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Mahdi Akbarzadeh 1 Article
Impact of secondhand smoke exposure in former smokers on their subsequent risk of coronary heart disease: evidence from the population-based cohort of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study
Masoumeh Sadeghi, Maryam S. Daneshpour, Soheila Khodakarim, Amir Abbas Momenan, Mahdi Akbarzadeh, Hamid Soori
Epidemiol Health. 2020;42:e2020009.   Published online March 8, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2020009
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Abstract
OBJECTIVES
Cigarette smoking is an established, strong, and modifiable risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD). However, little research has investigated CHD risk in former smokers who continue to be exposed to others’ cigarette smoke (former & secondhand smokers).
METHODS
In the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study, a prospective population-based cohort (n=20,069) was followed up for a median period of 14.6 years. A subset of 8,050 participants of 30 years of age and older was analyzed, with first CHD events as the study outcome. Participants were categorized as never, former, current, secondhand, and former & secondhand smokers. Data on smoking intensity (cigarette/d) were also collected. A Cox proportional hazards regression model was applied to estimate the risk of CHD, taking into account the main potential confounders.
RESULTS
The mean age of participants was 46.10 ±11.38 years, and they experienced 1,118 first CHD events (with most CHD cases in former smokers) during the follow-up period. The risk of CHD was highest in current smokers, followed in order by former & secondhand, former, and secondhand smokers (hazard ratio [HR], 1.99; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.65 to 2.39; HR, 1.55; 95% CI, 1.15 to 2.08; HR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.12 to 1.72; HR, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.07 to 1.51, respectively), compared to never smokers. The risk of CHD increased with smoking intensity, which has been proposed as a preferable measure of smoking, indicating a dose-response pattern.
CONCLUSIONS
The elevated risk of CHD in former & secondhand smokers was a noteworthy finding, with possible implications for health policy; however, further research is needed.
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Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Risk factors for incident cardiovascular events among adults in low- and middle-income countries: A systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies
    Mulugeta Molla Birhanu, Sojib Bin Zaman, Amanda G. Thrift, Roger G. Evans, Ayse Zengin
    Preventive Medicine.2022; 158: 107036.     CrossRef
  • Burden of current and past smoking across 28 European countries in 2017: A cross-sectional analysis
    Ayaka Teshima, Anthony Laverty, Filippos Filippidis
    Tobacco Induced Diseases.2022; 20(June): 1.     CrossRef
  • Role of Air Pollution and rs10830963 Polymorphism on the Incidence of Type 2 Diabetes: Tehran Cardiometabolic Genetic Study
    Fatemeh Jabbari, Anoushiravan Mohseni Bandpei, Maryam S. Daneshpour, Abbas Shahsavani, Seyed Saeed Hashemi Nazari, Hassanali Faraji Sabokbar, Amir abbas Momenan, Fereidoun Azizi
    Journal of Diabetes Research.2020; 2020: 1.     CrossRef

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