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Maryam Shakiba 1 Article
Adjusting for reverse causation to estimate the effect of obesity on mortality after incident heart failure in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study
Maryam Shakiba, Hamid Soori, Mohammad Ali Mansournia, Seyed Saeed Hashemi Nazari, Yahya Salimi
Epidemiol Health. 2016;38:e2016025.   Published online June 4, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2016025
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Abstract
OBJECTIVES
The lower mortality rate of obese patients with heart failure (HF) has been partly attributed to reverse causation bias due to weight loss caused by disease. Using data about weight both before and after HF, this study aimed to adjust for reverse causation and examine the association of obesity both before and after HF with mortality.
METHODS
Using the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study, 308 patients with data available from before and after the incidence of HF were included. Pre-morbid and post-morbid obesity were defined based on body mass index measurements at least three months before and after incident HF. The associations of pre-morbid and post-morbid obesity and weight change with survival after HF were evaluated using a Cox proportional hazard model.
RESULTS
Pre-morbid obesity was associated with higher mortality (hazard ratio [HR], 1.61; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04 to 2.49) but post-morbid obesity was associated with increased survival (HR, 0.57; 95% CI, 0.37 to 0.88). Adjusting for weight change due to disease as a confounder of the obesity-mortality relationship resulted in the absence of any significant associations between post-morbid obesity and mortality.
CONCLUSIONS
This study demonstrated that controlling for reverse causality by adjusting for the confounder of weight change may remove or reverse the protective effect of obesity on mortality among patients with incident HF.
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Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
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    European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging.2020; 47(7): 1713.     CrossRef
  • Impact of prior bariatric surgery on outcomes of hospitalized patients with heart failure: a population-based study
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  • Body mass index and all-cause mortality in patients with atrial fibrillation: insights from the China atrial fibrillation registry study
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    Clinical Research in Cardiology.2019; 108(12): 1371.     CrossRef
  • The Effects of Reverse Causality and Selective Attrition on the Relationship Between Body Mass Index and Mortality in Postmenopausal Women
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    American Journal of Epidemiology.2019; 188(10): 1838.     CrossRef

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