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Elham Ahmadnezhad 2 Articles
The vaccination coverage rate in under-5 children in Nasiriyah, Iraq before and during the COVID-19 pandemic
Ali Rifaat Alhaddad, Elham Ahmadnezhad, Akbar Fotouhi
Epidemiol Health. 2022;44:e2022035.   Published online March 14, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2022035
  • 4,030 View
  • 282 Download
  • 2 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Abstract
providOBJECTIVES: This study compared the vaccination coverage rate (VCR) in children under 5 years old in Nasiriyah, Iraq before and during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic.
METHODS
This cross-sectional study was conducted in the city of Nasiriyah in southeastern Iraq, with data collected from 79 primary healthcare facilities. This study evaluated the VCR in 3 periods (2018, 2019, and 2020) using multi-level random sampling. Pertinent data were extracted from the vaccination records of 598 children for Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG); pentavalent 1, 2, and 3; measles; and activated oral poliovirus vaccine 1 and 2. Missing data were completed by telephone calls to participants’ parents. Logistic regression was applied to compare and estimate the odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between VCR and related factors.
RESULTS
The data showed the greatest decline in the studied vaccines in 2020. Among the vaccines studied, BCG had the highest rate in all 3 periods (100% VCR) and measles had the lowest rate (83.7%), reaching 63.6% in 2020 (p<0.001). The highest OR among all types of vaccine were found for the pentavalent-3 vaccine among city dwellers and those born in 2020 (OR, 2.67; 95% CI, 1.39 to 5.10 and OR, 2.34; 95% CI, 1.28 to 4.28, respectively).
CONCLUSIONS
The VCR for children decreased during the COVID-19 pandemic in Iraq, and new health policies are needed to increase the coverage rate. Improving the knowledge and attitudes of parents, as well as removing barriers or risk factors, can also be effective in improving the VCR.
Summary
Korean summary
Key Message
Vaccination is one of the most important essential health services. COVID-19 pandemic has reduced the coverage of vaccination among under five.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Current Impact and Long-Term Influence of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Iraqi Healthcare Systems: A Case Study
    Taysir Al Janabi, Sunny Chung
    Epidemiologia.2022; 3(4): 412.     CrossRef
  • Dropout of Vaccination Among Iraqi Children
    Maha. A. Kadim, Anees Flayyih Abdulhasan, Zainab Abdulameer Abdulrasol, Ali Fadhil Obaid
    South Asian Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities.2022; 3(6): 163.     CrossRef
Evaluating maternal and child health indicators for the Sustainable Development Goals in 2018: what is Iran’s position?
Elham Khatooni, Isa Akbarzadeh, Elham Abdalmaleki, Zhaleh Abdi, Elham Ahmadnezhad
Epidemiol Health. 2019;41:e2019045.   Published online October 11, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2019045
  • 6,780 View
  • 131 Download
  • 2 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
Since many Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) were not achieved, countries including Iran—despite achieving some of the MDGs—need regular planning to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) by 2030. This article examines maternal and child health indicators in the early years of the SDGs in Iran relative to several other countries.
METHODS
This study was carried out through a secondary analysis of maternal and child health indicators in Iran. The results were compared with data from other countries divided into three groups: countries with upper-middle income levels, countries in the Eastern Mediterranean region, and the countries covered by the Outlook Document 1,404 (a regional classification). Then, the relationship between these indicators and the Human Development Index was investigated.
RESULTS
Iran has attained better results than other countries with respect to maternal mortality, family planning, skilled birth attendance, under-5 deaths, incidence of hepatitis B, diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccination coverage, and antenatal care. In contrast, Iran performed worse than other countries with respect to under-5 wasting, under-5 stunting, and care-seeking behavior for children.
CONCLUSIONS
Overall, among the 11 indicators surveyed, Iran has attained better-than-average results and seems to be improving. We recommend that Iran continue interventions in the field of maternal and child health.
Summary
Korean summary
Key Message

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Iranian women's birth experiences: a cross-sectional study
    Mona Ghobadi, Farzaneh Pazandeh, Barbara Potrata, Ehsan Kazemnejad Lili
    British Journal of Midwifery.2022; 30(12): 685.     CrossRef
  • Sanctions on Iran and their impact on child health*
    Yasmin Madani-Lavassani
    Medicine, Conflict and Survival.2020; 36(4): 359.     CrossRef

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