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Volume 25 (1); June 2003
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Review
Bias related to Nutritional Epidemiology.
Won Chul Lee, Jin Hee Lee
Korean J Epidemiol. 2003;25(1):39-46.
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Abstract
Bias is the main problem that should be considered in epidemiologic research. Information bias caused by measurement error and confounding caused by total energy intake are listed as the main biases in nutritional epidemiology and the concept, fact and the methods for adjusting effects of these biases are discussed. The biases which can be caused during the nutritional epidemiologic research process are listed and discussed. The pros and cons of the continuous data and categorical data of the nutrients and the ways how to categorize the data are reviewed. During the analysis of food and nutrient data, multiple comparison and publication bias are prone to be encountered, and these should be considered in interpretation of the results. Understanding of the biases will lead us to make valuable nutritional epidemiologic research and these lead the application of the research results to control the prevalent noncommunicable diseases.
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Original Articles
Epidemiological Comparison of viral hepatitis-hepatocellular carcinoma(HCC) and non viral hepatitis-hepatocellular carcinoma(HCC).
Pae Gun Park, Song Gyu Yoon, Hee Sup Lee, Jin Kun Jang, Ju Hee Maeng, Gee Hyun Lee, Jong Soo Choi
Korean J Epidemiol. 2003;25(1):32-38.
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  • 19 Download
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Abstract
BACKGROUND
Korea is one of high incidence areas of Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and major etiologic factor is hepatitis B virus (HBV). In future incidence of HBV related HCC may decrease and non viral hepatitis HCC (Non-B,C HCC) relatively increase because of widely used vaccination for HBV. To evaluate epidemiological characters of Non-B,C HCC, We divided HCC by viral or non-viral feature and compared each others.
METHODS
185 patients firstly diagnosed HCC and 455 normal subjects included from January 1997 to December 2000 and divided into 3 groups, HBV group (positive HBsAg), HCV group (positive anti-HCV Ab) and Non-B,C group (both negative HBsAg and anti-HCV Ab).
RESULTS
136 cases were HBV group (73.5%), 19 cases were HCV group (10.3%) and 27 cases were Non-B,C group (14.6%). Mean age of Non-B,C group at diagnosis was higher than HBV group (64.1+/-7.1 vs 55.6+/-7.7). Non-B,C HCC were more associated with alcohol abuse and rural residence (p<0.01). There was no difference of family history of liver disease, coexistence rate of liver cirrhosis and occupation.
CONCLUSION
Non-B,C HCC tended to be older in mean age than HBV HCC and more associated with alcohol abuse and rural residence. This characteristics of Non-B,C HCC supposed to be from difference in alcohol consumption and environment.
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Estimation of heritability attributable to single-locus effects with a regression of offspring on mid-parent (ROMP) method for cardiovascular risk factors.
Sun Ha Jee, Jung Yong Park, Ji Eun Yoon, Minji Kim, Eun Young Cho, Yang soo Jang
Korean J Epidemiol. 2003;25(1):24-31.
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Abstract
PURPOSE
The objective of this study was to estimate the heritability attributable to single-locus effects with a regression of offspring on mid-parent (ROMP) method for cardiovascular risk factors.
METHODS
The regression of offspring on mid-parent is determined with and without the inclusion of a single-locus effect, and the difference between the slopes of these two regression is an estimate of the heritability attributable to the single-locus effect. The study population included 1,550 family members of 295 patients, derived from cardiovascular genome center. The risk factors considered were total serum cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL cholesterol, apoAI and apoB. Heritability was estimated from the slope of the linear regression of offspring on mid-parents.
RESULTS
Estimated heritability was 35 to 46% for total cholesterol with 6.2% attributable to polymorphism S128R. For triglyceride, the estimated heritability was 47.6% with 2% attributable to polymorphism G-217A. The heritability was 36-46% for LDL-cholesterol. For LDL cholesterol, S128R specific effect was 8.7%. Estimated heritability was 62.2% for apoAI with 3.2% attributable to polymorphism G-217A and 58 to 75% for apoB with 5.4% attributable to polymorphism S128R.
CONCLUSIONS
These traits were significantly associated with polymorphism S128R. These results highlight the importance of considering genetic factors in studies of cardiovascular risk factors. Unlike traditional population-based tests of association, ROMP appears to be robust with respect to population stratification.
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Test-retest Reliability of a Self-Administered Smoking Questionnaire for Middle and High School Students.
Sun Ha Jee, Ji Eun Yoon, Soyoung Won, Sujung Kim, Il Suh
Korean J Epidemiol. 2003;25(1):16-23.
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Abstract
PURPOSE
Since 1988, the annual or biannual survey was conducted by Korean Association of Smoking and Health (KASH) to examine the smoking rate, knowledge and attitude on smoking of students attending middle and high school in Korea. The objective of this study was to investigate the test-retest reliability of self-administered smoking questionnaire for Korean middle and high school students.
METHODS
For the test-retest study, we sampled 30 school among 106 schools which participated in annual survey on June of 2002. Among 30 schools, 26 schools (86.7%) were responded for this study.
RESULTS
1) For the subjects of 1st and 2nd surveys, there were no difference on smoking related variable including attitude, knowledge, perceived health status, father's smoking status, friend's smoking status, willingness to smoke, and readiness to quit smoking 2) For middle school students among male, current smoking rates were 3.5% for 1st survey and 3.0% for 2nd survey, which was statistically no significant. For high school students, however, current smoking rate of 1st survey was higher (21.1%) than that of 2nd (18.2%), although the rate was not significantly differed. 3) For middle school students among female, current smoking rates were 1.1% for 1st survey and 3.3% for 2nd survey, which was statistically no significant. Corresponding rate for high school students were 9.8% and 11.4%, respectively.
CONCLUSION
The results indicated that smoking questionnaire has been conducted by KASH is reliable for use in estimation for prevalence of smoking for middle and high school students.
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Review
Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention.
Keun Young Yoo, Hai Rim Shin
Korean J Epidemiol. 2003;25(1):1-15.
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Abstract
Cancer is one of the main cause of death worldwide. There are about 10 million new cases every year, and more than 6 million persons will die of the disease in a year. Many factors are responsible for the recent increase in cancer. Changing lifestyles, in particular as regards tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking and diet, also play a crucial part. Several different types of scientific studies contribute to identifying the causes of human cancer. IARC's prestigious series of Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans publishes authoritative reports on the risks posed by potentially carcinogenic agents and exposures. Most cancers are thought to be caused by factors related to lifestyle and environment. In particular, tobacco, chronic infections and diet are involved in a substantial number of new cancers. Tobacco is responsible for about 15% of all cancers throughout the world. Chronic infections with viruses, bacteria and parasites are responsible for 16% of all cancers. It has been hypothesized that 30% of all cancers could be prevented by appropriate diet and physical activity. Other known causes of cancer, such as occupational, genetic, and reproductive factors, plays a lesser role in the global burden of cancer. Many types of cancer seem to be cluster in families, occurring more often in close relatives of affected individuals. The risks that a person inheriting a defect in a person inheriting a defect in a cancer susceptibility gene will develop a certain type of cancer must be estimated, and the role of environmental factors in modifying these risks must be ascertains. Researches into the causes of cancer has revealed how many of the most common cancers can be prevented. Detection of many forms of the disease at an early stage can greatly improve the prospects for effective treatment, reducing deaths and enhancing quality of life.
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Epidemiol Health : Epidemiology and Health