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Epidemiol Health > Volume 37; 2015 > Article
Kandi: Predictors of human immunodeficiency virus and tuberculosis co-infection
Dear Editor:
The original paper by Molaeipoor et al. [1] has come at just the right time. While the availability of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has come as a boon for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected population and is instrumental in prolonging life and improving its quality, the co-morbidities associated with HIV remain as a cause for concern. A previous study has noted that HIV-seropositive patients have significantly higher chances of developing other infections like tuberculosis (TB) [2]. The HIV disease course is influenced by the presence of co-morbidities that include infectious diseases like TB, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and other infectious and non-infectious conditions including malignancies [3,4]. A recent study has also observed that the disease burden in HIV patients is significantly related to illicit drug use [5]. It must be noted that identification of various co-morbidities and their underlying causes prior to initiation of HAART is necessary to minimise related additional complications and resultant morbidity and mortality. The results of Molaeipoor et al. [1] indicating that overcrowding (e.g., in jails), adverse effects of HAART, prior latent TB infection, TCD4+ counts lower than 350 cells/mm3, and prophylactic therapy against other infections were more instrumental in predisposing HIV-seropositive patients to TB than was drug abuse are very significant findings. These results further suggest that future research should concentrate on nutritional issues (e.g., malnutrition) in the HIV-infected population, which may include vitamin and mineral deficiencies.


The author has no conflicts of interest to declare for this study.


1. Molaeipoor L, Poorolajal J, Mohraz M, Esmailnasab N. Predictors of tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus co-infection: a case-control study. Epidemiol Health 2014;36:e2014024. PMID: 25358465
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2. Pevzner ES, Robison S, Donovan J, Allis D, Spitters C, Friedman R, et al. Tuberculosis transmission and use of methamphetamines in Snohomish County, WA, 1991-2006. Am J Public Health 2010;100:2481-2486. PMID: 20167896
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3. Ramana KV, Mohanty SK. Opportunistic intestinal parasites and TCD4+ cell counts in human immunodeficiency virus seropositive patients. J Med Microbiol 2009;58:1664-1666. PMID: 19661204
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4. Ramana KV, Rao R. Noninfectious complications in HIV disease: need for rational changes in HIV disease management in the highly active antiretroviral therapy era. Ann Trop Med Public Health 2013;6:383-385.
5. Degenhardt L, Whiteford HA, Ferrari AJ, Baxter AJ, Charlson FJ, Hall WD, et al. Global burden of disease attributable to illicit drug use and dependence: findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. Lancet 2013;382:1564-1574. PMID: 23993281
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