antiserum of Icterohemorrhagiae lai of which clinical picture is similar to that of Korean leptospirosis but was not included in the 28 antisera of routine screening. 3. Another one strain on the other hand reacted with antisera of Canicola Hond Utrecht, Canicola chiffon (French local strain) and Canicola jonsis by the dilution of 1:25600 in MAT. Unfortunately the strain was lost completely so that the cross-agglutination-absorption test was not performed; the test will be done with the strain stocked in Korea. 4. None of remaining 13 strains reacted with the antisera of 28 serovars used for screening in dilution of 1:50. 5. All of these 13 strains that did not react with 28 serovars of pathogenic leptospiral strain reacted with tokyo weakly(1:100-400), suggesting the strains have common antigenic structure of leptospires in part but not tokyo serovar itself. 6. Two strains out of these 13 reacted with the antisera of saada and andamana in dilution of 1:1600-3200, which also grew well in the medium containing 8-azaguanine. The eleven strains that did not show any positive MAT reaction with 28 antisera of pathogenic leptospiral strain or ten saprophytic strains need further study.
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Controversy
Coffee and pancreas cancer : how is the relationship explained?
Won Chul Lee, Kwang Ho Meng
Korean J Epidemiol. 1987;9(1):1-8.
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Contents
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Editorial department
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Epidemiol Health : Epidemiology and Health