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Jee Yeon Hong 1 Article
Associations of daily diet-related greenhouse gas emissions with the incidence and mortality of chronic diseases: a systematic review and meta-analysis of epidemiological studies
Jee Yeon Hong, Young Jun Kim, Sanghyuk Bae, Mi Kyung Kim
Epidemiol Health. 2023;45:e2023011.   Published online December 30, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2023011
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
Although the entire process extending from food production to dietary consumption makes a large contribution to total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, little and inconsistent evidence exists on the epidemiological associations of daily diet-related GHG emissions with chronic disease risk or all-cause mortality. This systematic review and meta-analysis explored the observational epidemiological relationship between daily diet-related GHG emissions and health outcomes, including the risk of chronic diseases and all-cause mortality.
METHODS
Original articles published in English until May 2022 were identified by searching PubMed, Ovid-Embase, Web of Science, CINAHL, and Google Scholar. The extracted data were pooled using both fixed-effects and random-effects meta-analyses and presented as hazard and risk ratios (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs).
RESULTS
In total, 7 cohort studies (21 study arms) were included for qualitative synthesis and meta-analysis. The GHG emissions of dietary consumption showed a significant positive association with the risk of chronic disease incidence and mortality in both fixed-effects and random-effects models (fixed: RR, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.03 to 1.05; random: RR, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.02 to 1.06). This positive association was robust regardless of how daily diet-related GHG emissions were grouped. More strongly animal- based diets showed higher GHG emissions. However, there were only a few studies on specific chronic diseases, and the subgroup analysis showed insignificant results. There was no evidence of publication bias among the studies (Egger test: p=0.79).
CONCLUSIONS
A higher GHG-emission diet was found to be associated with a greater risk of all-cause mortality.
Summary
Korean summary
식이로부터 배출되는 GHG양은 메타분석의 고정 효과 모델과 확률 효과 모델 모두에서 만성 질환 발병률 및 사망 위험과 유의미한 양의 상관 관계를 보여주었습니다. 동물성 식단은 더 높은 GHG 배출량을 나타냈으나, 특정 만성질환에 대한 연구의 수가 적었고 질환 별 하위군 분석에서 유의미한 결과를 보이지 않았습니다. 결론적으로 온실가스 배출량이 많은 식단은 모든 원인으로 인한 사망 위험이 더 큰 것으로 나타났습니다.
Key Message
Daily food consumption contributes a large part of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, however, no review study was conducted. This study is the first review paper that reviews the relationship between greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from daily diet and chronic disease risk and all-cause mortality. GHG emissions from the daily diet were significantly positively associated with disease risk and mortality. Animal-based diets contributed most to diet-derived GHG emissions. Men tended to have diets with higher GHG emissions compared to women. At times when the response to climate change is urgent, this study can help many policymakers and health officials.

Epidemiol Health : Epidemiology and Health