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Chanhee Kim 3 Articles
Recent increase in pertussis incidence in Korea: an age-period-cohort analysis
Chanhee Kim, Seonju Yi, Sung-il Cho
Epidemiol Health. 2021;43:e2021053.   Published online August 18, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2021053
  • 4,756 View
  • 143 Download
  • 3 Citations
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
Pertussis or whooping cough—one of the most contagious diseases—is caused by the Gram-negative bacterium Bordetella pertussis. Despite a high vaccination rate, Korea recently experienced a resurgence of pertussis. This study explores patterns and possible explanations for this resurgence through an age-period-cohort analysis.
METHODS
Using secondary data from the infectious disease portal of the Korea Disease Control and Prevention Agency and the Korea Statistical Information Service of Statistics Korea, this study analyzed the incidence of pertussis in Korea to determine which factors contributed to the recent increase using an age-period-cohort model.
RESULTS
Analysis of the age effect indicated that the age group most vulnerable to pertussis was 0-year to 2-year-olds. Analysis of the period effect showed a sharp increase in the incidence rate after 2016. Analysis of the cohort effect showed a significant decrease in incidence beginning with the 1955 birth cohort, with the risk increasing again with the 2000s birth cohort.
CONCLUSIONS
Previous studies have suggested 3 main possible explanations for our results. First, the increased incidence rate can be attributed to contact rates. Second, the rate of immunity through natural exposure has decreased due to the low number of circulating pathogens, in turn affecting the trend of infection. Lastly, variations in pathogens may have also contributed to the increase in incidence. Given that the most significant increase in incidence was observed among infants younger than 1 year old, sufficient maternal immunity must be prioritized to provide passive immunity to newborns via the placenta.
Summary
Korean summary
본 연구는 연령-기간-코호트 모델을 활용하여 예방접종률이 높은 국가들의 백일해 재출현에 기여하는 요인에 무엇이 있는지 살펴보았다. 연령에 따른 사회적 접촉률(contact rate)의 변화, 자연노출에 의한 면역 강화(natural boosting) 기회의 감소, 그리고 백일해 병원체의 변이가 백일해 재출현의 원인일 수 있다. 분석 결과 영아 집단에서 백일해 발병률이 가장 급격한 증가가 관찰되었으며, 이는 모성면역의 확보가 중요하다는 점을 시사한다.
Key Message
This study examined factors contribute to the re-emergence of pertussis in countries with high vaccination rates using the age-period-cohort model. Changes in social contact rates according to age, reduction in immune boosting opportunities by natural exposure, and variations in pertussis pathogens may be the cause of re-emergence. As a result of the analysis, the sharpest increase in the incidence of pertussis in the infant group was observed, suggesting that securing maternal immunity is important.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Post-Marketing Surveillance of Tetravalent Diphtheria-Tetanus-Acellular Pertussis and Inactivated Poliovirus (DTaP-IPV) Vaccine in South Korea, 2009 to 2015
    Young June Choe, Emmanuel Vidor, Christine Manson
    Infectious Diseases and Therapy.2022; 11(4): 1479.     CrossRef
  • ARIMA and ARIMA-ERNN models for prediction of pertussis incidence in mainland China from 2004 to 2021
    Meng Wang, Jinhua Pan, Xinghui Li, Mengying Li, Zhixi Liu, Qi Zhao, Linyun Luo, Haiping Chen, Sirui Chen, Feng Jiang, Liping Zhang, Weibing Wang, Ying Wang
    BMC Public Health.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Evaluation of Whole-Cell and Acellular Pertussis Vaccines in the Context of Long-Term Herd Immunity
    Ewa Szwejser-Zawislak, Mieszko M. Wilk, Piotr Piszczek, Justyna Krawczyk, Daria Wilczyńska, Daniela Hozbor
    Vaccines.2022; 11(1): 1.     CrossRef
COVID-19 outbreak in a military unit in Korea
Chanhee Kim, Young-Man Kim, Namwoo Heo, Eunjung Park, Sojin Choi, Sehyuk Jang, Nayoung Kim, Donghyok Kwon, Young-Joon Park, Byeongseop Choi, Beomman Ha, Kyounghwa Jung, Changbo Park, Sejin Park, Heeyoung Lee
Epidemiol Health. 2021;43:e2021065.   Published online September 8, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2021065
  • 5,542 View
  • 167 Download
  • 2 Citations
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
This study presents the response of a military unit to an outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Gyeonggi Province. As soon as 2 soldiers were identified as index cases, the infectious disease investigators of the Gyeonggi Provincial Government, Korea Disease Control and Prevention Agency, and the Armed Forces Epidemiologic Investigation Center discussed the investigation and response plan for an imminent massive outbreak.
METHODS
The joint immediate response team (IRT) conducted interviews with confirmed COVID-19 patients, reviewed their medical records, performed contact tracing using global positioning system data, and undertook a field investigation. For risk assessment, the joint IRT visited all 8 sites of the military units and the army chaplain’s church to evaluate the transmission risk at each site. The evaluation items included the size of the site, the use of air conditioning, whether windows were opened, and whether masks were worn. Pooled testing was used for the low-risk population to quickly detect the spread of COVID-19 in the military base.
RESULTS
One day before the symptom onset of the index case, the lecturer and >50% of the attendees were infected with COVID-19 while attending a lecture that lasted 2 hours and 30 minutes. Attendees were not wearing masks and were in a poorly ventilated room.
CONCLUSIONS
Since COVID-19 can be spread before symptom onset, contact tracing must be performed to investigate potential exposures prior to symptom onset and to manage any exposed persons.
Summary
Korean summary
본 연구는 경기도 군부대에서 발생한 코로나19 대응 경험을 공유하는 국내 최초의 연구 결과이다. 본 연구를 통해 정리된 역학조사 과정은 군부대, 기숙사, 교정시설 등 집단 시설의 방역 대책 수립에 도움이 될 것으로 기대한다. 또한, 이번 사례는 집단 감염 발생 시 여러 유관 기관의 협조 체계가 신속한 대응과 추가 전파 예방에 중요하다는 점을 시사한다.
Key Message
This study is the first research in South Korea to share the experience of responding to COVID-19 at the military unit in Gyeonggi-do. The epidemiological investigation process organized through this study is expected to help establish response measures for group facilities such as military units, dormitories, and correctional facilities. In addition, this case suggests that the cooperative system of various related organizations in the event of a mass infection is important for rapid response and prevention of further transmission.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Trends in Confirmed COVID-19 Cases in the Korean Military Before and After the Emergence of the Omicron Variant
    Dong Hoon Shin, Haebong Jang, Sangho Lee, Byung Seop Choi, Donghoon Kim, Hong Sang Oh
    Journal of Korean Medical Science.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Characteristics of COVID-19 outbreaks and risk factors for transmission at an army training center in South Korea from June to August 2021
    U Jin Cho, Seongjin Wang, Seonju Yi, Yeon Hwa Choi, Eun-Young Kim, Jin A Kim, Sanghwan Bae, Jungyeon Yu, Jangkyu Choi, Young-Joon Park
    Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives.2022; 13(4): 263.     CrossRef
Experience of a COVID-19 outbreak response in a general hospital in Gyeonggi Province, Korea
Chanhee Kim, Gawon Choi, Shin Young Park, Jieun Kim, Young Joon Park, Kyungnam Kim
Epidemiol Health. 2021;43:e2021083.   Published online October 18, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2021083
  • 4,453 View
  • 111 Download
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreaks in general hospitals are particularly risky because they not only overburden the regional healthcare delivery system, but also increase the possibility of community transmission. This study shares an experience of a COVID-19 outbreak response in a general hospital in Gyeonggi Province, Korea.
METHODS
Since the first COVID-19 confirmed case was recognized in Hospital A on March 29, 2020, the Immediate Response Team of Gyeonggi Province and Korea Disease Control and Prevention Agency devised a plan to conduct an epidemiological investigation and minimize the paralysis of hospital functions. Apart from the epidemiological investigation, a risk assessment of the hospital and management of contacts, including patients and workers, were also undertaken.
RESULTS
In total, 72 confirmed cases were identified, including 26 hospitalized patients, 16 healthcare personnel, 7 visitors, and 22 cases identified externally. The majority of the confirmed cases were exposed in Ward B or were contacts of people exposed in Ward A (58.3% of 72 cases). Among healthcare personnel, caregivers were found to be the most vulnerable to COVID-19 in this outbreak.
CONCLUSIONS
Preparation for all possible situations in medical facilities is important because it is difficult to find alternative resources. The findings of this study provide information on controlling the further transmission of COVID-19 and furnish evidence of the importance of ordinary management skills to be prepared for COVID-19.
Summary
Korean summary
본 연구에서는 2020년 경기도 소재 한 종합병원에서 발생한 코로나19 유행 대응 사례 경험을 공유한다. 병원 외 지역사회 전파 사례를 포함하여 총 72명의 확진자가 이 유행에서 확인되었다. 종합병원은 지역 의료전달체계에서 중요한 역할을 하고 있기 때문에 코로나19로 인해 그 기능이 마비되지 않도록 예방하는 것이 가장 바람직하며, 이를 위해서는 평상 시에 적절한 대비 체계를 갖추어 두어야 한다.
Key Message
This study shares the experience of responding to the COVID-19 outbreak at a general hospital in Gyeonggi-do, 2020. A total of 72 confirmed cases were identified, including cases of community based transmission outside the hospital. Since general hospitals play an important role in the medical delivery system, it is most desirable to prevent the function from being paralyzed by COVID-19 situation, and for this, and appropriate preparedness should be established.

Epidemiol Health : Epidemiology and Health